Weed-control-in-winter-crops-2014

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56. ® ™ Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow - Registered for use in Wheat, Triticale and Cereal Rye - Phalaris, Wild oats, Ryegrass, Brome grass - Wild radish, Capeweed, Volunteer legumes - Short plantbacks - Enhanced compatibility - For more information contact your local Dow AgroSciences representative on 1800 700 096 ONE STRIKE WEEDS DEFEATED

108. 106 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

167. ® ™ Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow - Registered for use in Wheat, Triticale and Cereal Rye - Phalaris, Wild oats, Ryegrass, Brome grass - Wild radish, Capeweed, Volunteer legumes - Short plantbacks - Enhanced compatibility - For more information contact your local Dow AgroSciences representative on 1800 700 096 ONE STRIKE WEEDS DEFEATED

32. 30 Further information about weather conditions and spraying can be found on the following websites: www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-FS-SprayPracticalTips www.grdc.com.au/Resources/Bookshop/2014/01/Weather-essentials-for-pesticide-application

109. 107 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

110. 108 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

143. 30 Further information about weather conditions and spraying can be found on the following websites: www.grdc.com.au/GRDC-FS-SprayPracticalTips www.grdc.com.au/Resources/Bookshop/2014/01/Weather-essentials-for-pesticide-application

75. www.bayercropscience.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022. 391-393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. Technical enquiries 1800 804 479 Ph 03 9248 6888 Fax 03 9248 6800 Balance ® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. Do it once. Do it well. Balance ® activates again and again to effectively control a wide range of broadleaf weeds in chickpeas. • UV stable and can be applied to hot and dry soils. • Reactivated by rain or irrigation to provide long residual control. • Excellent residual control of problem weeds such as wild radish, Indian hedge mustard, sowthistle, prickly lettuce and turnip weed. • Can be applied with simazine for improved grass weed control.

219. 106 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

220. 107 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

221. 108 Notes __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

104. 102 Table 36. Canola and pulse foliar fungicides – 2014 Foliar fungicides for canola, chickpea, field pea, faba bean and lupin Example foliar fungicide trade name and manufacturer Active ingredient Harvest Withholding Period (WHP) – weeks/days Rate to apply per hectare (L/ha or kg/ha) Cost of product per Litre ($) Size of pack (kg or L – range of pack sizes) Canola Chickpea Field pea Faba bean Lupin Harvest Grazing Bravo® Weather Stik – Syngenta Barrack® Betterstick – Crop Care chlorothalonil (720 g/L) 7 days Do not graze 1.4–2.3 L 15.00 1–1000 L Chocolate spot Rust Barrack® 720 – Crop Care Unite® 720 – Nufarm chlorothalonil (720 g/L) 14 days 14 days 1.4–2.3 L (faba beans) 1.0–2.0 L (chickpeas) 15.00 1–1000 L Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Rust Echo® 900 Fungicide – Sipcam chlorothalonil (900 g/kg) 7 days Do not graze 1.2–1.9 kg 13.85 1–20 kg Chocolate spot Rust Rovral® Liquid – Bayer CropScience Iprodione Liquid 250 – Ospray iprodione (250 g/L) 42 days 42 days 2.0 L 17.75 2–1000 L Sclerotinia stem rot Dithane® Rainshield Neo Tec Fungicide – Dow AgroSciences mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 20 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Cercospora Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Manzate® DF – Sipcam mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 20 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Botrytis grey mould Black spot Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Innova Mancozeb 750 Fungicide – Syngenta mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 25 L Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Penncozeb® 420 SC – Nufarm mancozeb (420 g/L) 28 days 14 days 1.8–3.95 L (chickpeas) 3.5 L (faba beans) 9.20 5–1000 L Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Polyram® DF – Nufarm metiram (700 g/kg) 6 weeks 21 days 1.1–2.2 kg 13.35 15 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Cercospora Rust Fortress® 500 – Crop Care Sumisclex® Broadacre – Sumitomo procymidone (500 g/L) Canola not required 9 weeks 1.0 L (canola) 0.5 L (faba bean) 50.55 1–10 L Sclerotinia stem rot Chocolate spot Faba beans 9  days Not stated Prosaro® 420 SC – Bayer CropScience prothioconazole (210 g/L) + tebuconazole (210 g/L) Not required 14 days 375–450 mL/ha 77.00 10 L Blackleg Sclerotinia stem rot Folicur® 430 SC – Bayer CropScience Hornet® – Nufarm tebuconazole (430 g/L) 3 days 3 days 145 mL 16.80 1–1000 L Powdery mildew Cercospora (PER13752, ex - piry 30/06/16) Triad 125 – Farmoz triadimefon (125 g/L) 14 days Not stated 500 mL 6.20 5–1000 L Powdery mildew Note: New labelling and rescheduling applies to all procymidone products. Health warnings are in place for pregnant women. Prices quoted are GST Inclusive at 10 February 2014 and approximate only. Prices will vary depending on pack size purchased.

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186. www.bayercropscience.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022. 391-393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. Technical enquiries 1800 804 479 Ph 03 9248 6888 Fax 03 9248 6800 Balance ® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. Do it once. Do it well. Balance ® activates again and again to effectively control a wide range of broadleaf weeds in chickpeas. • UV stable and can be applied to hot and dry soils. • Reactivated by rain or irrigation to provide long residual control. • Excellent residual control of problem weeds such as wild radish, Indian hedge mustard, sowthistle, prickly lettuce and turnip weed. • Can be applied with simazine for improved grass weed control.

106. 104 Table 37. Common retail prices of chemicals used on winter crops Product name Chemical name Company Price/L or kg (EX GST) ($) Commonly used rate/ha Cost ($/ha) Achieve® Tralkoxydim Crop Care 55.90 0.4 kg 22.36 Agritone® 750 MCPA 750 g/L Nufarm 8.77 0.46 L 4.03 Agtryne® MA Terbutryn + MCPA Crop Care 14.52 1.0 L 14.52 Alliance® Paraquat + Amitrole Crop Care 13.70 2.0 L 27.39 Ally® Metsulfuron-methyl DuPont 68.00 5 g 0.34 Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D Amine Nufarm 6.03 0.8 4.82 Atlantis® OD Mesosulfuron-methyl Bayer CropScience 80.02 0.33 L 26.41 Atrazine 900 WDG Atrazine 900 g/kg Titan 7.25 1.1 kg 7.98 Avadex® Xtra Triallate Nufarm/Farmoz 9.27 1.6 L 14.83 Axial® Pinoxaden 100 g/L+ Cloquintocet-mexyl 25 g/L Syngenta 139.02 0.2 27.80 Balance® Isoxaflutole 750 g/kg Bayer CropScience 368.00 100 g 36.80 Broadside® Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba Nufarm 15.77 0.75 L 11.83 Boxer® Gold Prosulfocarb 800 g/L + S-Metolachlor 120 g/L Syngenta 14.27 2.5 35.68 Bladex® Cyanazine Agnova 50.00 1.5 L 75.00 Broadstrike® Flumetsulam Dow AgroSciences 617.00 25 g 15.43 Brodal® Options Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 44.02 0.15 L 6.60 Bromocide ® 200 Bromoxynil Nufarm 12.27 1.4 L 17.18 Bromoxynil MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Various 12.85 1.4 L 17.98 Cadence® Dicamba Syngenta 41.90 115 g 4.82 Cheetah® Gold Dichlofop-methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L + Fenoxaprop-P-Ethyl 13.6 g/L Bayer CropScience 23.37 1 23.37 Conclude™ MCPA + Florasulam Dow AgroSciences 14.85 0.7 L 10.39 Crusader™ Pyroxulam + Cloquintocet-mexyl Dow AgroSciences 66.00 0.5 L 33.00 Decision® Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim Bayer CropScience 17.10 1 L 17.10 Diurex® WG Diuron 900 g/kg Crop Care 11.85 0.5 kg 5.93 Diuron Liquid Diuron 500 g/L Various 8.00 0.9 L 7.20 Dual Gold® S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Syngenta 13.87 0.2 L 2.77 Duet® 250 EC Oryzalin + trifluralin Farmoz 5.45 1.6 L 8.72 Eclipse® 100SC Metosulam 100 g/L Bayer CropScience 197.67 0.05 L 9.88 Ecopar® Pyraflufen-ethyl 20 g/L Sipcam 31.12 0.4 L 12.45 Express® Tribenuron-methyl DuPont 215.00 25 g 5.38 Flame® Imazapic Crop Care 50.98 0.175 L 8.92 Flight® EC Picolinafen 35 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L + MCPA 350 g/L Nufarm 27.90 0.54 15.07 Fusilade® Forte Fluazifop-P 212 g/L Syngenta 60.25 0.41 L 24.70 Garlon™ 600 Triclopyr 600 g/L Dow AgroSciences 18.12 0.12 L 2.17 Gesatop® 600 SC Simazine 600 g/L Syngenta 7.25 1.7 L 12.33 Glean® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg DuPont/Nufarm 65.00 20 g 1.30 Goal® Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Dow AgroSciences/Nufarm 21.02 0.075 L 1.58 Gramoxone® 250 Paraquat 250 g/L Syngenta 6.90 1.0 L 6.90 Grazon™ Extra Triclopyr 300 g/L + Picloram 100 g/L+ Aminopyralid 8 g/L Dow AgroSciences 32.13 0.3 L 9.64 Harmony® M Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron-methyl DuPont 406.00 40 g 16.24 Hammer® Carfentrazone-ethyl 240 g/L Crop Care 175.00 0.050 L 8.75 Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop methyl 500 g/L Bayer CropScience 18.95 1 L 18.95 Hotshot® Aminopyralid + Fluroxypyr Dow AgroSciences 20.95 0.5 L 10.48 Hussar® OD Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 100 g/L Bayer CropScience 270.02 100 mL 27.00 Igran® Terbutryn Syngenta 17.65 0.85 L 15.00 Intervix® Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Nufarm 42.00 0.3 L 12.60 Jaguar® Bromoxynil + Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 12.75 0.75 L 9.56 Kamba® 500 Dicamba 500 g/L Nufarm 21.28 0.28 L 5.96 Logran® Triasulfuron Syngenta 58.50 35 g 2.05 Logran® B-power Triasulfuron + Butafenacil Syngenta 144.33 50 g 7.22 Lontrel™ Clopyralid 300 g/L Dow AgroSciences 26.04 0.3 L 7.81 Lontrel Advanced Clopyralid 600g/L Dow AgroSciences 49.22 0.15 L 7.38 Lontrel™ 750 SG Clopyralid 750 g/kg Dow AgroSciences 67.25 120 g 8.07 LV Ester 680 2,4-D LV ester 680 g/L Crop Care 8.45 0.8 L 6.76

102. 100 Table 35. Cereal foliar fungicides – 2014 currently registered products (NSW) – winter cereals Various trade names sometimes available under these active ingredients and concentrations. See specific labels for details. Active and Concentration Examples of commercial trade names WHP (weeks) W = wheat B = barley Cost per Litre 1 Adjuvant (as per label) Diseases Controlled 2 Registered for aerial application Product Manu- facturer Grazing Harvest Stripe Rust Stem Rust Leaf Rust Crown (leaf ) Rust Septoria tritici blotch Septoria nodorum blotch Yellow Spot Barley Scald Net Blotch Powdery Mildew Azoxystrobin 200 g/L + cyproconazole 80 g/L Amistar® Xtra Syngenta 3 6 $40.49 Not Required 400 mL–800 mL (wheat) $16.20–$32.39 200 mL–800 mL (wheat & barley 7 ) $8.10–$32.39 400 mL–800 mL (wheat) $16.20–$32.39 200 mL–800 mL (barley) $8.10–$32.39 400 mL–800 mL (wheat & barley) $16.20–$32.39 Ye s Azoxystrobin 120 g/L + tebuconazole 200 g/L Custodia® Farmoz 3 +ESI 6 $55.00 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat & barley 7 ) $17.33–$34.65 630 mL (wheat) $34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315 mL (barley) $17.33 315mL–630 mL (barley) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat & barley) $17.33–$34.65 Ye s Epoxiconazole 125 g/L Opus® 125 Nufarm 6 + ESI 6 $27.39 200 mL/100 L Chemwet may assist in certain conditions 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $6.85–$13.70 500 mL (wheat) 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL (barley) $6.85 250 mL–500 mL (barley 6 ) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL (wheat & barley) $6.85 Ye s Fenbuconazole 240 g/L Indar® Dow AgroSciences 2 + ESI NR $27.50 500 mL/100 L Uptake Spraying Oil 150–300 mL (wheat) $4.13–$8.25 No Flutriafol 250 g/L Intake® Combi Crop Care 7-W 10-B 7-W 10-B $16.06 200 mL/100 L BS1000® 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $4.02–$8.03 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L ## Tilt® Syngenta 1 4 $14.30 Not Required 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) ^^^ $3.58–$7.15 500 mL (wheat & oats) $7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $2.15–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (oats) $3.58–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $3.58–$7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $2.15–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $3.58–$7.15 500 mL (barley) $7.15 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $3.58–$7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley) $2.15–$7.15 Ye s Propiconazole 435 g/L PropiMax® Dow AgroSciences 1 4 $32.18 Not Required 145 mL or 285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 285 mL (wheat & oats) $9.17 85 mL–285 mL (wheat) $2.74–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (oats) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 285 mL (barley) $9.17 285 mL (barley 5 ) $8.75 85 mL–285 mL (wheat & barley) $2.74–$9.17 Ye s Propiconazole 500 g/L Throttle®500 Nufarm 1 4 $32.59 Not Required 125 mL or 250 mL (wheat) $4.07–$8.15 250 mL (wheat & oats) $8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat) 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $2.44–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (oats) $4.07–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $4.07–$8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat) $2.44–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $4.07–$8.15 250 mL (barley) $8.15 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $4.07–$8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $2.44–$8.15 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L + cyproconazole 80 g/L Tilt® Xtra Syngenta 3 + ESI 6 $37.32 Not Required 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 500 mL (wheat) $18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley 3 ) $5.60–$18.66 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $5.60–$18.66 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 500 mL (barley) $18.66 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $9.33–$18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley) $5.60–$18.66 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L + Tebuconazole 250 g/L Cogito™ Syngenta 2 5 $25.85 125 mL or 250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 125–250 mL (wheat) 250 mL (oats) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (oats) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 250 mL (barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $3.23–$6.46 Ye s Prothioconazole 210 g/L + tebuconazole 210 g/L Prosaro® 420 Bayer CropScience 2 5 $77.01 Various(adjuvants required for some diseases) – As per label directions 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & triticale) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) 300 mL (oats) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & barley) $11.55–$23.10 300 mL (oats) $23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (barley) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (barley) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & barley) $11.55–$23.10 Ye s

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105. www.bayercropscience.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd, 391-393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. ABN 87 000 226 022 Technical Enquiries 1800 804 479 Ph 03 9248 6888 Fax 03 9248 6800 Prosaro ® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. RRA/BAY15175A The power of one. • You’ve come to trust Prosaro fungicide as the superior choice for broad spectrum foliar disease control in wheat, barley oats and triticale. • Now use it to effectively manage blackleg and sclerotinia in your canola. • Most effective against blackleg in canola when used in combination with a seed treatment or in-furrow fungicide. • Try it this season and see for yourself how Prosaro can help protect your valuable crop. • If you’d like to know more contact Bayer CropScience Technical Enquiries on 1800 804 479. Prosar o ® . All you need this season for effective broad spectrum foliar disease control in wheat, canola, barley, oats and triticale. Scan this code for more information

215. 102 Table 36. Canola and pulse foliar fungicides – 2014 Foliar fungicides for canola, chickpea, field pea, faba bean and lupin Example foliar fungicide trade name and manufacturer Active ingredient Harvest Withholding Period (WHP) – weeks/days Rate to apply per hectare (L/ha or kg/ha) Cost of product per Litre ($) Size of pack (kg or L – range of pack sizes) Canola Chickpea Field pea Faba bean Lupin Harvest Grazing Bravo® Weather Stik – Syngenta Barrack® Betterstick – Crop Care chlorothalonil (720 g/L) 7 days Do not graze 1.4–2.3 L 15.00 1–1000 L Chocolate spot Rust Barrack® 720 – Crop Care Unite® 720 – Nufarm chlorothalonil (720 g/L) 14 days 14 days 1.4–2.3 L (faba beans) 1.0–2.0 L (chickpeas) 15.00 1–1000 L Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Rust Echo® 900 Fungicide – Sipcam chlorothalonil (900 g/kg) 7 days Do not graze 1.2–1.9 kg 13.85 1–20 kg Chocolate spot Rust Rovral® Liquid – Bayer CropScience Iprodione Liquid 250 – Ospray iprodione (250 g/L) 42 days 42 days 2.0 L 17.75 2–1000 L Sclerotinia stem rot Dithane® Rainshield Neo Tec Fungicide – Dow AgroSciences mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 20 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Cercospora Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Manzate® DF – Sipcam mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 20 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Botrytis grey mould Black spot Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Innova Mancozeb 750 Fungicide – Syngenta mancozeb (750 g/kg) 28 days 14 days 1.0–2.2 kg 8.20 25 L Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Rust Botrytis grey mould Anthracnose Penncozeb® 420 SC – Nufarm mancozeb (420 g/L) 28 days 14 days 1.8–3.95 L (chickpeas) 3.5 L (faba beans) 9.20 5–1000 L Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Polyram® DF – Nufarm metiram (700 g/kg) 6 weeks 21 days 1.1–2.2 kg 13.35 15 kg Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Ascochyta blight Botrytis grey mould Blackspot Rust Ascochyta blight Chocolate spot Cercospora Rust Fortress® 500 – Crop Care Sumisclex® Broadacre – Sumitomo procymidone (500 g/L) Canola not required 9 weeks 1.0 L (canola) 0.5 L (faba bean) 50.55 1–10 L Sclerotinia stem rot Chocolate spot Faba beans 9  days Not stated Prosaro® 420 SC – Bayer CropScience prothioconazole (210 g/L) + tebuconazole (210 g/L) Not required 14 days 375–450 mL/ha 77.00 10 L Blackleg Sclerotinia stem rot Folicur® 430 SC – Bayer CropScience Hornet® – Nufarm tebuconazole (430 g/L) 3 days 3 days 145 mL 16.80 1–1000 L Powdery mildew Cercospora (PER13752, ex - piry 30/06/16) Triad 125 – Farmoz triadimefon (125 g/L) 14 days Not stated 500 mL 6.20 5–1000 L Powdery mildew Note: New labelling and rescheduling applies to all procymidone products. Health warnings are in place for pregnant women. Prices quoted are GST Inclusive at 10 February 2014 and approximate only. Prices will vary depending on pack size purchased.

20. 18 Some adjuvants in common use Trade name Constituent Company Claim Spray oil Banjo® 725 g/L methyl esters of canola oil Nufarm Wetting/spreading/penetrating agent for use with certain post-emergent herbicides. Adigor™ 440 g/L methyl esters of canola oil, fatty acids solvent, 222 g/L liquid hydrocarbons Syngenta Adjuvant for use with Axial® and other selective and non-selective herbicides as per label directions. Uptake™ Spraying Oil 582 g/L paraffinic oil + 208 g/L non-ionic surfactants Dow AgroSciences Spreading/wetting agent for many selective herbicides e.g. Topik®, Verdict™ 520. Hotwire® Spraying Oil 598 g/L paraffinic oil + 210 g/L non-ionic surfactants Farmoz Spreading/wetting agent for many selective herbicides. Bonza® 471 g/L paraffin oil Nufarm Spreading/wetting agent for certain herbicides. Caltex Broadcoat® 861 g/L petroleum oil Caltex Adjuvant/wetting agent. Used with certain non-selective herbicides. Kwickin™/Impel™ 704 g/L methyl and ethyl canolate and 196 g/L blend of surfactants, sorbitan esters and vegetable oil ethoxylate GullfAg/ Nufarm Improves penetration. Used with certain post-emergent herbicides. Hasten™ 704 g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil + surfactant >15% Victorian Chemical Co. Wetting/spreading/penetrating agent for certain post-emergent herbicides. Activoil® 704 g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil. SST Products Improves penetration. Used with certain post-emergent herbicides. Intac® Ag Oil 820 g/L canola oil Nipro Products Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Supa Stik® Oil 840 g/L canola oil Agrichem Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Protec® Plus 700 g/L canola oil extract Grevillia Ag Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Codacide® Organic 860 g/L vegetable oil Microcide Suitable for use with certain non-selective herbicides. Synertrol® Broadacre 780 g/L emulsified vegetable oil Organic Crop Protectants Wetter, spreader and penetrant compatible with most herbicides. Ad-Here™ 970 g/L mineral oil Victorian Chemical Co. Adjuvant for Select®, Verdict™, Sertin® 186 EC, Express®. Supercharge® 471 g/L paraffin oil Crop Care Designed for use with Achieve® WG, Falcon® WG Amplify® 432 g/L mineral oil Farmoz Designed for use with Farmoz Pentagon® herbicide. D-C-Trate® 763 g/L petroleum oil Caltex Anti-evaporant/wetting agent used with certain herbicides. DC Tron™ 991 g/L petroleum oil Caltex See label. Surfactant Agral® 600 600 g/L non-ionic surfactant Crop Care Wetting/spreading agent, for most selective and non selective herbicides. Wetter TX® 1040 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Used with Roundup® when treating certain grasses. BS1000®/Deltawet® 1000 1000 g/L alkoxylated alcohol Crop Care/Tasman Chemicals Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Hot-up® 340 g/L non-ionic + 190 g/L mineral oil + 140 g/L ammonium sulfate Victorian Chemical Co Wetting, penetrating, reduce antagonism of non-selective herbicides. Activator® 900 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Wetting agent. Used with most non and selective herbicides. Wetter 1000 1003 g/L non-ionic ethoxylates Chemag Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Wetspray® 600 600 g/L non-ionic surfactant Farmoz Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Wetspray® 1000 1000 g/L non-ionic surfactant Farmoz Wetting spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Chemwet® 1000 1000 g/L non-ionic ethoxylates Nufarm Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Agri-Wett® 77 377 g/L nonylphenol ethylene Agrichem Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Bond® Adjuvant 450 g/L synthetic latex + 100 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Used when the addition of a sticker, spreader and deposit agent is required. Compatability agent Liase®/Liquid Assist 417 g/L ammonium sulfate Nufarm/Rutec Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Response®/Enhanzar® 425 g/L ammonium sulfate Landmark/Western Stock Distributors Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Alltask Benefit® 425 g/L ammonium sulfate Landmark Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Liquid Boost® 417 g/L ammonium sulfate GullfAg Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Bonus® 250 g/L ammonium sulfate + 188.5 g/L alkylethoxyphosphate Nufarm Designed for use with Nufarm Credit® broadhectare only. Acidifying/buffering agents LI 700®/Delta Lipro® 700 350 g/L soyal phospholipids + 350 g/L propionic acid Nufarm/Tasman Chemicals Wetter, spreader, acidifier, compatible with most herbicides except sulfonylureas. Primabuff® 266.2 g/L nonoxinol-9 375.1 g/L phosphoric acid derivatives Crop Care Penetrant, buffering, acidifying, compatibility aid, used with certain non- selectives. Agri-Buffa® 430 g/L phosphate esters, 100 g/L polyalkylene oxide Agrichem Wetter, spreader, acidifier, compatible with most herbicides.

98. 96 Table 33. Winter crop herbicide/insecticide compatibilities (continued) This chart is a guide only. Read both product labels if using a mixture FORMULATION ACTIVE PRODUCT ACHIEVE® ALLY® ALPHA CYPERMETHERIN AMICIDE® ADVANCE 700 ATLANTIS® OD AVADEX® AXIAL® BASAGRAN BIFENTHRIN BLADEX® B R AVO® BROADSTRIKE™ BRODAL® BROMICIDE® 200 BROMICIDE® MA BUCTRIL® MA BUTRESS® CADENCE® CHEETAH® GOLD CHLORPYRIFOS CONCLUDE™ CORRECT® CRUSADER™ DECISION® DELTAMETHERIN DIMETHOATE DITHANE™ DIURON soluble concentrate dicamba dma Kamba® 500 Herbicide N C C C C N C soluble concentrate dicamba dma + MCPA dma Kamba® M Herbicide N C N N soluble concentrate omethoate Le-Mat® 290 Insecticide C C C C C C C water dispersible granule triasulfuron Logran® 750 Herbicide C C C C water dispersable granules butafenacil + triasulfuron Logran® B Power                               soluble concentrate clopyralid** Lontrel™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate chlorpyrifos* Lorsban™ 300/500 Insecticide C C C C N N C N C C emulsifiable concentrate MCPA ioe (ester)** LVE MCPA C C C C C C N C C emulsifiable concentrates 2,4-D as ehe Estercide Xtra 680   C                           emulsifiable concentrate flamprop-M-methyl Mataven® 90 Herbicide N soluble concentrate MCPA dma (amine)** MCPA 500 Herbicide N C C C C C C C N N C C emulsifiable concentrates MCPA + Imazapic + Imazapyr Midas®                         C     water dispersable granules sulfosulfuron Monza® N   C               N   N     emulsifiable concentrate picolinafen + MCPA ehe (ester) Paragon® Herbicide C N C emulsifiable concentrates pyrasulfotole +MCPA as 2-ehe +mefenpyr-diethyl Precept® 300 C C N C   C                 C   C C C     water dispersible granule prometryn Prometryn 900DF water dispersible granule imazamox*** Raptor® Herbicide C soluble concentrate glyphosate dual salt** Weedmaster® DST® Herbicide C C C C C C C water soluble granules glyphosate mas** Weedmaster® Argo® C C C C C C C soluble concentrate glyphosate as K salt** Roundup Ultra® Max Herbicide C C C C C C water soluble granules pyroxasulfone Sakura® C C C C emulsifiable concentrate clethodim Status® Herbicide N C suspension concentrate metribuzin* Sencor® 480 Herbicide C N water dispersible granule picolinafen Sniper® Herbicide C water dispersible granule imazethapyr*** Spinnaker® 700 Herbicide C C C C C soluble concentrate paraquat + diquat Spray.Seed® 250 Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate fluroxypyr Starane™ Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate pendimethalin** Stomp® 330 Herbicide C C C emulsifiable concentrate methidathion Supracide® 400 Insecticide soluble concentrate 2,4-D ipa (amine)** Surpass® 300 Herbicide N C C C N C C emulsifiable concentrate bifenthrin** Talstar® 100 Insecticide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate quizalofop** Targa® Herbicide C C water dispersible granule terbuthylazine Terbyne® emulsifiable concentrate diflufenican + MCPA ehe (ester) Tigrex® Herbicide C C C C C C C C N C emulsifiable concentrate clodinafop Topik® 240 Herbicide C C C N N soluble concentrate MCPA + picloram as K salts Tordon™ 242 Herbicide N C C N C soluble concentrate 2,4-D + picloram as tipa (amine) Tordon™ 75D Herbicide N C C N suspension concentrate clopyralid as mea + florasulam Torpedo™   C           C C C             emulsifiable concentrate trifluralin Treflan™ Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate diclofop + fenoxaprop Tristar® Advance Herbicide N C C water dispersible granule flumioxazin Valor® emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole Velocity® **** C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate haloxyfop Verdict™ 520 Herbicide C N C C emulsifiable concentrate fenoxaprop + mefanpyr-diethyl Wildcat® Herbicide C C N N C = Compatible. N = Not compatible. Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern (both crop and weeds), rate, surfactant/compatibility agent and temperature. Water quality also affects compatibility. Mixtures generally require greater agitation. Mixing more than two chemicals affects compatibility and is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation (4/13). Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of both labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. * WG formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. ** Other formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. *** DO NOT mix with selective grass herbicides. **** Check label for compatible mixing rates and effect on weeds.

216. www.bayercropscience.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd, 391-393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. ABN 87 000 226 022 Technical Enquiries 1800 804 479 Ph 03 9248 6888 Fax 03 9248 6800 Prosaro ® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. RRA/BAY15175A The power of one. • You’ve come to trust Prosaro fungicide as the superior choice for broad spectrum foliar disease control in wheat, barley oats and triticale. • Now use it to effectively manage blackleg and sclerotinia in your canola. • Most effective against blackleg in canola when used in combination with a seed treatment or in-furrow fungicide. • Try it this season and see for yourself how Prosaro can help protect your valuable crop. • If you’d like to know more contact Bayer CropScience Technical Enquiries on 1800 804 479. Prosar o ® . All you need this season for effective broad spectrum foliar disease control in wheat, canola, barley, oats and triticale. Scan this code for more information

217. 104 Table 37. Common retail prices of chemicals used on winter crops Product name Chemical name Company Price/L or kg (EX GST) ($) Commonly used rate/ha Cost ($/ha) Achieve® Tralkoxydim Crop Care 55.90 0.4 kg 22.36 Agritone® 750 MCPA 750 g/L Nufarm 8.77 0.46 L 4.03 Agtryne® MA Terbutryn + MCPA Crop Care 14.52 1.0 L 14.52 Alliance® Paraquat + Amitrole Crop Care 13.70 2.0 L 27.39 Ally® Metsulfuron-methyl DuPont 68.00 5 g 0.34 Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D Amine Nufarm 6.03 0.8 4.82 Atlantis® OD Mesosulfuron-methyl Bayer CropScience 80.02 0.33 L 26.41 Atrazine 900 WDG Atrazine 900 g/kg Titan 7.25 1.1 kg 7.98 Avadex® Xtra Triallate Nufarm/Farmoz 9.27 1.6 L 14.83 Axial® Pinoxaden 100 g/L+ Cloquintocet-mexyl 25 g/L Syngenta 139.02 0.2 27.80 Balance® Isoxaflutole 750 g/kg Bayer CropScience 368.00 100 g 36.80 Broadside® Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba Nufarm 15.77 0.75 L 11.83 Boxer® Gold Prosulfocarb 800 g/L + S-Metolachlor 120 g/L Syngenta 14.27 2.5 35.68 Bladex® Cyanazine Agnova 50.00 1.5 L 75.00 Broadstrike® Flumetsulam Dow AgroSciences 617.00 25 g 15.43 Brodal® Options Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 44.02 0.15 L 6.60 Bromocide ® 200 Bromoxynil Nufarm 12.27 1.4 L 17.18 Bromoxynil MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Various 12.85 1.4 L 17.98 Cadence® Dicamba Syngenta 41.90 115 g 4.82 Cheetah® Gold Dichlofop-methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L + Fenoxaprop-P-Ethyl 13.6 g/L Bayer CropScience 23.37 1 23.37 Conclude™ MCPA + Florasulam Dow AgroSciences 14.85 0.7 L 10.39 Crusader™ Pyroxulam + Cloquintocet-mexyl Dow AgroSciences 66.00 0.5 L 33.00 Decision® Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim Bayer CropScience 17.10 1 L 17.10 Diurex® WG Diuron 900 g/kg Crop Care 11.85 0.5 kg 5.93 Diuron Liquid Diuron 500 g/L Various 8.00 0.9 L 7.20 Dual Gold® S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Syngenta 13.87 0.2 L 2.77 Duet® 250 EC Oryzalin + trifluralin Farmoz 5.45 1.6 L 8.72 Eclipse® 100SC Metosulam 100 g/L Bayer CropScience 197.67 0.05 L 9.88 Ecopar® Pyraflufen-ethyl 20 g/L Sipcam 31.12 0.4 L 12.45 Express® Tribenuron-methyl DuPont 215.00 25 g 5.38 Flame® Imazapic Crop Care 50.98 0.175 L 8.92 Flight® EC Picolinafen 35 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L + MCPA 350 g/L Nufarm 27.90 0.54 15.07 Fusilade® Forte Fluazifop-P 212 g/L Syngenta 60.25 0.41 L 24.70 Garlon™ 600 Triclopyr 600 g/L Dow AgroSciences 18.12 0.12 L 2.17 Gesatop® 600 SC Simazine 600 g/L Syngenta 7.25 1.7 L 12.33 Glean® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg DuPont/Nufarm 65.00 20 g 1.30 Goal® Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Dow AgroSciences/Nufarm 21.02 0.075 L 1.58 Gramoxone® 250 Paraquat 250 g/L Syngenta 6.90 1.0 L 6.90 Grazon™ Extra Triclopyr 300 g/L + Picloram 100 g/L+ Aminopyralid 8 g/L Dow AgroSciences 32.13 0.3 L 9.64 Harmony® M Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron-methyl DuPont 406.00 40 g 16.24 Hammer® Carfentrazone-ethyl 240 g/L Crop Care 175.00 0.050 L 8.75 Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop methyl 500 g/L Bayer CropScience 18.95 1 L 18.95 Hotshot® Aminopyralid + Fluroxypyr Dow AgroSciences 20.95 0.5 L 10.48 Hussar® OD Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 100 g/L Bayer CropScience 270.02 100 mL 27.00 Igran® Terbutryn Syngenta 17.65 0.85 L 15.00 Intervix® Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Nufarm 42.00 0.3 L 12.60 Jaguar® Bromoxynil + Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 12.75 0.75 L 9.56 Kamba® 500 Dicamba 500 g/L Nufarm 21.28 0.28 L 5.96 Logran® Triasulfuron Syngenta 58.50 35 g 2.05 Logran® B-power Triasulfuron + Butafenacil Syngenta 144.33 50 g 7.22 Lontrel™ Clopyralid 300 g/L Dow AgroSciences 26.04 0.3 L 7.81 Lontrel Advanced Clopyralid 600g/L Dow AgroSciences 49.22 0.15 L 7.38 Lontrel™ 750 SG Clopyralid 750 g/kg Dow AgroSciences 67.25 120 g 8.07 LV Ester 680 2,4-D LV ester 680 g/L Crop Care 8.45 0.8 L 6.76

213. 100 Table 35. Cereal foliar fungicides – 2014 currently registered products (NSW) – winter cereals Various trade names sometimes available under these active ingredients and concentrations. See specific labels for details. Active and Concentration Examples of commercial trade names WHP (weeks) W = wheat B = barley Cost per Litre 1 Adjuvant (as per label) Diseases Controlled 2 Registered for aerial application Product Manu- facturer Grazing Harvest Stripe Rust Stem Rust Leaf Rust Crown (leaf ) Rust Septoria tritici blotch Septoria nodorum blotch Yellow Spot Barley Scald Net Blotch Powdery Mildew Azoxystrobin 200 g/L + cyproconazole 80 g/L Amistar® Xtra Syngenta 3 6 $40.49 Not Required 400 mL–800 mL (wheat) $16.20–$32.39 200 mL–800 mL (wheat & barley 7 ) $8.10–$32.39 400 mL–800 mL (wheat) $16.20–$32.39 200 mL–800 mL (barley) $8.10–$32.39 400 mL–800 mL (wheat & barley) $16.20–$32.39 Ye s Azoxystrobin 120 g/L + tebuconazole 200 g/L Custodia® Farmoz 3 +ESI 6 $55.00 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat & barley 7 ) $17.33–$34.65 630 mL (wheat) $34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat) $17.33–$34.65 315 mL (barley) $17.33 315mL–630 mL (barley) $17.33–$34.65 315mL–630 mL (wheat & barley) $17.33–$34.65 Ye s Epoxiconazole 125 g/L Opus® 125 Nufarm 6 + ESI 6 $27.39 200 mL/100 L Chemwet may assist in certain conditions 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $6.85–$13.70 500 mL (wheat) 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL (barley) $6.85 250 mL–500 mL (barley 6 ) $6.85–$13.70 250 mL (wheat & barley) $6.85 Ye s Fenbuconazole 240 g/L Indar® Dow AgroSciences 2 + ESI NR $27.50 500 mL/100 L Uptake Spraying Oil 150–300 mL (wheat) $4.13–$8.25 No Flutriafol 250 g/L Intake® Combi Crop Care 7-W 10-B 7-W 10-B $16.06 200 mL/100 L BS1000® 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $4.02–$8.03 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $4.02–$8.03 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L ## Tilt® Syngenta 1 4 $14.30 Not Required 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) ^^^ $3.58–$7.15 500 mL (wheat & oats) $7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $2.15–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (oats) $3.58–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $3.58–$7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $2.15–$7.15 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $3.58–$7.15 500 mL (barley) $7.15 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $3.58–$7.15 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley) $2.15–$7.15 Ye s Propiconazole 435 g/L PropiMax® Dow AgroSciences 1 4 $32.18 Not Required 145 mL or 285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 285 mL (wheat & oats) $9.17 85 mL–285 mL (wheat) $2.74–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (oats) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 145 mL–285 mL (wheat) $4.67–$9.17 285 mL (barley) $9.17 285 mL (barley 5 ) $8.75 85 mL–285 mL (wheat & barley) $2.74–$9.17 Ye s Propiconazole 500 g/L Throttle®500 Nufarm 1 4 $32.59 Not Required 125 mL or 250 mL (wheat) $4.07–$8.15 250 mL (wheat & oats) $8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat) 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $2.44–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (oats) $4.07–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $4.07–$8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat) $2.44–$8.15 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $4.07–$8.15 250 mL (barley) $8.15 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $4.07–$8.15 75 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $2.44–$8.15 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L + cyproconazole 80 g/L Tilt® Xtra Syngenta 3 + ESI 6 $37.32 Not Required 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 500 mL (wheat) $18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley 3 ) $5.60–$18.66 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat) $5.60–$18.66 250 mL–500 mL (wheat) $9.33–$18.66 500 mL (barley) $18.66 250 mL–500 mL (barley) $9.33–$18.66 150 mL–500 mL (wheat & barley) $5.60–$18.66 Ye s Propiconazole 250 g/L + Tebuconazole 250 g/L Cogito™ Syngenta 2 5 $25.85 125 mL or 250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 125–250 mL (wheat) 250 mL (oats) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (oats) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & oats 4 ) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat) $3.23–$6.46 250 mL (barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (barley) $3.23–$6.46 125 mL–250 mL (wheat & barley) $3.23–$6.46 Ye s Prothioconazole 210 g/L + tebuconazole 210 g/L Prosaro® 420 Bayer CropScience 2 5 $77.01 Various(adjuvants required for some diseases) – As per label directions 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & triticale) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) 300 mL (oats) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & barley) $11.55–$23.10 300 mL (oats) $23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (barley) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (barley) $11.55–$23.10 150 mL–300 mL (wheat & barley) $11.55–$23.10 Ye s

4. 2 © State of New South Wales through Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services 2014. You may copy, distribute, display, download and otherwise freely deal with this publication for any purpose, provided that you attribute the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services as the owner. However, you must obtain permission if you wish to charge others for access to the publication (other than at cost); include the publication in advertising or a product for sale; modify the publication; or republish the publication on a website. You may freely link to the publication on a departmental website. ISSN 0812-907X Published by the NSW Department of Primary Industries, a part of the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services. Disclaimer The information contained in this publication is based on knowledge and understanding at the time of writing (March 2014). However, because of advances in knowledge, users are reminded of the need to ensure that the information upon which they rely is up to date and to check the currency of the information with the appropriate officer of the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services or the user’s independent adviser. The product trade names in this publication are supplied on the understanding that no preference between equivalent products is intended and that the inclusion of a product name does not imply endorsement by the department over any equivalent product from another manufacturer. Recognising that some of the information in this document is provided by third parties, the State of New South Wales, the author and the publisher take no responsibility for the accuracy, currency, reliability and correctness of any information included in the document provided by third parties. Always read the label Users of agricultural chemical products must always read the label and any permit before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from any compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or omitted to be made in this publication. Acknowledgements The contributions of the district agronomists, Peter Matthews (Technical Specialist Grain Services); Tony Cook (Technical Specialist Weeds, Tamworth); Jenene Kidston, (Technical Specialist, Farm Chemicals, Orange); Peter Lockley, (Technical Manager, Wagga Wagga) and the various chemical companies, are most appreciated. Cover design by Belinda Keen and production by Barry Jensen, NSW DPI, Orange. The contribution of Michel Dignand, (formerly NSW DPI), to previous editions is acknowledged. Front cover, main photo: Albus lupin crop, Wass Bros, “The Plains”, Nyngan. Greg Brooke, NSW DPI, Trangie. Small photos, from left: Wild radish seedlings emerging with wheat crop; Paterson’s curse in oats, Dubbo NSW; Canola seedling crop, Wellington NSW; Sheep grazing dual purpose wheat, Wellington NSW. All pictures, Greg Brooke, NSW DPI, Trangie NSW. Illustrations: originals by Alison Chambers and Dianne Gardoll, formerly NSW DPI. Redrawn on computer by Michel Dignand. The Pulse crop growth stages diagrams are reproduced with the permission of Di Holding and Annabel Bowcher, formerly CRC for Australian Weed Management. This publication is a companion to the following guides available in 2014 from your local NSW Department of Primary Industries office: Winter Crop Variety Sowing Guide 2014 and Insect and Mite Control in Field Crops 2013 .

107. 105 Common retail prices Table 37. Common retail prices of chemicals used on winter crops (continued) Product name Chemical name Company Price/L or kg (EX GST) ($) Commonly used rate/ha Cost ($/ha) Mataven® 90 Flamprop-M-methyl Nufarm 16.30 2.5 L 40.75 MCPA LVE MCPA LVE 570 g/L Various 11.15 0.7 L 7.81 Midas® MCPA + imazapyr + imazapic Nufarm 22.15 0.9 L 19.94 Monza® Sulfosulfuron Nufarm 950.00 25 g 23.75 Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA Nufarm 31.94 0.25 L 7.98 Pantera® Quizalofop-P-tefuryl Crompton 37.00 0.25 L 9.25 Precept® 300 EC Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 125 g/L Bayer CropScience 30.03 0.5 L 15.01 Pyresta® Pyraflufen-Ethyl 2.1 g/L + 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Sipcam 14.95 0.5 L 7.48 Raptor® Imazamox 700 g/kg Crop Care 690.88 45 g 31.09 Reglone® Diquat Syngenta 16.25 2.0 L 32.50 Roundup® Attack™ Glyphosate 570 g/L Nufarm 7.97 0.95 7.57 Glyphosate 450 Glyphosate 450 g/L Various 5.32 1.0 L 5.32 Sakura® 850 WG Pyroxasulfone 850 g/kg Bayer CropScience 325.00 118 g 38.35 Sencor®750 Metribuzin 750 g/kg Bayer CropScience 27.50 0.28 kg 7.70 Select® Clethodim Sumitomo Chemical 12.36 0.3 L 3.71 Sharpen Saflufenacil Nufarm 735.00 26g 191.10 Simazine 900 Simazine 900 g/kg Various 7.10 1.1 kg 7.81 Simazine 500 F Simazine 500 g/L Various 5.79 2.0 L 11.58 Spray.seed® 250 Paraquat + Diquat Syngenta 9.70 1.6 L 15.51 Spinnaker® 700 WDG Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Nufarm 147.50 70 g 10.33 Starane™ Advanced Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Dow AgroSciences 23.10 0.45 L 10.39 Stomp® Pendimethalin 440 g/L Nufarm 10.87 1.4 L 15.22 Targa® Quizalofop-P-ethyl Sipcam 17.52 0.25 L 4.38 Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA amine 750 g/L Crop Care 8.29 0.96 L 7.96 Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 12.01 0.5 L 6.01 Topik® 240 EC Clodinafop-propargyl Syngenta 56.50 85 mL 4.80 Torpedo™ Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Dow AgroSciences 76.21 75 mL 5.72 Triflur® X Trifluralin 480 g/L Nufarm 6.19 0.8 L 4.95 Buttress® 2,4-DB 500 g/L Crop Care/Nufarm 16.91 2.1 L 35.52 Tristar® Advance Diclofop + Fenoxaprop Bayer CropScience 10.00 1.5 L 15.00 Tordon™ 242 Picloram + MCPA Dow AgroSciences 8.04 1.0 L 8.04 Terbyne® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Sipcam 21.00 1 21.00 Tordon™ 75D Picloram + 2,4-D Dow AgroSciences 30.28 0.3 L 9.08 Triathlon® Farmoz 11.75 0.00 Valor® 500 WG Flumioxazin 500 g/kg Sumitomo Chemical 183.33 0.03 5.50 Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L Bayer CropScience 30.27 0.5 L 15.14 Verdict™ 520 Haloxyfop-R Dow AgroSciences 51.02 0.05 L 2.55 Wildcat® 110 Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 110 g/L Bayer CropScience 12.76 0.4 L 5.10 2,4-D Amine 625 g/L Various 5.30 1.2 L 6.35 Common retail prices of adjuvants used on winter crops Agral 600® Wetting agent Syngenta 5.15 0.35 L/100 L 1.80 BS1000® Wetting agent Crop Care/Nufarm 6.20 0.2 L/100 L 1.24 Bonza® Wetting/Spreading Nufarm 7.04 1.0 L/100L 7.04 Caltex Sprayplus® Crop oil Caltex 2.00 2.0 L/100 L 4.00 D-C-Trate® Petroleum Oil Caltex 6.29 2.0 L/100 L 39.56 Hasten™ Crop Oil + surfactant Vic Chemical Co 4.90 1.0 L/100 L 4.90 Liase® Ammonium Sulfate Nufarm 1.95 2.0 L/100 L 3.90 LI 700® Surfactant/Penetrant Nufarm 6.41 0.25 L/100 L 1.60 Uptake™ Spraying Oil Crop Oil Dow AgroSciences 6.72 0.4 L/100 L 2.69 Wetter TX® Surfactant Nufarm 11.52 0.2 L/100 L 2.30 Prices are average retail (excluding GST) and are only a guide. They will vary according to location, availability and quantity purchased.

17. 15 Table 3. Rainfastness – stock withholding periods – harvest withholding periods (continued) Herbicide Rainfastness – hours Stock withholding period – days Harvest withholding period – days Hammer® 1 14 Not required when used as directed. Harmony® M Not stated. 14 56 Hoegrass® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Hotshot™ 1 7 Not required when used as directed. Hussar® OD 8 28 Not required when used as directed. Igran® 6 7 cereals 7 cereals Intervix® 2 5 weeks Not required when used as directed. Jaguar® 4 14 Not required when used as directed. Kamba® M 4 7 Not stated. Logran®/Logran® B-power Not stated. pre-emergent 49; post-emergent 14 Not required when used as directed. Lontrel™ Advanced 3 cereals, canola 7 Cereals 70; canola, not required when used as directed. Mataven® 90 4 42 Not stated. MCPA 6 7 Not required when used as directed. Midas® 6 28 Not required when used as directed. Monza® (Post) Immediate rainfall may affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Motsa ™ 1 56 Not required when used as directed on chickpea, faba bean, field pea, lentil and lupin; canola OnDuty® 2 wheat 28, canola 42 Not required when used as directed. Paragon® 4 42 Not required when used as directed. Precept® 2 wheat, oats, triticale, cereal rye 14; barley 28 Not required when used as directed. Prometryn 900 DF – 9 weeks Not required when used as directed. Pyresta® 6 grazing 7 Not required when used as directed. Raptor® 2 field pea 42 Not required when used as directed. Reglone® Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 Canola 4; lentil, chickpea 2; faba bean, field pea not required. Weedmaster® DST® 6 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Weedmaster® Argo® 1 Not required when used as directed. 7 wheat and pulses, other uses not required when used as directed. Sakura® 2 42 Not required when used as directed. Shogun® 1 Vetch 3 Faba bean 49; safflower 140; chickpea, field pea, lentil 84; lupin 105; canola, linseed 112 Status® 1 56 Canola; chickpea, faba bean,field pea, lentil, lupin not required when used as directed Sencor® 6 14 Not required when used as directed. Sharpen® 1 Do not allow livestock to graze treated weeds. Not required when used as directed. Refer also to tankmix products. Simazine On firm seedbeds light rain after use usually enhances activity. Chickpea 63; faba bean 56; canola 105 Faba bean 161 Sniper® 4 narrow-leafed lupin 42; fieldpea 28 Not required when used as directed. Spinnaker® 700 WDG 2 14 Not required when used as directed. Spray . Seed® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 Not stated. Starane™ Advanced 1 7 Not stated. Stomp® 440 Light rain after application does not generally affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Terbyne® – 6 weeks Not required when used as directed. Tigrex® 4 7 refer to label for grazing precautions. Not required when used as directed. Topik® 2 28 Not required when used as directed. Tordon™ 242 4 7 Not required when used as directed. FallowMaster™ Tordon™ 4 7 Cereal 70; canola 84 Torpedo™ 3 7 Not required when used as directed. Touchdown® Hi Tech 2 Cereals and pulses 7; nil other uses Cereals and pulses 7; nil other uses Triflur® X Light rain after incorporation will not affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not stated. Trifolamine® 4 7 Not stated. Tristar® Advance 4 cereals 49 Not required when used as directed. Valor® Not stated 42 Not required when used as directed. Velocity® 2 5 weeks Not required when used as directed. Verdict™ 520 1 Medic, clover 7; lucerne 21; vetch, canola lupin, chickpea, faba bean, field pea 28 Not required when used as directed. Wildcat® 110 EC 4 21 wheat, triticale and cereal rye 70 2,4-D amine /2,4-D ester 6 7 Not required when used as directed. 2,4-DB 24 7 Not stated. N/A = Not applicable, as it is a pre-emergent treatment. ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 .

131. 18 Some adjuvants in common use Trade name Constituent Company Claim Spray oil Banjo® 725 g/L methyl esters of canola oil Nufarm Wetting/spreading/penetrating agent for use with certain post-emergent herbicides. Adigor™ 440 g/L methyl esters of canola oil, fatty acids solvent, 222 g/L liquid hydrocarbons Syngenta Adjuvant for use with Axial® and other selective and non-selective herbicides as per label directions. Uptake™ Spraying Oil 582 g/L paraffinic oil + 208 g/L non-ionic surfactants Dow AgroSciences Spreading/wetting agent for many selective herbicides e.g. Topik®, Verdict™ 520. Hotwire® Spraying Oil 598 g/L paraffinic oil + 210 g/L non-ionic surfactants Farmoz Spreading/wetting agent for many selective herbicides. Bonza® 471 g/L paraffin oil Nufarm Spreading/wetting agent for certain herbicides. Caltex Broadcoat® 861 g/L petroleum oil Caltex Adjuvant/wetting agent. Used with certain non-selective herbicides. Kwickin™/Impel™ 704 g/L methyl and ethyl canolate and 196 g/L blend of surfactants, sorbitan esters and vegetable oil ethoxylate GullfAg/ Nufarm Improves penetration. Used with certain post-emergent herbicides. Hasten™ 704 g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil + surfactant >15% Victorian Chemical Co. Wetting/spreading/penetrating agent for certain post-emergent herbicides. Activoil® 704 g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil. SST Products Improves penetration. Used with certain post-emergent herbicides. Intac® Ag Oil 820 g/L canola oil Nipro Products Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Supa Stik® Oil 840 g/L canola oil Agrichem Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Protec® Plus 700 g/L canola oil extract Grevillia Ag Improves droplet deposition, uptake. Used with non and selective herbicides. Codacide® Organic 860 g/L vegetable oil Microcide Suitable for use with certain non-selective herbicides. Synertrol® Broadacre 780 g/L emulsified vegetable oil Organic Crop Protectants Wetter, spreader and penetrant compatible with most herbicides. Ad-Here™ 970 g/L mineral oil Victorian Chemical Co. Adjuvant for Select®, Verdict™, Sertin® 186 EC, Express®. Supercharge® 471 g/L paraffin oil Crop Care Designed for use with Achieve® WG, Falcon® WG Amplify® 432 g/L mineral oil Farmoz Designed for use with Farmoz Pentagon® herbicide. D-C-Trate® 763 g/L petroleum oil Caltex Anti-evaporant/wetting agent used with certain herbicides. DC Tron™ 991 g/L petroleum oil Caltex See label. Surfactant Agral® 600 600 g/L non-ionic surfactant Crop Care Wetting/spreading agent, for most selective and non selective herbicides. Wetter TX® 1040 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Used with Roundup® when treating certain grasses. BS1000®/Deltawet® 1000 1000 g/L alkoxylated alcohol Crop Care/Tasman Chemicals Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Hot-up® 340 g/L non-ionic + 190 g/L mineral oil + 140 g/L ammonium sulfate Victorian Chemical Co Wetting, penetrating, reduce antagonism of non-selective herbicides. Activator® 900 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Wetting agent. Used with most non and selective herbicides. Wetter 1000 1003 g/L non-ionic ethoxylates Chemag Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Wetspray® 600 600 g/L non-ionic surfactant Farmoz Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Wetspray® 1000 1000 g/L non-ionic surfactant Farmoz Wetting spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Chemwet® 1000 1000 g/L non-ionic ethoxylates Nufarm Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Agri-Wett® 77 377 g/L nonylphenol ethylene Agrichem Wetting/spreading agent, for most non and selective herbicides. Bond® Adjuvant 450 g/L synthetic latex + 100 g/L non-ionic surfactant Nufarm Used when the addition of a sticker, spreader and deposit agent is required. Compatability agent Liase®/Liquid Assist 417 g/L ammonium sulfate Nufarm/Rutec Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Response®/Enhanzar® 425 g/L ammonium sulfate Landmark/Western Stock Distributors Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Alltask Benefit® 425 g/L ammonium sulfate Landmark Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Liquid Boost® 417 g/L ammonium sulfate GullfAg Minimise antagonism. For use with glyphosate herbicides. Bonus® 250 g/L ammonium sulfate + 188.5 g/L alkylethoxyphosphate Nufarm Designed for use with Nufarm Credit® broadhectare only. Acidifying/buffering agents LI 700®/Delta Lipro® 700 350 g/L soyal phospholipids + 350 g/L propionic acid Nufarm/Tasman Chemicals Wetter, spreader, acidifier, compatible with most herbicides except sulfonylureas. Primabuff® 266.2 g/L nonoxinol-9 375.1 g/L phosphoric acid derivatives Crop Care Penetrant, buffering, acidifying, compatibility aid, used with certain non- selectives. Agri-Buffa® 430 g/L phosphate esters, 100 g/L polyalkylene oxide Agrichem Wetter, spreader, acidifier, compatible with most herbicides.

115. 2 © State of New South Wales through Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services 2014. You may copy, distribute, display, download and otherwise freely deal with this publication for any purpose, provided that you attribute the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services as the owner. However, you must obtain permission if you wish to charge others for access to the publication (other than at cost); include the publication in advertising or a product for sale; modify the publication; or republish the publication on a website. You may freely link to the publication on a departmental website. ISSN 0812-907X Published by the NSW Department of Primary Industries, a part of the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services. Disclaimer The information contained in this publication is based on knowledge and understanding at the time of writing (March 2014). However, because of advances in knowledge, users are reminded of the need to ensure that the information upon which they rely is up to date and to check the currency of the information with the appropriate officer of the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services or the user’s independent adviser. The product trade names in this publication are supplied on the understanding that no preference between equivalent products is intended and that the inclusion of a product name does not imply endorsement by the department over any equivalent product from another manufacturer. Recognising that some of the information in this document is provided by third parties, the State of New South Wales, the author and the publisher take no responsibility for the accuracy, currency, reliability and correctness of any information included in the document provided by third parties. Always read the label Users of agricultural chemical products must always read the label and any permit before using the product, and strictly comply with the directions on the label and the conditions of any permit. Users are not absolved from any compliance with the directions on the label or the conditions of the permit by reason of any statement made or omitted to be made in this publication. Acknowledgements The contributions of the district agronomists, Peter Matthews (Technical Specialist Grain Services); Tony Cook (Technical Specialist Weeds, Tamworth); Jenene Kidston, (Technical Specialist, Farm Chemicals, Orange); Peter Lockley, (Technical Manager, Wagga Wagga) and the various chemical companies, are most appreciated. Cover design by Belinda Keen and production by Barry Jensen, NSW DPI, Orange. The contribution of Michel Dignand, (formerly NSW DPI), to previous editions is acknowledged. Front cover, main photo: Albus lupin crop, Wass Bros, “The Plains”, Nyngan. Greg Brooke, NSW DPI, Trangie. Small photos, from left: Wild radish seedlings emerging with wheat crop; Paterson’s curse in oats, Dubbo NSW; Canola seedling crop, Wellington NSW; Sheep grazing dual purpose wheat, Wellington NSW. All pictures, Greg Brooke, NSW DPI, Trangie NSW. Illustrations: originals by Alison Chambers and Dianne Gardoll, formerly NSW DPI. Redrawn on computer by Michel Dignand. The Pulse crop growth stages diagrams are reproduced with the permission of Di Holding and Annabel Bowcher, formerly CRC for Australian Weed Management. This publication is a companion to the following guides available in 2014 from your local NSW Department of Primary Industries office: Winter Crop Variety Sowing Guide 2014 and Insect and Mite Control in Field Crops 2013 .

128. 15 Table 3. Rainfastness – stock withholding periods – harvest withholding periods (continued) Herbicide Rainfastness – hours Stock withholding period – days Harvest withholding period – days Hammer® 1 14 Not required when used as directed. Harmony® M Not stated. 14 56 Hoegrass® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Hotshot™ 1 7 Not required when used as directed. Hussar® OD 8 28 Not required when used as directed. Igran® 6 7 cereals 7 cereals Intervix® 2 5 weeks Not required when used as directed. Jaguar® 4 14 Not required when used as directed. Kamba® M 4 7 Not stated. Logran®/Logran® B-power Not stated. pre-emergent 49; post-emergent 14 Not required when used as directed. Lontrel™ Advanced 3 cereals, canola 7 Cereals 70; canola, not required when used as directed. Mataven® 90 4 42 Not stated. MCPA 6 7 Not required when used as directed. Midas® 6 28 Not required when used as directed. Monza® (Post) Immediate rainfall may affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Motsa ™ 1 56 Not required when used as directed on chickpea, faba bean, field pea, lentil and lupin; canola OnDuty® 2 wheat 28, canola 42 Not required when used as directed. Paragon® 4 42 Not required when used as directed. Precept® 2 wheat, oats, triticale, cereal rye 14; barley 28 Not required when used as directed. Prometryn 900 DF – 9 weeks Not required when used as directed. Pyresta® 6 grazing 7 Not required when used as directed. Raptor® 2 field pea 42 Not required when used as directed. Reglone® Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 Canola 4; lentil, chickpea 2; faba bean, field pea not required. Weedmaster® DST® 6 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Weedmaster® Argo® 1 Not required when used as directed. 7 wheat and pulses, other uses not required when used as directed. Sakura® 2 42 Not required when used as directed. Shogun® 1 Vetch 3 Faba bean 49; safflower 140; chickpea, field pea, lentil 84; lupin 105; canola, linseed 112 Status® 1 56 Canola; chickpea, faba bean,field pea, lentil, lupin not required when used as directed Sencor® 6 14 Not required when used as directed. Sharpen® 1 Do not allow livestock to graze treated weeds. Not required when used as directed. Refer also to tankmix products. Simazine On firm seedbeds light rain after use usually enhances activity. Chickpea 63; faba bean 56; canola 105 Faba bean 161 Sniper® 4 narrow-leafed lupin 42; fieldpea 28 Not required when used as directed. Spinnaker® 700 WDG 2 14 Not required when used as directed. Spray . Seed® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 Not stated. Starane™ Advanced 1 7 Not stated. Stomp® 440 Light rain after application does not generally affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Terbyne® – 6 weeks Not required when used as directed. Tigrex® 4 7 refer to label for grazing precautions. Not required when used as directed. Topik® 2 28 Not required when used as directed. Tordon™ 242 4 7 Not required when used as directed. FallowMaster™ Tordon™ 4 7 Cereal 70; canola 84 Torpedo™ 3 7 Not required when used as directed. Touchdown® Hi Tech 2 Cereals and pulses 7; nil other uses Cereals and pulses 7; nil other uses Triflur® X Light rain after incorporation will not affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not stated. Trifolamine® 4 7 Not stated. Tristar® Advance 4 cereals 49 Not required when used as directed. Valor® Not stated 42 Not required when used as directed. Velocity® 2 5 weeks Not required when used as directed. Verdict™ 520 1 Medic, clover 7; lucerne 21; vetch, canola lupin, chickpea, faba bean, field pea 28 Not required when used as directed. Wildcat® 110 EC 4 21 wheat, triticale and cereal rye 70 2,4-D amine /2,4-D ester 6 7 Not required when used as directed. 2,4-DB 24 7 Not stated. N/A = Not applicable, as it is a pre-emergent treatment. ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 .

1. www.dpi.nsw.gov.au Weed control in winter crops 201 4 Greg Brooke and Colin McMaster NSW DPI MANAGEMENT GUIDE Weed control in winter crops 2 0 1 4

3. Greg Brooke Research and Development Agronomist, Trangie NSW Department of Primary Industries greg.brooke@dpi.nsw.gov.au Colin McMaster Research and Development Agronomist, Cowra NSW Department of Primary Industries colin.mcmaster@dpi.nsw.gov.au www.dpi.nsw.gov.au Weed control in winter crops 2014 NSW DPI MANAGEMENT GUIDE

96. 94 Table 33. Winter crop herbicide/insecticide compatibilities This chart is a guide only. Read both product labels if using a mixture FORMULATION ACTIVE PRODUCT ACHIEVE® ALLY® ALPHA CYPERMETHERIN AMICIDE® 625 ATLANTIS® AVADEX® AXIAL® BASAGRAN BIFENTHRIN BLADEX® B R AVO® BROADSTRIKE™ BRODAL® BROMICIDE® 200 BROMICIDE® MA BUCTRIL® MA BUTRESS® CADENCE® CHEETAH® GOLD CHLORPYRIFOS CONCLUDE™ CORRECT® CRUSADER™ DECISION® DELTAMETHRIN DIMETHOATE DITHANE™ DIURON water dispersible granule tralkoxydim Achieve® Herbicide N C C N C suspension concentrate terbutryn + MCPA as K salt Agtryne® MA N C                           water dispersible granule metsulfuron-methyl Ally® Herbicide N C C C C C C C soluble concentrate 2,4-D as dimethylamine and monomethylamine salts Amicide® 700                             C suspension concentrate mesosulfuron-methyl + mefenpyr-diethyl Atlantis® OD                   C     N   C     emulsifiable concentrates tri-allate Avadex® Xtra                               emulsifiable concentrates pinoxaden + cloquintocet-mexyl Axial®                             water dispersible granule isoxaflutole Balance® 750 Herbicide C water dispersible granule cyanazine Bladex® 900 Herbicide emulsifiable concentrates prosulfocarb +S-metolachlor Boxer Gold®   C C C   C                 C   C     suspension concentrate chlorothalonil Bravo® Fungicide water dispersible granule flumetsulam Broadstrike™ Herbicide C C C C C C C suspension concentrate diflufenican Brodal® Options Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil noe Bromicide® 200 Herbicide C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil + MCPA noe Bromicide® MA Herbicide C C C C N C C soluble concentrate 2,4-DB dma (amine)** Buttress® C N C C water dispersible granule dicamba as Na salt** Cadence® Herbicide N C C N C emulsifiable concentrates diclofop-methyl + sethoxydim +fenoxaprop-P-ethyl + others Cheetah® Gold           C       C             suspension emulsion florasulam + MCPA Conclude™ C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate propaquizafop Correct®/Shogun® 100 Herbicide N N oil dispersible liquid cloquintocet-mexyl + pyroxsulam Crusader™ C C C N N emulsifiable concentrates diclofop-methyl + sethoxydim + mefenpyr-diethyl Decision® N   N                           emulsifiable concentrate dimethoate Dimethoate Insecticide C C C C C C wettable powder mancozeb** Dithane™ M-45® Fungicide suspension concentrate diuron* Diuron Liquid Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrates S-metolachlor Dual Gold®       C                         emulsifiable concentrate oryzalin + trifluralin Duet® 250 Herbicide water dispersible granule metosulam Eclipse® Herbicide C C C C C C C C suspension concentrate pyraflufen-ethyl Ecopar® N C                           emulsifiable concentrate alpha-cypermethrin Fastac Duo® Insecticide C C C C C soluble concentrate imazapic as ammonium Flame®   C C                 N         emulsifiable concentrate picolinafen + bromoxynil + MCPA Flight® EC C C emulsifiable concentrate fluazifop* Fusilade® Herbicide emulsifiable concentrate triclopyr Garlon™ 600 suspension concentrate atrazine* Gesaprim® 600 Herbicide C C suspension concentrate simazine* Gesatop® 600 Herbicide C C C wettable powder chlorsulfuron Glean® Herbicide N C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate oxyfluorfen Goal® Herbicide soluble concentrate paraquat Gramoxone® 250 Herbicide C C C emulsifiable concentrate triclopyr + picloram + aminopyralid Grazon™ Extra Herbicide C emulsifiable concentrates carfentrazone-ethyl Hammer®     C                           water dispersible granule thifensulfuron-methyl + metsulfuron-methyl Harmony® M Herbicide N emulsifiable concentrate diclofop Hoegrass® 500 Herbicide N C C C C C emulsifiable concentrates aminopyralid as tipa +fluroxypyr as mhe Hotshot™   C                     C       water dispersable granules iodosulfuron-methyl-Na +mefenpyr-diethyl Hussar®   N N       N     N N     N         suspension concentrate terbutryn Igran® 500 Herbicide C C C N emulsifiable concentrate phosmet Imidan® Insecticide C C soluble concentrate imazamox as ammonium +imazapyr as ammonium Intervix®                               emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil octanoate Jaguar® Herbicide C N C C C C N C C = Compatible. N = Not compatible. Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern (both crop and weeds), rate, surfactant/compatibility agent and temperature. Water quality also affects compatibility. Mixtures generally require greater agitation. Mixing more than two chemicals affects compatibility and is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation (9/05). Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of both labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. * WG formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. ** Other formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. *** DO NOT mix with selective grass herbicides.

209. 96 Table 33. Winter crop herbicide/insecticide compatibilities (continued) This chart is a guide only. Read both product labels if using a mixture FORMULATION ACTIVE PRODUCT ACHIEVE® ALLY® ALPHA CYPERMETHERIN AMICIDE® ADVANCE 700 ATLANTIS® OD AVADEX® AXIAL® BASAGRAN BIFENTHRIN BLADEX® B R AVO® BROADSTRIKE™ BRODAL® BROMICIDE® 200 BROMICIDE® MA BUCTRIL® MA BUTRESS® CADENCE® CHEETAH® GOLD CHLORPYRIFOS CONCLUDE™ CORRECT® CRUSADER™ DECISION® DELTAMETHERIN DIMETHOATE DITHANE™ DIURON soluble concentrate dicamba dma Kamba® 500 Herbicide N C C C C N C soluble concentrate dicamba dma + MCPA dma Kamba® M Herbicide N C N N soluble concentrate omethoate Le-Mat® 290 Insecticide C C C C C C C water dispersible granule triasulfuron Logran® 750 Herbicide C C C C water dispersable granules butafenacil + triasulfuron Logran® B Power                               soluble concentrate clopyralid** Lontrel™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate chlorpyrifos* Lorsban™ 300/500 Insecticide C C C C N N C N C C emulsifiable concentrate MCPA ioe (ester)** LVE MCPA C C C C C C N C C emulsifiable concentrates 2,4-D as ehe Estercide Xtra 680   C                           emulsifiable concentrate flamprop-M-methyl Mataven® 90 Herbicide N soluble concentrate MCPA dma (amine)** MCPA 500 Herbicide N C C C C C C C N N C C emulsifiable concentrates MCPA + Imazapic + Imazapyr Midas®                         C     water dispersable granules sulfosulfuron Monza® N   C               N   N     emulsifiable concentrate picolinafen + MCPA ehe (ester) Paragon® Herbicide C N C emulsifiable concentrates pyrasulfotole +MCPA as 2-ehe +mefenpyr-diethyl Precept® 300 C C N C   C                 C   C C C     water dispersible granule prometryn Prometryn 900DF water dispersible granule imazamox*** Raptor® Herbicide C soluble concentrate glyphosate dual salt** Weedmaster® DST® Herbicide C C C C C C C water soluble granules glyphosate mas** Weedmaster® Argo® C C C C C C C soluble concentrate glyphosate as K salt** Roundup Ultra® Max Herbicide C C C C C C water soluble granules pyroxasulfone Sakura® C C C C emulsifiable concentrate clethodim Status® Herbicide N C suspension concentrate metribuzin* Sencor® 480 Herbicide C N water dispersible granule picolinafen Sniper® Herbicide C water dispersible granule imazethapyr*** Spinnaker® 700 Herbicide C C C C C soluble concentrate paraquat + diquat Spray.Seed® 250 Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate fluroxypyr Starane™ Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate pendimethalin** Stomp® 330 Herbicide C C C emulsifiable concentrate methidathion Supracide® 400 Insecticide soluble concentrate 2,4-D ipa (amine)** Surpass® 300 Herbicide N C C C N C C emulsifiable concentrate bifenthrin** Talstar® 100 Insecticide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate quizalofop** Targa® Herbicide C C water dispersible granule terbuthylazine Terbyne® emulsifiable concentrate diflufenican + MCPA ehe (ester) Tigrex® Herbicide C C C C C C C C N C emulsifiable concentrate clodinafop Topik® 240 Herbicide C C C N N soluble concentrate MCPA + picloram as K salts Tordon™ 242 Herbicide N C C N C soluble concentrate 2,4-D + picloram as tipa (amine) Tordon™ 75D Herbicide N C C N suspension concentrate clopyralid as mea + florasulam Torpedo™   C           C C C             emulsifiable concentrate trifluralin Treflan™ Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate diclofop + fenoxaprop Tristar® Advance Herbicide N C C water dispersible granule flumioxazin Valor® emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole Velocity® **** C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate haloxyfop Verdict™ 520 Herbicide C N C C emulsifiable concentrate fenoxaprop + mefanpyr-diethyl Wildcat® Herbicide C C N N C = Compatible. N = Not compatible. Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern (both crop and weeds), rate, surfactant/compatibility agent and temperature. Water quality also affects compatibility. Mixtures generally require greater agitation. Mixing more than two chemicals affects compatibility and is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation (4/13). Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of both labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. * WG formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. ** Other formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. *** DO NOT mix with selective grass herbicides. **** Check label for compatible mixing rates and effect on weeds.

99. 97 Herbicide compatibilities PRODUCT ECLIPSE® FASTAC DUO® FUSILADE® TORDON™ GESAPRIM® GESATOP® GLEAN® GOAL® GRAMOXONE® GRAZON™ HAMMER® HARMONY® HOEGRASS® HOTSHOT™ HUSSAR® IGRAN® IMIDAN® JAGUAR® KAMBA® 500 KAMBA® M KARATE® LE-MAT® LOGRAN® LOGRAN® B-POWER LONTREL™ LORSBAN™ LVE MCPA MATAVEN® MCPA 500 MONZA® OMETHOATE ONDUTY® PARAGON® PROMETRYN 900DF RAPTOR® ROUNDUP® CT ROUNDUP® DRY ROUNDUP POWERMAX™ SELECT® SENCOR® SERTIN® SNIPER® SPINNAKER® SPRAY.SEED STARANE™ STOMP® SUPRACIDE® SURPASS® TALSTAR® TARGA® TERBYNE® TIGREX® TOPIK® TORDON™ 242 TORDON™ 75D TREFLAN™ TRISTAR® ADVANCE VERDICT™ 520 WILDCAT® Kamba® 500 Herbicide C C C C C N C C C C C C C Kamba® M Herbicide C C C N C Le-Mat® 290 Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Logran® 750 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C N C Logran® B Power                                                       C   C           C                             Lontrel™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Lorsban™ 300/500 Insecticide C C C C C C C N N C N N N C C C C C C N C N N C C LVE MCPA C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C C C C N C C LV Ester 600             C                 C     C                 C   C           C                             Mataven® 90 Herbicide C N MCPA 500 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C N C N C C C C C C N Midas®   C                                             C                                                     Monza®                       N N     N   N   C   C           C   C           C             C               Paragon® Herbicide C C C C C N N C C C Precept® 300   C                    C C           C   C         C                                C       C       C   C Prometryn 900DF C C C Raptor® Herbicide C C C C C C C Weedmaster® DST® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Weedmaster® Argo® C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Roundup Ultra® Max Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Sakura® C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Select® Herbicide C C C C C C C Sencor® 480 Herbicide C N C C C C Sniper® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C Spinnaker® 700 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C Spray.Seed® 250 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Starane™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Stomp® 330 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C Supracide® 400 Insecticide C C C Surpass® 300 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C N Talstar® 100 Insecticide C C C C C C C C C Targa® Herbicide C C C C C C Terbyne® C C C C C C Tigrex® Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C C C C C C Topik® 240 Herbicide C C C C N C C C N C C N Tordon™ 242 Herbicide C C C C N C C N C C C Tordon™ 75D Herbicide C C N C C C C C C C N N Torpedo™                                           C   C                                                     Treflan™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C Tristar® Advance Herbicide C N C C N C C Valor® C C C Velocity® **** C C C C C Verdict™ 520 Herbicide C C C C C C N C C C N N Wildcat® Herbicide C N C C N C C C C C C

114. Greg Brooke Research and Development Agronomist, Trangie NSW Department of Primary Industries greg.brooke@dpi.nsw.gov.au Colin McMaster Research and Development Agronomist, Cowra NSW Department of Primary Industries colin.mcmaster@dpi.nsw.gov.au www.dpi.nsw.gov.au Weed control in winter crops 2014 NSW DPI MANAGEMENT GUIDE

218. 105 Common retail prices Table 37. Common retail prices of chemicals used on winter crops (continued) Product name Chemical name Company Price/L or kg (EX GST) ($) Commonly used rate/ha Cost ($/ha) Mataven® 90 Flamprop-M-methyl Nufarm 16.30 2.5 L 40.75 MCPA LVE MCPA LVE 570 g/L Various 11.15 0.7 L 7.81 Midas® MCPA + imazapyr + imazapic Nufarm 22.15 0.9 L 19.94 Monza® Sulfosulfuron Nufarm 950.00 25 g 23.75 Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA Nufarm 31.94 0.25 L 7.98 Pantera® Quizalofop-P-tefuryl Crompton 37.00 0.25 L 9.25 Precept® 300 EC Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 125 g/L Bayer CropScience 30.03 0.5 L 15.01 Pyresta® Pyraflufen-Ethyl 2.1 g/L + 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Sipcam 14.95 0.5 L 7.48 Raptor® Imazamox 700 g/kg Crop Care 690.88 45 g 31.09 Reglone® Diquat Syngenta 16.25 2.0 L 32.50 Roundup® Attack™ Glyphosate 570 g/L Nufarm 7.97 0.95 7.57 Glyphosate 450 Glyphosate 450 g/L Various 5.32 1.0 L 5.32 Sakura® 850 WG Pyroxasulfone 850 g/kg Bayer CropScience 325.00 118 g 38.35 Sencor®750 Metribuzin 750 g/kg Bayer CropScience 27.50 0.28 kg 7.70 Select® Clethodim Sumitomo Chemical 12.36 0.3 L 3.71 Sharpen Saflufenacil Nufarm 735.00 26g 191.10 Simazine 900 Simazine 900 g/kg Various 7.10 1.1 kg 7.81 Simazine 500 F Simazine 500 g/L Various 5.79 2.0 L 11.58 Spray.seed® 250 Paraquat + Diquat Syngenta 9.70 1.6 L 15.51 Spinnaker® 700 WDG Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Nufarm 147.50 70 g 10.33 Starane™ Advanced Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Dow AgroSciences 23.10 0.45 L 10.39 Stomp® Pendimethalin 440 g/L Nufarm 10.87 1.4 L 15.22 Targa® Quizalofop-P-ethyl Sipcam 17.52 0.25 L 4.38 Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA amine 750 g/L Crop Care 8.29 0.96 L 7.96 Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Bayer CropScience 12.01 0.5 L 6.01 Topik® 240 EC Clodinafop-propargyl Syngenta 56.50 85 mL 4.80 Torpedo™ Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Dow AgroSciences 76.21 75 mL 5.72 Triflur® X Trifluralin 480 g/L Nufarm 6.19 0.8 L 4.95 Buttress® 2,4-DB 500 g/L Crop Care/Nufarm 16.91 2.1 L 35.52 Tristar® Advance Diclofop + Fenoxaprop Bayer CropScience 10.00 1.5 L 15.00 Tordon™ 242 Picloram + MCPA Dow AgroSciences 8.04 1.0 L 8.04 Terbyne® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Sipcam 21.00 1 21.00 Tordon™ 75D Picloram + 2,4-D Dow AgroSciences 30.28 0.3 L 9.08 Triathlon® Farmoz 11.75 0.00 Valor® 500 WG Flumioxazin 500 g/kg Sumitomo Chemical 183.33 0.03 5.50 Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L Bayer CropScience 30.27 0.5 L 15.14 Verdict™ 520 Haloxyfop-R Dow AgroSciences 51.02 0.05 L 2.55 Wildcat® 110 Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 110 g/L Bayer CropScience 12.76 0.4 L 5.10 2,4-D Amine 625 g/L Various 5.30 1.2 L 6.35 Common retail prices of adjuvants used on winter crops Agral 600® Wetting agent Syngenta 5.15 0.35 L/100 L 1.80 BS1000® Wetting agent Crop Care/Nufarm 6.20 0.2 L/100 L 1.24 Bonza® Wetting/Spreading Nufarm 7.04 1.0 L/100L 7.04 Caltex Sprayplus® Crop oil Caltex 2.00 2.0 L/100 L 4.00 D-C-Trate® Petroleum Oil Caltex 6.29 2.0 L/100 L 39.56 Hasten™ Crop Oil + surfactant Vic Chemical Co 4.90 1.0 L/100 L 4.90 Liase® Ammonium Sulfate Nufarm 1.95 2.0 L/100 L 3.90 LI 700® Surfactant/Penetrant Nufarm 6.41 0.25 L/100 L 1.60 Uptake™ Spraying Oil Crop Oil Dow AgroSciences 6.72 0.4 L/100 L 2.69 Wetter TX® Surfactant Nufarm 11.52 0.2 L/100 L 2.30 Prices are average retail (excluding GST) and are only a guide. They will vary according to location, availability and quantity purchased.

35. 33 It’s the combination of intelligence and great strength that sets new weedmaster ® ARGO ® apart. It’s strong enough to provide fast knockdown, and smart enough to provide added benefits like a 20 minute commercial rainfast offer* and solve the compatibility issues that affect some other glyphosate products. So mixing it with key partner products like Amicide ® Advance 700 makes powerful one-pass weed control easy. Find out more at weedmasterargo.com.au Copyright 2014. Nufarm Australia Limited ACN 80004377780 ® weedmaster, ARGO, Dual Salt Technology and Amicide are registered trademarks of Nufarm Australia Limited. * weedmaster ARGO delivers commercially acceptable weed control, provided it is applied according to label directions, even just 20 minutes prior to a shower. If weed control fails, Nufarm will replace up to 100% of your initial use amount of weedmaster ARGO for re-treatment. Contact your local reseller or Nufarm on www.nufarm.com/AU/SalesService for claims. Benefits provided to the farmers by this Rainfast Offer are in addition to other rights and remedies available to the consumer under the law. No one knows glyphosate better than Nufarm. NUF0102 EXPERIENCE THE POWER OF A SMARTER GLYPHOSATE NUF0102_ARGO_A4_FA.indd 1 30/01/14 9:29 AM

146. It’s the combination of intelligence and great strength that sets new weedmaster ® ARGO ® apart. It’s strong enough to provide fast knockdown, and smart enough to provide added benefits like a 20 minute commercial rainfast offer* and solve the compatibility issues that affect some other glyphosate products. So mixing it with key partner products like Amicide ® Advance 700 makes powerful one-pass weed control easy. Find out more at weedmasterargo.com.au Copyright 2014. Nufarm Australia Limited ACN 80004377780 ® weedmaster, ARGO, Dual Salt Technology and Amicide are registered trademarks of Nufarm Australia Limited. * weedmaster ARGO delivers commercially acceptable weed control, provided it is applied according to label directions, even just 20 minutes prior to a shower. If weed control fails, Nufarm will replace up to 100% of your initial use amount of weedmaster ARGO for re-treatment. Contact your local reseller or Nufarm on www.nufarm.com/AU/SalesService for claims. Benefits provided to the farmers by this Rainfast Offer are in addition to other rights and remedies available to the consumer under the law. No one knows glyphosate better than Nufarm. NUF0102 EXPERIENCE THE POWER OF A SMARTER GLYPHOSATE NUF0102_ARGO_A4_FA.indd 1 30/01/14 9:29 AM

44. 42 Table 7. Herbicides for pre-emergent and post-sowing pre-emergent weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Butafenacil + Triasulfuron 200 + 520 g/kg Sulfosulfuron 750 g/kg Trifluralin 480 g/L Pendimethalin 440 g/L Oryzalin + Trifluralin 125 + 125 g/L Prosulfocarb 800 g/L + S-Metolachlor 120 g/L Pyroxasulfone 850 g/kg Triallate 500 g/L S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Metolachlor 960 g/L Clopyralid 600 g/L Glean® Logran® 750 Logran® B–power Monza® Wheat and triticale only Triflur® X Stomp® 440 j Duet® 250 EC Boxer® Gold Sakura® 850 WG Wheat and triticale only, not durum Avadex® Xtra Dual Gold® Clincher® Plus Lontrel ™ Advanced h Incorporation PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI IBS IBS PSI IBS IBS PSPE IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE Crop type TW W only W only TW only AC not O B, W, FP, CH B, W, C W, B W, T AC not O WC WC WC, C aircraft (A) or boom (B) AB AB B AB B AB B B B B B B AB Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 15 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Not before undersowing pasture legumes. Only use before sowing wheat or triticale. 30 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Wheat only. Not before undersowing legumes. 50 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Wheat only. Not before undersowing legumes. – Apply to bare soil prior to or at sowing, and incorporate by sowing. Not where legumes undersown. Rain required within 7–10 days for best results. 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z Not on oats. In conventional systems, apply 1–4 weeks before sowing and incorporate within 4 hours. In no-till systems and IBS incorporate within 24 hours. For best results incorporate as close to application as practically possible. Sow 5 cm deep. Triflur® X can be used with wheat, barley and triticale in no-till systems at 1.5–3.0 L /ha incorporated by sowing with narrow points and press wheels.(see label) – Read label as appropriate rates differ with location, crop type, soil type and incorporation method. – Use 1.6 L rate for conventional cultivation and either incorporate before sowing or incorporate with full disturbance by sowing. Use 2.3 L rate for direct drill and incorporate by sowing with full disturbance. See label. Sow cereal seed to minimum 5 cm depth. 1.5–2.5 c (S) – Apply and incorporate by sowing as soon as possible and no longer than 3 days after application. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Apply to moist seedbed. Use lower rates on light soils. Sufficient rain is required within 10 days after spraying is spraying PSPE. See label. – Apply to moist seedbed. Use lower rates on light soils. Sufficient rain is required within 10 days after spraying is spraying PSPE. See label. – Observe plant-back with both cereal and broadleaf crops. Lontrel™ can bind tightly to stubble. See Table 1. annual phalaris 20 b 35 50 u 25 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c 118 – – – – annual ryegrass 15 or 20 35 50 u 25 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 118 b 0.375–0.5 (S) v 0.565–0.75 (S) v – barley grass 20 b – – 25 (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 (S) c or 2.5 (S) 118 – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – brome grass 20(S) – – 25 (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 c (S) 118 (S) – – – – caltrop – – – – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – – – – – – – capeweed 20 35 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – crassula – – – – – – – 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 – – – – – corn gromwell 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – – – – – – – – deadnettle 15 or 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c (S) – – – – – dock 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – faba bean – volunteer – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) fieldpea – volunteer – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – – fumitory 15 or 20 30 50 25 b 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.5–2.5 c – – – – – lesser swine cress – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mexican poppy – 35(S) 50 (S) – – – – – – – – – – mintweed 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards 15 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – New Zealand spinach – – 50 – – – – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse 15 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – – phalaris – perennial – – – – – – – – – – – – – rough poppy 15 or 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 c (S) – – – – – radish – wild – 35 (S) 50 u(S) – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle 20 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – –

207. 94 Table 33. Winter crop herbicide/insecticide compatibilities This chart is a guide only. Read both product labels if using a mixture FORMULATION ACTIVE PRODUCT ACHIEVE® ALLY® ALPHA CYPERMETHERIN AMICIDE® 625 ATLANTIS® AVADEX® AXIAL® BASAGRAN BIFENTHRIN BLADEX® B R AVO® BROADSTRIKE™ BRODAL® BROMICIDE® 200 BROMICIDE® MA BUCTRIL® MA BUTRESS® CADENCE® CHEETAH® GOLD CHLORPYRIFOS CONCLUDE™ CORRECT® CRUSADER™ DECISION® DELTAMETHRIN DIMETHOATE DITHANE™ DIURON water dispersible granule tralkoxydim Achieve® Herbicide N C C N C suspension concentrate terbutryn + MCPA as K salt Agtryne® MA N C                           water dispersible granule metsulfuron-methyl Ally® Herbicide N C C C C C C C soluble concentrate 2,4-D as dimethylamine and monomethylamine salts Amicide® 700                             C suspension concentrate mesosulfuron-methyl + mefenpyr-diethyl Atlantis® OD                   C     N   C     emulsifiable concentrates tri-allate Avadex® Xtra                               emulsifiable concentrates pinoxaden + cloquintocet-mexyl Axial®                             water dispersible granule isoxaflutole Balance® 750 Herbicide C water dispersible granule cyanazine Bladex® 900 Herbicide emulsifiable concentrates prosulfocarb +S-metolachlor Boxer Gold®   C C C   C                 C   C     suspension concentrate chlorothalonil Bravo® Fungicide water dispersible granule flumetsulam Broadstrike™ Herbicide C C C C C C C suspension concentrate diflufenican Brodal® Options Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil noe Bromicide® 200 Herbicide C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil + MCPA noe Bromicide® MA Herbicide C C C C N C C soluble concentrate 2,4-DB dma (amine)** Buttress® C N C C water dispersible granule dicamba as Na salt** Cadence® Herbicide N C C N C emulsifiable concentrates diclofop-methyl + sethoxydim +fenoxaprop-P-ethyl + others Cheetah® Gold           C       C             suspension emulsion florasulam + MCPA Conclude™ C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate propaquizafop Correct®/Shogun® 100 Herbicide N N oil dispersible liquid cloquintocet-mexyl + pyroxsulam Crusader™ C C C N N emulsifiable concentrates diclofop-methyl + sethoxydim + mefenpyr-diethyl Decision® N   N                           emulsifiable concentrate dimethoate Dimethoate Insecticide C C C C C C wettable powder mancozeb** Dithane™ M-45® Fungicide suspension concentrate diuron* Diuron Liquid Herbicide C C C C emulsifiable concentrates S-metolachlor Dual Gold®       C                         emulsifiable concentrate oryzalin + trifluralin Duet® 250 Herbicide water dispersible granule metosulam Eclipse® Herbicide C C C C C C C C suspension concentrate pyraflufen-ethyl Ecopar® N C                           emulsifiable concentrate alpha-cypermethrin Fastac Duo® Insecticide C C C C C soluble concentrate imazapic as ammonium Flame®   C C                 N         emulsifiable concentrate picolinafen + bromoxynil + MCPA Flight® EC C C emulsifiable concentrate fluazifop* Fusilade® Herbicide emulsifiable concentrate triclopyr Garlon™ 600 suspension concentrate atrazine* Gesaprim® 600 Herbicide C C suspension concentrate simazine* Gesatop® 600 Herbicide C C C wettable powder chlorsulfuron Glean® Herbicide N C C C C C C emulsifiable concentrate oxyfluorfen Goal® Herbicide soluble concentrate paraquat Gramoxone® 250 Herbicide C C C emulsifiable concentrate triclopyr + picloram + aminopyralid Grazon™ Extra Herbicide C emulsifiable concentrates carfentrazone-ethyl Hammer®     C                           water dispersible granule thifensulfuron-methyl + metsulfuron-methyl Harmony® M Herbicide N emulsifiable concentrate diclofop Hoegrass® 500 Herbicide N C C C C C emulsifiable concentrates aminopyralid as tipa +fluroxypyr as mhe Hotshot™   C                     C       water dispersable granules iodosulfuron-methyl-Na +mefenpyr-diethyl Hussar®   N N       N     N N     N         suspension concentrate terbutryn Igran® 500 Herbicide C C C N emulsifiable concentrate phosmet Imidan® Insecticide C C soluble concentrate imazamox as ammonium +imazapyr as ammonium Intervix®                               emulsifiable concentrate bromoxynil octanoate Jaguar® Herbicide C N C C C C N C C = Compatible. N = Not compatible. Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern (both crop and weeds), rate, surfactant/compatibility agent and temperature. Water quality also affects compatibility. Mixtures generally require greater agitation. Mixing more than two chemicals affects compatibility and is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation (9/05). Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of both labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. * WG formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. ** Other formulations also available; check labels for compatibilities. *** DO NOT mix with selective grass herbicides.

57. Give’em the sucker punch! ®™ T rademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. For more information call 1800 700 096 www.dowagrosciences.com.au • Outstanding aphid control • Approved for use in canola and all winter cereals • E ffective across a wide range of temperatures • New Mode of Action (Group 4C)

168. Give’em the sucker punch! ®™ T rademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. For more information call 1800 700 096 www.dowagrosciences.com.au • Outstanding aphid control • Approved for use in canola and all winter cereals • E ffective across a wide range of temperatures • New Mode of Action (Group 4C)

112. Help protect the profit in your customers’ cropping rotation by recommending Sakura. For supporting trial data and other useful information, visit sakuraherbicide.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022 391–393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123 Technical Enquiries: 1800 804 479 enquiries.australia@bayer.com Sakura ® is a Registered Trademark of Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd. BCB0749 Weed control in winter crops 2 0 1 4 12734

223. Help protect the profit in your customers’ cropping rotation by recommending Sakura. For supporting trial data and other useful information, visit sakuraherbicide.com.au Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022 391–393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123 Technical Enquiries: 1800 804 479 enquiries.australia@bayer.com Sakura ® is a Registered Trademark of Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd. BCB0749 Weed control in winter crops 2 0 1 4 12734

97. 95 Herbicide compatibilities PRODUCT ECLIPSE® FASTAC DUO® FUSILADE® TORDON™ GESAPRIM® GESATOP® GLEAN® GOAL® GRAMOXONE® GRAZON™ HAMMER® HARMONY® HOEGRASS® HOTSHOT™ HUSSAR® OD IGRAN® IMIDAN® JAGUAR® KAMBA® 500 KAMBA® M KARATE® LE-MAT® LOGRAN® LOGRAN® B-POWER LONTREL™ LORSBAN™ LVE MCPA MATAVEN® MCPA 500 MONZA® OMETHOATE ONDUTY® PARAGON® PROMETRYN 900DF RAPTOR® ROUNDUP® CT ROUNDUP® DRY ROUNDUP POWERMAX™ SELECT® SENCOR® SERTIN® SNIPER® SPINNAKER® SPRAYSEED® STARANE™ STOMP® SUPRACIDE® SURPASS® TALSTAR® TARGA® TERBYNE® TIGREX® TOPIK® TORDON™ 242 TORDON™ 75D TREFLAN™ TRISTAR® ADVANCE VERDICT™ 520 WILDCAT® Achieve® Herbicide C C N C N N C C N N C N N Agtryne® MA                       N                                                     Ally® Herbicide C N C N C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C C C C C N C Amicide® 700             C                 C                                       C                             Atlantis® OD                             C      C   C   C                                         C               Avadex® Xtra                                         C       C   C                                         Axial®                                                                                                     Balance® 750 Herbicide C C C C C N Bladex® 900 Herbicide C C C C C C C Boxer® Gold                     C               C   C C                 C   C           C     C               C       Bravo® Fungicide C C Broadstrike™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C C C Brodal® Options Herbicide C C C C C N C C C C C C N Bromicide® 200 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Bromicide® MA Herbicide C C C C C C N C N N N N Buttress® C C C C C C C Cadence® Herbicide C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C Cheetah® Gold C                           C     C   C   C   N                                      C               Conclude™ C C C C N C Correct® 100 Herbicide N C N N N C N C N N N N Crusader™ C N N N C N C N Decision®                         N                   C                                         C               Dimethoate Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Dithane™ M-45® Fungicide C C C Diuron Liquid Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N C Dual Gold®         C                           C                 C               C                             Duet® 250 Herbicide C C C C C Eclipse® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Ecopar®                       N             C         C                                     N       N   N   Fastac Duo® Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Flame®       C C       C             N                       C   C           C   C                         Flight® EC C C C C C C C C C Fusilade® Herbicide C C C C C Tordon™ 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C Gesaprim® 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C Gesatop® 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Glean® Herbicide C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N N Goal® Herbicide C C C C Gramoxone® 250 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Grazon™ DS Herbicide C C C Hammer®                                     C                 C   C           C   C                 C       Harmony® M Herbicide N C Hoegrass® 500 Herbicide C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C Hotshot™ C           C                             C           C   C             C             C             Hussar® N           N           N           N N C   N     N N                       C           N               Igran® 500 Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C Imidan® Insecticide C C C C C C C C C Intervix®   C                               C   C                     C                                       Jaguar® Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C C C N C C C C N C

210. 97 Herbicide compatibilities PRODUCT ECLIPSE® FASTAC DUO® FUSILADE® TORDON™ GESAPRIM® GESATOP® GLEAN® GOAL® GRAMOXONE® GRAZON™ HAMMER® HARMONY® HOEGRASS® HOTSHOT™ HUSSAR® IGRAN® IMIDAN® JAGUAR® KAMBA® 500 KAMBA® M KARATE® LE-MAT® LOGRAN® LOGRAN® B-POWER LONTREL™ LORSBAN™ LVE MCPA MATAVEN® MCPA 500 MONZA® OMETHOATE ONDUTY® PARAGON® PROMETRYN 900DF RAPTOR® ROUNDUP® CT ROUNDUP® DRY ROUNDUP POWERMAX™ SELECT® SENCOR® SERTIN® SNIPER® SPINNAKER® SPRAY.SEED STARANE™ STOMP® SUPRACIDE® SURPASS® TALSTAR® TARGA® TERBYNE® TIGREX® TOPIK® TORDON™ 242 TORDON™ 75D TREFLAN™ TRISTAR® ADVANCE VERDICT™ 520 WILDCAT® Kamba® 500 Herbicide C C C C C N C C C C C C C Kamba® M Herbicide C C C N C Le-Mat® 290 Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Logran® 750 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C N C Logran® B Power                                                       C   C           C                             Lontrel™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Lorsban™ 300/500 Insecticide C C C C C C C N N C N N N C C C C C C N C N N C C LVE MCPA C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C C C C N C C LV Ester 600             C                 C     C                 C   C           C                             Mataven® 90 Herbicide C N MCPA 500 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C N C N C C C C C C N Midas®   C                                             C                                                     Monza®                       N N     N   N   C   C           C   C           C             C               Paragon® Herbicide C C C C C N N C C C Precept® 300   C                    C C           C   C         C                                C       C       C   C Prometryn 900DF C C C Raptor® Herbicide C C C C C C C Weedmaster® DST® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Weedmaster® Argo® C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Roundup Ultra® Max Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Sakura® C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Select® Herbicide C C C C C C C Sencor® 480 Herbicide C N C C C C Sniper® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C Spinnaker® 700 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C Spray.Seed® 250 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Starane™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Stomp® 330 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C Supracide® 400 Insecticide C C C Surpass® 300 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C N Talstar® 100 Insecticide C C C C C C C C C Targa® Herbicide C C C C C C Terbyne® C C C C C C Tigrex® Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C C C C N C C C C C C C Topik® 240 Herbicide C C C C N C C C N C C N Tordon™ 242 Herbicide C C C C N C C N C C C Tordon™ 75D Herbicide C C N C C C C C C C N N Torpedo™                                           C   C                                                     Treflan™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C Tristar® Advance Herbicide C N C C N C C Valor® C C C Velocity® **** C C C C C Verdict™ 520 Herbicide C C C C C C N C C C N N Wildcat® Herbicide C N C C N C C C C C C

27. 25 Pesticide Application Record Property holding (residential address): Date: Applicator’s full name: Owner (if not applicant): Address: Address Phone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Phone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Sensitive areas (incl distances and buffers): N W E S Comments (incl risk controls for sensitive areas): Paddock no/name: Paddock area: Order paddocks sprayed: Crop/situation: Type of animals: Crop/pasture/variety: Age/growth stage: Growth stage: Mob/paddock/shed: Pest/weed/disease: No animals treated: Pest density/incidence: Heavy  Medium  Light  Full product name: Rate/dose: Water rate (L/ha): Permit no: Expiry date: Adjuvants: Total ha: Total L or kg: WHP: ESI: Date suitable sale: Equipment type: Release height: Speed: Nozzle type*: Pressure: Date last calibrated: Water quality (pH and/or description): Showers  Overcast  Light cloud  Clear sky  Rainfall (24 hours before and after) Before mm During mm After mm Time Temperature RH % Wind speed Direction Variability Start: Finish: Comments: * Include brand and capacity, e.g. TeeJet AI 11002.

10. 8 Growth stages of cereal crops Crop growth stage 2-leaf stage Two leaves (L) have unfolded; third leaf present, yet to fully expand. Start of tillering First tiller (T1) appears from between a lower leaf and the main shoot. Usually 3 or 4 leaves are on the main tiller. Tillering stage Tillers come from the base where leaves join the stem and continue forming, usually until there are 5 leaves on the main shoot. Secondary roots developing. Fully tillered stage Usually no more tillers form after the very young head starts forming in the main tiller. Tillering completed when first node detected at base of main stem. Start of jointing Jointing or node formation starts at the end of tillering. Small swellings – joints – form at the bottom of the main tiller. Heads continue developing and can be seen by dissecting a stem. Early boot stage The last leaf to form – the flag leaf – appears on top of the extended stem. The developing head can be felt as a swelling in the stem. Zadoks decimal code 2 leaves unfolded (Z12). 4 leaves unfolded (Z14). Main shoot and 1 tiller (Z21). 5 leaves on main shoot or stem (Z15). Main shoot and 1 tiller (Z21). 6 leaves on the main shoot or stem (Z16). Main shoot and three tillers and onwards (Z23–Z30). First node formed at base of main tiller (Z31). Z35–Z45. Herbicide spraying stage Suitable stage for spraying many herbicides, but too early for 3-leaf stage. Suitable stage for spraying at the 3–4-leaf stage. Too early for the 5-leaf stage of application. Suitable for spraying many herbicides at the 5-leaf tillering stage. Many herbicides can be sprayed up to the end of tillering. Suitable for 2,4-D spraying. No herbicide should be applied at this stage. Too late for 2,4-D application. • There is no difference between spring wheat varieties sown on the same day in the rate of appearance of new leaves. • At the early boot stage, the last flowering part – the pollen – is being formed. This occurs earlier in barley than in wheat or triticale.

38. 36 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg Imazapic 240 g/L Bromoxynil 200 g/L 2,4-D amine 700 g/L 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg 2,4-D amine 300 g/L 2,4-D LV ester 680 g/L 2,4-D amine 300 g/L + Picloram 75 g/L + 7.5 g/L aminopyralid Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Triclopyr 755 g/L Ally® Flame® Pre-emergent NNSW only Bromicide® 200 Amicide® Advance 700 Baton® Low Various trade names a Estercide® Xtra 680 FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Starane ™ Advanced b Garlon ™ Fallowmaster ™ Note: Use these herbicides with caution when sensitive crops such as cotton, soybeans, grapes etc. are grown nearby. Broadleaf weeds (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) amaranthus – For fallow control, see label for tankmix options with glyphosate products. Add wetting agent as required. Not before undersowing pasture legumes. 0.15–0.2 Fallow residual pre-emergent herbicide. Apply to paddock at least 4 months before planting wheat, barley and chickpea. See Table 2. Best applied to dry soil surface before weeds germinate. Northern NSW only. Requires 200 mm rainfall before planting. – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 Tankmix glyphosate CT or Credit® + surfactant at label rates. 0.8 – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L of spray. When mixing with Roundup® CT to control grasses refer to Roundup® CT label. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Do not use oils when tankmixing with Roundup® CT. See label for melon species, size and chemical rate. amsinckia 5 or 7 – – – – – – – – – blackberry nightshade – – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 – – – – black bindweed – – 1.5 i – – – – – 0.45 h – bladder ketmia – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.3 h – Boggabri weed – 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – – – burrs – Bathurst – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.8–3.3 – 0.45 – burrs – noogoora – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 – – 0.45 – caltrop/yellow vine – 0.15–0.2 – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.62–0.8 – 0.3 h – canola – volunteer – – – 0.88 or 1.2 d 0.4–1.3 t 1.8–2.7 t 0.9–1.3 t – – – capeweed – – – – – – 0.53–0.8 – – – charlock 5 – – 0.35–0.575 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–0.8 – – – chickpea – volunteer 5 – – – – – – – – – chickweed 5 – – – – – – – – – clover 5 – – 0.545–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.62–0.8 – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – cudweed – – – – – – – – – – datura (thornapple) – – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.41–1.7 – 0.45 – deadnettle 5 – – – – – 0.8 – – – docks 5 or 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 1.7–2.5 – – – erodium (storksbill) – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 0.8 – – – fat hen – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 0.8–2.7 0.41–0.8 – – – field pea – volunteer 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – – – fleabane – – – 0.65–1.1 d f j – – – 0.7 – – fumitory 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d – 0.66–1.2 0.8–3.3 – – – ground cherry – annual – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.45 – heliotrope – white – – – – – – – – – – Hexham scent – – – – – – 1.5–1.7 – – – hoary cress – – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–2.1 – – – horehound – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.7 1.7–3.3 – – – lucerne (established) – – – – – 5.0 v – – – – lupin – volunteer 5 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–1.7 – – – marshmallow – – – 0.515–0.745 d – – – – 0.6 – medic 5 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – – – melons – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 0.41–0.18 – – 65–130 e Mexican poppy – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 0.8–1.5 – – – mintweed – 0.15–0.2 – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–1.5 – – – mustards 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.41–2.5 – – –

155. 42 Table 7. Herbicides for pre-emergent and post-sowing pre-emergent weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Butafenacil + Triasulfuron 200 + 520 g/kg Sulfosulfuron 750 g/kg Trifluralin 480 g/L Pendimethalin 440 g/L Oryzalin + Trifluralin 125 + 125 g/L Prosulfocarb 800 g/L + S-Metolachlor 120 g/L Pyroxasulfone 850 g/kg Triallate 500 g/L S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Metolachlor 960 g/L Clopyralid 600 g/L Glean® Logran® 750 Logran® B–power Monza® Wheat and triticale only Triflur® X Stomp® 440 j Duet® 250 EC Boxer® Gold Sakura® 850 WG Wheat and triticale only, not durum Avadex® Xtra Dual Gold® Clincher® Plus Lontrel ™ Advanced h Incorporation PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI IBS IBS PSI IBS IBS PSPE IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE Crop type TW W only W only TW only AC not O B, W, FP, CH B, W, C W, B W, T AC not O WC WC WC, C aircraft (A) or boom (B) AB AB B AB B AB B B B B B B AB Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 15 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Not before undersowing pasture legumes. Only use before sowing wheat or triticale. 30 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Wheat only. Not before undersowing legumes. 50 Apply to level seedbed. Incorporate by sowing. Wheat only. Not before undersowing legumes. – Apply to bare soil prior to or at sowing, and incorporate by sowing. Not where legumes undersown. Rain required within 7–10 days for best results. 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z Not on oats. In conventional systems, apply 1–4 weeks before sowing and incorporate within 4 hours. In no-till systems and IBS incorporate within 24 hours. For best results incorporate as close to application as practically possible. Sow 5 cm deep. Triflur® X can be used with wheat, barley and triticale in no-till systems at 1.5–3.0 L /ha incorporated by sowing with narrow points and press wheels.(see label) – Read label as appropriate rates differ with location, crop type, soil type and incorporation method. – Use 1.6 L rate for conventional cultivation and either incorporate before sowing or incorporate with full disturbance by sowing. Use 2.3 L rate for direct drill and incorporate by sowing with full disturbance. See label. Sow cereal seed to minimum 5 cm depth. 1.5–2.5 c (S) – Apply and incorporate by sowing as soon as possible and no longer than 3 days after application. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Apply to moist seedbed. Use lower rates on light soils. Sufficient rain is required within 10 days after spraying is spraying PSPE. See label. – Apply to moist seedbed. Use lower rates on light soils. Sufficient rain is required within 10 days after spraying is spraying PSPE. See label. – Observe plant-back with both cereal and broadleaf crops. Lontrel™ can bind tightly to stubble. See Table 1. annual phalaris 20 b 35 50 u 25 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c 118 – – – – annual ryegrass 15 or 20 35 50 u 25 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 118 b 0.375–0.5 (S) v 0.565–0.75 (S) v – barley grass 20 b – – 25 (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 (S) c or 2.5 (S) 118 – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – brome grass 20(S) – – 25 (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 c (S) 118 (S) – – – – caltrop – – – – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – – – – – – – – capeweed 20 35 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – crassula – – – – – – – 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 – – – – – corn gromwell 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – – – – – – – – deadnettle 15 or 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c (S) – – – – – dock 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – faba bean – volunteer – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) fieldpea – volunteer – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – – fumitory 15 or 20 30 50 25 b 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.5–2.5 c – – – – – lesser swine cress – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mexican poppy – 35(S) 50 (S) – – – – – – – – – – mintweed 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards 15 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – New Zealand spinach – – 50 – – – – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse 15 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – – phalaris – perennial – – – – – – – – – – – – – rough poppy 15 or 20 30 50 – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) z – – 1.5–2.5 c (S) – – – – – radish – wild – 35 (S) 50 u(S) – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle 20 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – –

95. 93 Herbicide compatibilities Table 32. Herbicide tolerance testing – Other crops Species Varieties tested Years tested Herbicides tested Results/comments Chickpea Amythest, Bumper|Lassiter 1998 Broadstrike™, Sencor®, Sertin®, Simazine PSPE, Verdict™ Appeared safe for varieties tested Amythyst Howzat Jimbour 2002 Sencor®, Simazine PSPE, Stomp®, Triflur™ X, Avadex®, Bladex® Appeared safe for varieties tested Broadstrike™ Yield loss Jimbour at normal rate Flipper Genesis 90 Genesis 509 2009 2010 Broadstrike™, Avadex® Yield loss Genesis 509 at normal rate Sencor® Yield loss Genesis 90 at normal rate Bladex® Narrow safety margin Genesis 90 Avadex® Yield loss Flipper at normal rate (1 trial) Terbyne® Appeared safe for varieties tested (1 trial) Faba bean Fiesta Barkool Icarus 1998 to 2000 Verdict™, Targa®, Sertin® Appeared safe for varieties tested Sencor® Narrow safety margin Fiesta, Barkool Spinnaker® + Simazine + Sencor® Narrow for all varieties Simazine PSPE Narrow safety margin Fiesta and Icarus Fiesta Manafest Fiord 2002 to 2003 Sencor® Narrow safety margin all varieties Simazine PSPE Narrow safety margin Fiesta Spinnaker® PSPE Yield loss Fiord at normal rate (1 trial) Avadex® IBS Appeared safe for varieties tested Farrah Fiesta Nura 2008 to 2010 Sencor®, Simazine PSPE, Bladex® Narrow safety margin in 2008 Avadex® IBS Narrow margin on Fiesta (’08) and Farrah (’09) Terbyne® IBS Yield loss in one trial only (2010) Juncea Dune 2009 Lontrel™ 750SG Yield reduction at 1X and 2X rate Lentils Nugget Northfield 2001 2002 2004 Triflur™ X, Sertin®, Verdict™, Bladex® Safe for varieties tested. Narrow margin with Bladex® Brodal® Yield loss (1 trial) at normal rate Nugget, Narrow margin for Northfield Broadstrike™ Yield loss Northfield at normal rate (1 trial) Boomer Nipper Northfield 2008 2009 2010 Bladex® Narrow safety margin all varieties Triflur™ X, Brodal® Narrow safety margin Boomer Broadstrike™, Terbyne® Narrow safety margin for Nipper and Northfield Linseed Glenelg 1993 1994 Trifluralin, Bromoxynil MA Significant yield loss in one year Trifluralin Reduced germination, seedling vigour and yield MCPA. Bromoxynil MA, Tordon™ 242 Reduced yield at recommended rate by 0–15% Hoegrass®, Fusilade®, Verdict™ Appeared safe at recommended rates Lupin Wonga Jindalee Quilinock Kiev Mutant 1998 1999 2000 Brodal® Narrow margin Wonga, Kiev Mutant (1 trial) Eclipse® Narrow margin Wonga (2 trials) Sertin®, Verdict™ Safe all varieties (2 trials) Simazine PSPE Safe at normal rates, narrow margin for Kiev Mutant, Jindalee and Wonga Trifluralin PSI Safe all varieties (1 trial) Jindalee Quilinock Wonga Kiev Mutant 2001 2002 2003 Eclipse® Yield loss Wonga at normal rates (2 trials) Narrow margin Quilinock (1 trial) Simazine PSPE Narrow margin Kiev Mutant (1 trial) Verdict™, Trifluralin IBS, Stomp®, Avadex® Verdict™, Avadex® safe (1 trial), Sniper® (2 trials) trifluralin, Stomp® safe (3 trials) all varieties Targa® Narrow margin for Wonga Jindalee Quilinock Wonga Mandelup Kiev Mutant Rosetta, Luxor 2004 2005 2008 2009 2010 Brodal®, Stomp®, Sniper® Appeared safe in these years Eclipse® Yield loss Wonga (1 trial) Narrow safety margin Mandelup, Rosetta Simazine PSPE Yield loss Kiev Mutant (1 trial), narrow safety margin all varieties (1 trial) (Luxor 2 trials) Terbyne® Yield loss in Luxor in 1 trial narrow margin for Mandelup, Rosetta, Wonga Avadex® Yield loss Mandelup (1 trial) at normal rates Safflower S-317 Devexco, Sirothora, Sironaria Pre 1998, 2008 Ally®, Triflur™ X, Stomp® Narrow safety margin Stomp® on S-317 Devexco Hoegrass®, Avadex® Only Sirothora and Sironaria tested, Both appeared safe

121. 8 Growth stages of cereal crops Crop growth stage 2-leaf stage Two leaves (L) have unfolded; third leaf present, yet to fully expand. Start of tillering First tiller (T1) appears from between a lower leaf and the main shoot. Usually 3 or 4 leaves are on the main tiller. Tillering stage Tillers come from the base where leaves join the stem and continue forming, usually until there are 5 leaves on the main shoot. Secondary roots developing. Fully tillered stage Usually no more tillers form after the very young head starts forming in the main tiller. Tillering completed when first node detected at base of main stem. Start of jointing Jointing or node formation starts at the end of tillering. Small swellings – joints – form at the bottom of the main tiller. Heads continue developing and can be seen by dissecting a stem. Early boot stage The last leaf to form – the flag leaf – appears on top of the extended stem. The developing head can be felt as a swelling in the stem. Zadoks decimal code 2 leaves unfolded (Z12). 4 leaves unfolded (Z14). Main shoot and 1 tiller (Z21). 5 leaves on main shoot or stem (Z15). Main shoot and 1 tiller (Z21). 6 leaves on the main shoot or stem (Z16). Main shoot and three tillers and onwards (Z23–Z30). First node formed at base of main tiller (Z31). Z35–Z45. Herbicide spraying stage Suitable stage for spraying many herbicides, but too early for 3-leaf stage. Suitable stage for spraying at the 3–4-leaf stage. Too early for the 5-leaf stage of application. Suitable for spraying many herbicides at the 5-leaf tillering stage. Many herbicides can be sprayed up to the end of tillering. Suitable for 2,4-D spraying. No herbicide should be applied at this stage. Too late for 2,4-D application. • There is no difference between spring wheat varieties sown on the same day in the rate of appearance of new leaves. • At the early boot stage, the last flowering part – the pollen – is being formed. This occurs earlier in barley than in wheat or triticale.

138. 25 Pesticide Application Record Property holding (residential address): Date: Applicator’s full name: Owner (if not applicant): Address: Address Phone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Phone: Mobile: Fax: Email: Sensitive areas (incl distances and buffers): N W E S Comments (incl risk controls for sensitive areas): Paddock no/name: Paddock area: Order paddocks sprayed: Crop/situation: Type of animals: Crop/pasture/variety: Age/growth stage: Growth stage: Mob/paddock/shed: Pest/weed/disease: No animals treated: Pest density/incidence: Heavy  Medium  Light  Full product name: Rate/dose: Water rate (L/ha): Permit no: Expiry date: Adjuvants: Total ha: Total L or kg: WHP: ESI: Date suitable sale: Equipment type: Release height: Speed: Nozzle type*: Pressure: Date last calibrated: Water quality (pH and/or description): Showers  Overcast  Light cloud  Clear sky  Rainfall (24 hours before and after) Before mm During mm After mm Time Temperature RH % Wind speed Direction Variability Start: Finish: Comments: * Include brand and capacity, e.g. TeeJet AI 11002.

149. 36 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg Imazapic 240 g/L Bromoxynil 200 g/L 2,4-D amine 700 g/L 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg 2,4-D amine 300 g/L 2,4-D LV ester 680 g/L 2,4-D amine 300 g/L + Picloram 75 g/L + 7.5 g/L aminopyralid Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Triclopyr 755 g/L Ally® Flame® Pre-emergent NNSW only Bromicide® 200 Amicide® Advance 700 Baton® Low Various trade names a Estercide® Xtra 680 FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Starane ™ Advanced b Garlon ™ Fallowmaster ™ Note: Use these herbicides with caution when sensitive crops such as cotton, soybeans, grapes etc. are grown nearby. Broadleaf weeds (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) amaranthus – For fallow control, see label for tankmix options with glyphosate products. Add wetting agent as required. Not before undersowing pasture legumes. 0.15–0.2 Fallow residual pre-emergent herbicide. Apply to paddock at least 4 months before planting wheat, barley and chickpea. See Table 2. Best applied to dry soil surface before weeds germinate. Northern NSW only. Requires 200 mm rainfall before planting. – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 Tankmix glyphosate CT or Credit® + surfactant at label rates. 0.8 – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L of spray. When mixing with Roundup® CT to control grasses refer to Roundup® CT label. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Do not use oils when tankmixing with Roundup® CT. See label for melon species, size and chemical rate. amsinckia 5 or 7 – – – – – – – – – blackberry nightshade – – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 – – – – black bindweed – – 1.5 i – – – – – 0.45 h – bladder ketmia – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.3 h – Boggabri weed – 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – – – burrs – Bathurst – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.8–3.3 – 0.45 – burrs – noogoora – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 – – 0.45 – caltrop/yellow vine – 0.15–0.2 – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.62–0.8 – 0.3 h – canola – volunteer – – – 0.88 or 1.2 d 0.4–1.3 t 1.8–2.7 t 0.9–1.3 t – – – capeweed – – – – – – 0.53–0.8 – – – charlock 5 – – 0.35–0.575 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–0.8 – – – chickpea – volunteer 5 – – – – – – – – – chickweed 5 – – – – – – – – – clover 5 – – 0.545–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.62–0.8 – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – cudweed – – – – – – – – – – datura (thornapple) – – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.41–1.7 – 0.45 – deadnettle 5 – – – – – 0.8 – – – docks 5 or 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 1.7–2.5 – – – erodium (storksbill) – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 0.8 – – – fat hen – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 0.8–2.7 0.41–0.8 – – – field pea – volunteer 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – – – fleabane – – – 0.65–1.1 d f j – – – 0.7 – – fumitory 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d – 0.66–1.2 0.8–3.3 – – – ground cherry – annual – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.45 – heliotrope – white – – – – – – – – – – Hexham scent – – – – – – 1.5–1.7 – – – hoary cress – – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–2.1 – – – horehound – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.7 1.7–3.3 – – – lucerne (established) – – – – – 5.0 v – – – – lupin – volunteer 5 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–1.7 – – – marshmallow – – – 0.515–0.745 d – – – – 0.6 – medic 5 – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – – – melons – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 0.41–0.18 – – 65–130 e Mexican poppy – – – 0.745–1.15 d – 1.8–2.7 0.8–1.5 – – – mintweed – 0.15–0.2 – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–1.5 – – – mustards 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.41–2.5 – – –

16. 14 Table 3. Rainfastness – stock withholding periods – harvest withholding periods This table lists: • Rainfastness. The time interval required between herbicide application and rainfall. Avoid applying herbicide when rain is imminent. However, certain herbicides may not be affected by some rain during or after spraying. The table suggests the time needed between spraying and rainfall for each herbicide to be effective. • Stock grazing or fodder production withholding periods. This is the number of days you must wait after spraying before allowing stock to graze the area, to ensure the animal produce is free of pesticide residues. Check latest MRL data with individual companies for produce to be sold on export market. • Harvest withholding periods. This is the number of days you must wait after spraying before harvesting grain, to ensure that grain is free of pesticide residues. Herbicide Rainfastness – hours Stock withholding period – days Harvest withholding period – days Achieve® 0.5 14 Not stated. Agtryne® 6 7 Not stated. Alliance® Nil – see label 1, horses 7 – see label Not required when used as directed. Ally® 2 Nil Not required when used as directed. Atlantis® OD 8 28 56 Atrazine Rain required after application for best results. canola (pre-emergent) 105 canola (post-emergent) 42 Not required when used as directed. Avadex® Xtra Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. 11 weeks Not required when used as directed. Axial® 0.5 21 Not required when used as directed. Balance® 750 WG Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. 28 Not required when used as directed. Bladex® 8 Don't graze treated immature crops or cut for stockfood. Not required when used as directed. Boxer® Gold Rain during or after application assists incorporation and activation. Do not graze or cut for stock feed for 10 weeks. Not required when used as directed. Broadside® 3 14 Not required when used as directed. Broadstrike™ 4 Cereals, field pea, vetch, chickpea and lentil 28 days Field pea, chickpea and lentil not required when used as directed; cereals 28 Brodal® Options 4 14 Not required when used as directed. Bromicide® 200 3 8 weeks Not required when used as directed. Bromicide® MA 4 8 weeks Not required when used as directed. Cadence® (dicamba) 4 7 7 Cheetah® Gold 4 7 weeks Not required when used as directed. Conclude™ 4 7 Not required when used as directed. Crusader™ 6 6 weeks Not required when used as directed. Decision® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Diuron ◆ 6 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Dual® Gold Do not apply if heavy rains or storms that are likely to cause run-off are forecast within 2 days of application. Canola 70; cereals 56 Not required when used as directed. Duet® 250EC Light rain following application will not affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not stated. Eclipse® 100 SC® 2 Cereals 14; lupin 28 Not required when used as directed. Elantra® Xtreme® 3 4 weeks Canola, field pea 63; Chickpea, faba bean, lentil 84; Lupin 42. Factor® 0.5 Grazing 14 Not required when used as directed. Flame® Rain assists soil incorporation and activation. 28 Not stated. Flight® EC 4 42 Not required when used as directed. Fusilade® Forte 1 Linseed, canola 21; lupin, faba bean, field pea, chickpea 49 Canola, lupin, linseed 119; faba bean 35; fieldpea, chickpea 49 Garlon™ FallowMaster™ 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Glean® 4 Rain assists soil incorporation and activation. Nil Not required when used as directed. Gramoxone® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 7 for pulse crops Grazon™ Extra 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Hammer® 1 14 Not required when used as directed. Harmony® M Not stated. 14 56 Hoegrass® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Hotshot™ 1 7 Not required when used as directed. Hussar® OD 8 28 Not required when used as directed. Gramoxone® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 7 for pulse crops Grazon™ Extra 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed.

60. Moderate Resistance Risk CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP C Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II (PS II inhibitors) Triazines: ametryn (Amigan®*, Primatol Z®, Gesapax®Combi*, Krismat®), atrazine (Gesaprim®, Gesapax® Combi*, Primextra® Gold*), cyanazine (Bladex®), prometryn (Gesagard®, Cotogard®*, Bandit®*), propazine (Agaprop®), simazine (Gesatop®), terbuthylazine (Terbyne®), terbutryn (Amigan®*, Igran®, Agtryne® MA*) Triazinones: hexazinone (Velpar® L, Velpar® K4*), metribuzin (Sencor®) Uracils: bromacil (Hyvar®, Krovar®*), terbacil (Sinbar®) Pyridazinones: chloridazon (Pyramin®) Phenylcarbamates: phenmedipham (Betanal®) Ureas: diuron (Karmex®, Krovar®*, Velpar® K4*, Diurex®), fluometuron (Cotoran®, Cotogard®*, Bandit®*), linuron (Afalon®), methabenzthiazuron (Tribunil®), siduron (Tupersan®), tebuthiuron (Graslan®) Amides: propanil (Stam®) Nitriles: bromoxynil (Buctril®, Bromicide®, Buctril® MA*, Barrel®*, Jaguar®*, Velocity®*, Flight®*), ioxynil (Totril®, Actril® DS*) Benzothiadiazinones: bentazone (Basagran®, Basagran® M60*, Dictate®, Dictate® M60) GROUP D Inhibitors of microtubule assembly Dinitroanilines (DNAs): oryzalin (Surflan®, Rout®*), pendimethalin (Stomp®), prodiamine (Barricade®), trifluralin (Treflan®) Benzoic acids: chlorthal (Dacthal®, Prothal®) Benzamides: propyzamide (Kerb®) Pyridines: dithiopyr (Dimension®), thiazopyr (Visor®) GROUP E Inhibitors of mitosis / microtubule organisation Carbamates: carbetamide (Carbetamex®), chlorpropham (Chlorpropham) GROUP F Bleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS inhibitors) Nicotinanilides: diflufenican (Brodal®, Jaguar®*, Tigrex®*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Minder®) Picolinamides: picolinafen (Paragon®*, Sniper®, Flight®*) Pyridazinones: norflurazon (Solicam®) GROUP G Inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOs) Diphenylethers: acifluorfen (Blazer®), oxyfluorfen (Goal®, Rout®*, Striker®) N-phenylphthalimides: flumioxazin (Pledge®, Valor®, Terrain®) Oxadiazoles: oxadiargyl (Raft®), oxadiazon (Ronstar®) Triazolinones: carfentrazone (Affinity®, Broadway®*, Nail™, Hammer®) Pyrimidindiones: butafenacil (Logran® B-Power®*, Resolva®), saflufenacil (Sharpen® WG) Phenylpyrazole: pyraflufen (Ecopar®, Pyresta®*) GROUP H Bleachers: Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPDs) Pyrazoles: benzofenap (Taipan®, Viper®), pyrasulfotole (Precept®*,Velocity®*) Isoxazoles: isoxaflutole (Balance®) GROUP I Disruptors of plant cell growth (Synthetic Auxins) Phenoxycarboxylic acids (Phenoxys): 2,4-D (Amicide®, Actril DS®*, Pyresta®*, Baton®), 2,4-DB (Trifolamine®, Buttress®), dichlorprop (Lantana 600®), MCPA (MCPA, Agritone®, Buctril® MA*, Conclude®*, Banvel M®, Kamba® M, Midas®*, Paragon®*, Tigrex®*, Barrel®*, Tordon 242®*, Basagran® M60*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Agtryne® MA*, Precept®*, Flight®*), mecoprop (Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Multiweed®*, Mecopropamine®, Mecoban®) Benzoic acids: dicamba (Barrel®*, Kamba® M, Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Banvel®, Banvel M®, Casper®, Mecoban®) Pyridine carboxylic acids (Pyridines): aminopyralid (Hotshot®*, Grazon Extra®*), clopyralid (Lontrel®, Torpedo®*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Archer®), fluroxypyr (Starane®, Hotshot®*, Comet®), picloram (Tordon®, Tordon 242®*, Trooper®, Grazon Extra®*, Trinoc®*), triclopyr (Garlon®, Invader®, Grazon Extra®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide, Concentrate Tough Roundup®* Weedkiller) Quinoline carboxylic acids:quinclorac (Drive®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 3 26/03/2014 2:07:16 PM

171. Moderate Resistance Risk CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP C Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II (PS II inhibitors) Triazines: ametryn (Amigan®*, Primatol Z®, Gesapax®Combi*, Krismat®), atrazine (Gesaprim®, Gesapax® Combi*, Primextra® Gold*), cyanazine (Bladex®), prometryn (Gesagard®, Cotogard®*, Bandit®*), propazine (Agaprop®), simazine (Gesatop®), terbuthylazine (Terbyne®), terbutryn (Amigan®*, Igran®, Agtryne® MA*) Triazinones: hexazinone (Velpar® L, Velpar® K4*), metribuzin (Sencor®) Uracils: bromacil (Hyvar®, Krovar®*), terbacil (Sinbar®) Pyridazinones: chloridazon (Pyramin®) Phenylcarbamates: phenmedipham (Betanal®) Ureas: diuron (Karmex®, Krovar®*, Velpar® K4*, Diurex®), fluometuron (Cotoran®, Cotogard®*, Bandit®*), linuron (Afalon®), methabenzthiazuron (Tribunil®), siduron (Tupersan®), tebuthiuron (Graslan®) Amides: propanil (Stam®) Nitriles: bromoxynil (Buctril®, Bromicide®, Buctril® MA*, Barrel®*, Jaguar®*, Velocity®*, Flight®*), ioxynil (Totril®, Actril® DS*) Benzothiadiazinones: bentazone (Basagran®, Basagran® M60*, Dictate®, Dictate® M60) GROUP D Inhibitors of microtubule assembly Dinitroanilines (DNAs): oryzalin (Surflan®, Rout®*), pendimethalin (Stomp®), prodiamine (Barricade®), trifluralin (Treflan®) Benzoic acids: chlorthal (Dacthal®, Prothal®) Benzamides: propyzamide (Kerb®) Pyridines: dithiopyr (Dimension®), thiazopyr (Visor®) GROUP E Inhibitors of mitosis / microtubule organisation Carbamates: carbetamide (Carbetamex®), chlorpropham (Chlorpropham) GROUP F Bleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS inhibitors) Nicotinanilides: diflufenican (Brodal®, Jaguar®*, Tigrex®*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Minder®) Picolinamides: picolinafen (Paragon®*, Sniper®, Flight®*) Pyridazinones: norflurazon (Solicam®) GROUP G Inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOs) Diphenylethers: acifluorfen (Blazer®), oxyfluorfen (Goal®, Rout®*, Striker®) N-phenylphthalimides: flumioxazin (Pledge®, Valor®, Terrain®) Oxadiazoles: oxadiargyl (Raft®), oxadiazon (Ronstar®) Triazolinones: carfentrazone (Affinity®, Broadway®*, Nail™, Hammer®) Pyrimidindiones: butafenacil (Logran® B-Power®*, Resolva®), saflufenacil (Sharpen® WG) Phenylpyrazole: pyraflufen (Ecopar®, Pyresta®*) GROUP H Bleachers: Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPDs) Pyrazoles: benzofenap (Taipan®, Viper®), pyrasulfotole (Precept®*,Velocity®*) Isoxazoles: isoxaflutole (Balance®) GROUP I Disruptors of plant cell growth (Synthetic Auxins) Phenoxycarboxylic acids (Phenoxys): 2,4-D (Amicide®, Actril DS®*, Pyresta®*, Baton®), 2,4-DB (Trifolamine®, Buttress®), dichlorprop (Lantana 600®), MCPA (MCPA, Agritone®, Buctril® MA*, Conclude®*, Banvel M®, Kamba® M, Midas®*, Paragon®*, Tigrex®*, Barrel®*, Tordon 242®*, Basagran® M60*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Agtryne® MA*, Precept®*, Flight®*), mecoprop (Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Multiweed®*, Mecopropamine®, Mecoban®) Benzoic acids: dicamba (Barrel®*, Kamba® M, Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Banvel®, Banvel M®, Casper®, Mecoban®) Pyridine carboxylic acids (Pyridines): aminopyralid (Hotshot®*, Grazon Extra®*), clopyralid (Lontrel®, Torpedo®*, Chipco Spearhead®*, Archer®), fluroxypyr (Starane®, Hotshot®*, Comet®), picloram (Tordon®, Tordon 242®*, Trooper®, Grazon Extra®*, Trinoc®*), triclopyr (Garlon®, Invader®, Grazon Extra®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide, Concentrate Tough Roundup®* Weedkiller) Quinoline carboxylic acids:quinclorac (Drive®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 3 26/03/2014 2:07:16 PM

208. 95 Herbicide compatibilities PRODUCT ECLIPSE® FASTAC DUO® FUSILADE® TORDON™ GESAPRIM® GESATOP® GLEAN® GOAL® GRAMOXONE® GRAZON™ HAMMER® HARMONY® HOEGRASS® HOTSHOT™ HUSSAR® OD IGRAN® IMIDAN® JAGUAR® KAMBA® 500 KAMBA® M KARATE® LE-MAT® LOGRAN® LOGRAN® B-POWER LONTREL™ LORSBAN™ LVE MCPA MATAVEN® MCPA 500 MONZA® OMETHOATE ONDUTY® PARAGON® PROMETRYN 900DF RAPTOR® ROUNDUP® CT ROUNDUP® DRY ROUNDUP POWERMAX™ SELECT® SENCOR® SERTIN® SNIPER® SPINNAKER® SPRAYSEED® STARANE™ STOMP® SUPRACIDE® SURPASS® TALSTAR® TARGA® TERBYNE® TIGREX® TOPIK® TORDON™ 242 TORDON™ 75D TREFLAN™ TRISTAR® ADVANCE VERDICT™ 520 WILDCAT® Achieve® Herbicide C C N C N N C C N N C N N Agtryne® MA                       N                                                     Ally® Herbicide C N C N C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C C C C C N C Amicide® 700             C                 C                                       C                             Atlantis® OD                             C      C   C   C                                         C               Avadex® Xtra                                         C       C   C                                         Axial®                                                                                                     Balance® 750 Herbicide C C C C C N Bladex® 900 Herbicide C C C C C C C Boxer® Gold                     C               C   C C                 C   C           C     C               C       Bravo® Fungicide C C Broadstrike™ Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C C C Brodal® Options Herbicide C C C C C N C C C C C C N Bromicide® 200 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Bromicide® MA Herbicide C C C C C C N C N N N N Buttress® C C C C C C C Cadence® Herbicide C C C C C C N C C C C C C C C Cheetah® Gold C                           C     C   C   C   N                                      C               Conclude™ C C C C N C Correct® 100 Herbicide N C N N N C N C N N N N Crusader™ C N N N C N C N Decision®                         N                   C                                         C               Dimethoate Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Dithane™ M-45® Fungicide C C C Diuron Liquid Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N C Dual Gold®         C                           C                 C               C                             Duet® 250 Herbicide C C C C C Eclipse® Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Ecopar®                       N             C         C                                     N       N   N   Fastac Duo® Insecticide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Flame®       C C       C             N                       C   C           C   C                         Flight® EC C C C C C C C C C Fusilade® Herbicide C C C C C Tordon™ 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C Gesaprim® 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C Gesatop® 600 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Glean® Herbicide C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N N Goal® Herbicide C C C C Gramoxone® 250 Herbicide C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Grazon™ DS Herbicide C C C Hammer®                                     C                 C   C           C   C                 C       Harmony® M Herbicide N C Hoegrass® 500 Herbicide C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C Hotshot™ C           C                             C           C   C             C             C             Hussar® N           N           N           N N C   N     N N                       C           N               Igran® 500 Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C Imidan® Insecticide C C C C C C C C C Intervix®   C                               C   C                     C                                       Jaguar® Herbicide C C C C C C C N C C C C N C C C C N C

2. Together we can beat Annual Ryegrass Rotate with BOXER GOLD ® FLAME_SYN1170B_03/14 BOXER GOLD provides robust control of Annual Ryegrass and can be used safely in wheat and barley. BOXER GOLD is another mode of action for sustainable herbicide resistance management. It is the flexible option that gives more choice for next year’s crop with no plant back restrictions. Together, we can beat Annual Ryegrass. Talk to your agronomist about Syngenta’s solutions or visit www.syngenta.com.au The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate. ® Registered trademark of a Syngenta Group Company. AD14/115. Note: While Flame ™ has taken great care in preparing this artwork responsibility for the printed artwork and copy accuracy lies with the client. The printer is responsible for checking artwork before plates are made, accuracy in measurements, plates tolerance requirements, registration and construction detailing. Any questions please contact flame before proceeding with the job. Copyright 2014 Flame. Luigi Pagnozzi (account service) luigi@flame.com.au | +61 2 9887 8500 | flame.com.au Name: FLAME_SYN1170M Syngenta Crop_AD1_BoxerGold_AD14-115_ NSW Winter Crop Management Guide_297x210+3mm bleed Date: 04.04.14 | Round: F Size: 297Hmm x 210Wmm Peter Matthews, peter.matthews@dpi.nsw.gov.au

113. Together we can beat Annual Ryegrass Rotate with BOXER GOLD ® FLAME_SYN1170B_03/14 BOXER GOLD provides robust control of Annual Ryegrass and can be used safely in wheat and barley. BOXER GOLD is another mode of action for sustainable herbicide resistance management. It is the flexible option that gives more choice for next year’s crop with no plant back restrictions. Together, we can beat Annual Ryegrass. Talk to your agronomist about Syngenta’s solutions or visit www.syngenta.com.au The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate. ® Registered trademark of a Syngenta Group Company. AD14/115. Note: While Flame ™ has taken great care in preparing this artwork responsibility for the printed artwork and copy accuracy lies with the client. The printer is responsible for checking artwork before plates are made, accuracy in measurements, plates tolerance requirements, registration and construction detailing. Any questions please contact flame before proceeding with the job. Copyright 2014 Flame. Luigi Pagnozzi (account service) luigi@flame.com.au | +61 2 9887 8500 | flame.com.au Name: FLAME_SYN1170M Syngenta Crop_AD1_BoxerGold_AD14-115_ NSW Winter Crop Management Guide_297x210+3mm bleed Date: 04.04.14 | Round: F Size: 297Hmm x 210Wmm Peter Matthews, peter.matthews@dpi.nsw.gov.au

22. 20 Cleaning and decontaminating boomsprays Cleaning and decontaminating spray equipment for the application of herbicides is essential. Many crops and pastures have been severely damaged or destroyed by the failure to ensure that spray equipment was thoroughly cleaned before use. With the advent of crops such as canola and pulse crops in the rotation, and with more emphasis on legume-based pastures, decontamination of spray units must be carried out to ensure that there is no possibility of crop or pasture damage. Product labels usually detail decontamination and cleaning procedures for each product. Herbicide Rate of agent/100 L water Instructions for Cleaning and Decontamination Weedmaster® DST®, Weedmaster® Argo®, Glyphosate, Raptor®, Flame®, Spinnaker®, Sniper®, Wipe Out® Plus, Sickle® 520, Precept®, Velocity®, Intervix®. Clean Water (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ), Absolute Boomer® Rinse thoroughly several times with clean water before use. Phenoxy type, salt or amine formulations (2,4-D amine, MCPA amine, 2,4-DB, dicamba). 2 L household ammonia (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) Thoroughly agitate and flush a small amount of solution through the system and let stand in sprayer overnight. Flush and rinse with clean water several times before use. Phenoxy type, ester formulations 2,4-D ester, MCPA ester, Paragon®, Midas®, Flight® EC, Tigrex®. 125 g powdered detergent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) Rinse the inside and outside of the tank and flush a small amount through the system for 15–20 minutes. Let stand for at least two hours or preferably overnight. Flush and rinse before use. Atrazine, simazine. 125 g powdered detergent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ), Absolute Boomer® Rinse with clean water before and after using the solution. Sulfonylurea herbicides Glean®, Logran®, Ally®, Logran® B-power, Hussar® OD, Atlantis® OD. 300 mL fresh household chlorine bleach containing 4% chlorine or 300 mL BC-45 Spray Equipment Cleaning Agent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) per 100 L water with agitation. Absolute Boomer® or CC49® 1. D rain and flush the tank, hoses and boom with clean water for 10 minutes. 2. F ill the tank with clean water and add the chlorine bleach. Flush the boom and allow to stand for 15 minutes, then drain. 3. R epeat Step 2. 4. N ozzles, screens and filters should be removed and cleaned separately. Broadstrike™, Eclipse® 100 SC, Lontrel™ Advanced, Grazon™ Extra, Conclude™, Crusader™, Torpedo™. 500 mL liquid detergent DynamoMatic®, or 500 g of the powder equivalent such as Surf®, Omo®, 1 L Absolute Boomer® Flush the system, then quarter-fill the tank with water and add the detergent. Start the pump and circulate for at least 15 minutes. Drain the whole system. Remove and clean the filters, screens and nozzles with clean water and allow to drain. Herbicides for grass control in broadleaf crops and pastures such as Verdict™ (520 g/L). 500 mL liquid alkali liquid detergent such as Surf®, Omo®, DynamoMatic®, or 500 g of the powder equivalent. 1 L Absolute Boomer® If broadleaf herbicides, particularly sulfonylureas (such as Glean®, Logran®), have been used in the spray equipment at any time prior to grass herbicides such as Verdict™, particular care should be taken to follow the directions for cleaning and decontamination on the label of the relevant broadleaf herbicide. Before spraying cereals, maize, sorghum or other sensitive crops, wash the tank and rinse after use. Completely drain the tank and wash filters, screens and nozzles. Drain and repeat the procedure twice. To decontaminate, wash and rinse the system as above, quarter-fill the tank, add the detergent and circulate through the system for at least 15 minutes. Drain the whole system. Remove filters, screens and nozzles and clean separately. Finally, flush the system with clean water and allow to drain. WARNING: Grass control herbicides such as Verdict™, Fusilade® Forte, Correct®, Select®, Elantra® Xtreme® and Sertin® can be extremely damaging to winter and summer cereals. Likewise spraytank contamination of small quantities of sulfonylurea herbicides such as Glean® and Logran® can be extremely damaging to crops like canola, pulse crops and legume pastures. *Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner can also be used to decontaminate spraying equipment. NOTE: Rinse water should be discharged into a designated disposal area, or if this is unavailable, onto unused land away from surface water, water bodies, gardens, shelter belts and other environmentally sensitive areas.

127. 14 Table 3. Rainfastness – stock withholding periods – harvest withholding periods This table lists: • Rainfastness. The time interval required between herbicide application and rainfall. Avoid applying herbicide when rain is imminent. However, certain herbicides may not be affected by some rain during or after spraying. The table suggests the time needed between spraying and rainfall for each herbicide to be effective. • Stock grazing or fodder production withholding periods. This is the number of days you must wait after spraying before allowing stock to graze the area, to ensure the animal produce is free of pesticide residues. Check latest MRL data with individual companies for produce to be sold on export market. • Harvest withholding periods. This is the number of days you must wait after spraying before harvesting grain, to ensure that grain is free of pesticide residues. Herbicide Rainfastness – hours Stock withholding period – days Harvest withholding period – days Achieve® 0.5 14 Not stated. Agtryne® 6 7 Not stated. Alliance® Nil – see label 1, horses 7 – see label Not required when used as directed. Ally® 2 Nil Not required when used as directed. Atlantis® OD 8 28 56 Atrazine Rain required after application for best results. canola (pre-emergent) 105 canola (post-emergent) 42 Not required when used as directed. Avadex® Xtra Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. 11 weeks Not required when used as directed. Axial® 0.5 21 Not required when used as directed. Balance® 750 WG Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. 28 Not required when used as directed. Bladex® 8 Don't graze treated immature crops or cut for stockfood. Not required when used as directed. Boxer® Gold Rain during or after application assists incorporation and activation. Do not graze or cut for stock feed for 10 weeks. Not required when used as directed. Broadside® 3 14 Not required when used as directed. Broadstrike™ 4 Cereals, field pea, vetch, chickpea and lentil 28 days Field pea, chickpea and lentil not required when used as directed; cereals 28 Brodal® Options 4 14 Not required when used as directed. Bromicide® 200 3 8 weeks Not required when used as directed. Bromicide® MA 4 8 weeks Not required when used as directed. Cadence® (dicamba) 4 7 7 Cheetah® Gold 4 7 weeks Not required when used as directed. Conclude™ 4 7 Not required when used as directed. Crusader™ 6 6 weeks Not required when used as directed. Decision® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Diuron ◆ 6 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Dual® Gold Do not apply if heavy rains or storms that are likely to cause run-off are forecast within 2 days of application. Canola 70; cereals 56 Not required when used as directed. Duet® 250EC Light rain following application will not affect results. Not required when used as directed. Not stated. Eclipse® 100 SC® 2 Cereals 14; lupin 28 Not required when used as directed. Elantra® Xtreme® 3 4 weeks Canola, field pea 63; Chickpea, faba bean, lentil 84; Lupin 42. Factor® 0.5 Grazing 14 Not required when used as directed. Flame® Rain assists soil incorporation and activation. 28 Not stated. Flight® EC 4 42 Not required when used as directed. Fusilade® Forte 1 Linseed, canola 21; lupin, faba bean, field pea, chickpea 49 Canola, lupin, linseed 119; faba bean 35; fieldpea, chickpea 49 Garlon™ FallowMaster™ 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Glean® 4 Rain assists soil incorporation and activation. Nil Not required when used as directed. Gramoxone® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 7 for pulse crops Grazon™ Extra 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed. Hammer® 1 14 Not required when used as directed. Harmony® M Not stated. 14 56 Hoegrass® 2 49 Not required when used as directed. Hotshot™ 1 7 Not required when used as directed. Hussar® OD 8 28 Not required when used as directed. Gramoxone® 250 Light rain during or after spraying will not affect results. Horses 7; all other stock 1 7 for pulse crops Grazon™ Extra 1 Not required when used as directed. Not required when used as directed.

206. 93 Herbicide compatibilities Table 32. Herbicide tolerance testing – Other crops Species Varieties tested Years tested Herbicides tested Results/comments Chickpea Amythest, Bumper|Lassiter 1998 Broadstrike™, Sencor®, Sertin®, Simazine PSPE, Verdict™ Appeared safe for varieties tested Amythyst Howzat Jimbour 2002 Sencor®, Simazine PSPE, Stomp®, Triflur™ X, Avadex®, Bladex® Appeared safe for varieties tested Broadstrike™ Yield loss Jimbour at normal rate Flipper Genesis 90 Genesis 509 2009 2010 Broadstrike™, Avadex® Yield loss Genesis 509 at normal rate Sencor® Yield loss Genesis 90 at normal rate Bladex® Narrow safety margin Genesis 90 Avadex® Yield loss Flipper at normal rate (1 trial) Terbyne® Appeared safe for varieties tested (1 trial) Faba bean Fiesta Barkool Icarus 1998 to 2000 Verdict™, Targa®, Sertin® Appeared safe for varieties tested Sencor® Narrow safety margin Fiesta, Barkool Spinnaker® + Simazine + Sencor® Narrow for all varieties Simazine PSPE Narrow safety margin Fiesta and Icarus Fiesta Manafest Fiord 2002 to 2003 Sencor® Narrow safety margin all varieties Simazine PSPE Narrow safety margin Fiesta Spinnaker® PSPE Yield loss Fiord at normal rate (1 trial) Avadex® IBS Appeared safe for varieties tested Farrah Fiesta Nura 2008 to 2010 Sencor®, Simazine PSPE, Bladex® Narrow safety margin in 2008 Avadex® IBS Narrow margin on Fiesta (’08) and Farrah (’09) Terbyne® IBS Yield loss in one trial only (2010) Juncea Dune 2009 Lontrel™ 750SG Yield reduction at 1X and 2X rate Lentils Nugget Northfield 2001 2002 2004 Triflur™ X, Sertin®, Verdict™, Bladex® Safe for varieties tested. Narrow margin with Bladex® Brodal® Yield loss (1 trial) at normal rate Nugget, Narrow margin for Northfield Broadstrike™ Yield loss Northfield at normal rate (1 trial) Boomer Nipper Northfield 2008 2009 2010 Bladex® Narrow safety margin all varieties Triflur™ X, Brodal® Narrow safety margin Boomer Broadstrike™, Terbyne® Narrow safety margin for Nipper and Northfield Linseed Glenelg 1993 1994 Trifluralin, Bromoxynil MA Significant yield loss in one year Trifluralin Reduced germination, seedling vigour and yield MCPA. Bromoxynil MA, Tordon™ 242 Reduced yield at recommended rate by 0–15% Hoegrass®, Fusilade®, Verdict™ Appeared safe at recommended rates Lupin Wonga Jindalee Quilinock Kiev Mutant 1998 1999 2000 Brodal® Narrow margin Wonga, Kiev Mutant (1 trial) Eclipse® Narrow margin Wonga (2 trials) Sertin®, Verdict™ Safe all varieties (2 trials) Simazine PSPE Safe at normal rates, narrow margin for Kiev Mutant, Jindalee and Wonga Trifluralin PSI Safe all varieties (1 trial) Jindalee Quilinock Wonga Kiev Mutant 2001 2002 2003 Eclipse® Yield loss Wonga at normal rates (2 trials) Narrow margin Quilinock (1 trial) Simazine PSPE Narrow margin Kiev Mutant (1 trial) Verdict™, Trifluralin IBS, Stomp®, Avadex® Verdict™, Avadex® safe (1 trial), Sniper® (2 trials) trifluralin, Stomp® safe (3 trials) all varieties Targa® Narrow margin for Wonga Jindalee Quilinock Wonga Mandelup Kiev Mutant Rosetta, Luxor 2004 2005 2008 2009 2010 Brodal®, Stomp®, Sniper® Appeared safe in these years Eclipse® Yield loss Wonga (1 trial) Narrow safety margin Mandelup, Rosetta Simazine PSPE Yield loss Kiev Mutant (1 trial), narrow safety margin all varieties (1 trial) (Luxor 2 trials) Terbyne® Yield loss in Luxor in 1 trial narrow margin for Mandelup, Rosetta, Wonga Avadex® Yield loss Mandelup (1 trial) at normal rates Safflower S-317 Devexco, Sirothora, Sironaria Pre 1998, 2008 Ally®, Triflur™ X, Stomp® Narrow safety margin Stomp® on S-317 Devexco Hoegrass®, Avadex® Only Sirothora and Sironaria tested, Both appeared safe

40. WWW.DPI.NSW.GOV.AU Working in partnership with industry For information about these crop agronomy projects please contact: Southern Pulse Agronomy Eric Armstrong, Wagga Wagga (02) 6938 1999 eric.armstrong@dpi.nsw.gov.au Eric Koetz, Wagga Wagga (02) 6938 1999 eric.koetz@dpi.nsw.gov.au Variety Specific Agronomy Packages Southern NSW – Rohan Brill, Wagga Wagga, (02) 6938 1999 rohan.brill@dpi.nsw.gov.au Northern NSW – Research Agronomist (Cropping Systems), Tamworth (02) 6763 1100 Southern Barley Agronomy Rick Graham, Condobolin (02) 6895 1025 ricky.graham@dpi.nsw.gov.au Northern Pulse Agronomy Project Andrew Verrell, Tamworth 0429 422 150 andrew.verrell@dpi.nsw.gov.au NSW DPI in partnership with industry.indd 1 10/02/2014 10:33:52 AM

133. 20 Cleaning and decontaminating boomsprays Cleaning and decontaminating spray equipment for the application of herbicides is essential. Many crops and pastures have been severely damaged or destroyed by the failure to ensure that spray equipment was thoroughly cleaned before use. With the advent of crops such as canola and pulse crops in the rotation, and with more emphasis on legume-based pastures, decontamination of spray units must be carried out to ensure that there is no possibility of crop or pasture damage. Product labels usually detail decontamination and cleaning procedures for each product. Herbicide Rate of agent/100 L water Instructions for Cleaning and Decontamination Weedmaster® DST®, Weedmaster® Argo®, Glyphosate, Raptor®, Flame®, Spinnaker®, Sniper®, Wipe Out® Plus, Sickle® 520, Precept®, Velocity®, Intervix®. Clean Water (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ), Absolute Boomer® Rinse thoroughly several times with clean water before use. Phenoxy type, salt or amine formulations (2,4-D amine, MCPA amine, 2,4-DB, dicamba). 2 L household ammonia (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) Thoroughly agitate and flush a small amount of solution through the system and let stand in sprayer overnight. Flush and rinse with clean water several times before use. Phenoxy type, ester formulations 2,4-D ester, MCPA ester, Paragon®, Midas®, Flight® EC, Tigrex®. 125 g powdered detergent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) Rinse the inside and outside of the tank and flush a small amount through the system for 15–20 minutes. Let stand for at least two hours or preferably overnight. Flush and rinse before use. Atrazine, simazine. 125 g powdered detergent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ), Absolute Boomer® Rinse with clean water before and after using the solution. Sulfonylurea herbicides Glean®, Logran®, Ally®, Logran® B-power, Hussar® OD, Atlantis® OD. 300 mL fresh household chlorine bleach containing 4% chlorine or 300 mL BC-45 Spray Equipment Cleaning Agent (* Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner ) per 100 L water with agitation. Absolute Boomer® or CC49® 1. D rain and flush the tank, hoses and boom with clean water for 10 minutes. 2. F ill the tank with clean water and add the chlorine bleach. Flush the boom and allow to stand for 15 minutes, then drain. 3. R epeat Step 2. 4. N ozzles, screens and filters should be removed and cleaned separately. Broadstrike™, Eclipse® 100 SC, Lontrel™ Advanced, Grazon™ Extra, Conclude™, Crusader™, Torpedo™. 500 mL liquid detergent DynamoMatic®, or 500 g of the powder equivalent such as Surf®, Omo®, 1 L Absolute Boomer® Flush the system, then quarter-fill the tank with water and add the detergent. Start the pump and circulate for at least 15 minutes. Drain the whole system. Remove and clean the filters, screens and nozzles with clean water and allow to drain. Herbicides for grass control in broadleaf crops and pastures such as Verdict™ (520 g/L). 500 mL liquid alkali liquid detergent such as Surf®, Omo®, DynamoMatic®, or 500 g of the powder equivalent. 1 L Absolute Boomer® If broadleaf herbicides, particularly sulfonylureas (such as Glean®, Logran®), have been used in the spray equipment at any time prior to grass herbicides such as Verdict™, particular care should be taken to follow the directions for cleaning and decontamination on the label of the relevant broadleaf herbicide. Before spraying cereals, maize, sorghum or other sensitive crops, wash the tank and rinse after use. Completely drain the tank and wash filters, screens and nozzles. Drain and repeat the procedure twice. To decontaminate, wash and rinse the system as above, quarter-fill the tank, add the detergent and circulate through the system for at least 15 minutes. Drain the whole system. Remove filters, screens and nozzles and clean separately. Finally, flush the system with clean water and allow to drain. WARNING: Grass control herbicides such as Verdict™, Fusilade® Forte, Correct®, Select®, Elantra® Xtreme® and Sertin® can be extremely damaging to winter and summer cereals. Likewise spraytank contamination of small quantities of sulfonylurea herbicides such as Glean® and Logran® can be extremely damaging to crops like canola, pulse crops and legume pastures. *Nufarm Tank and Equipment Cleaner can also be used to decontaminate spraying equipment. NOTE: Rinse water should be discharged into a designated disposal area, or if this is unavailable, onto unused land away from surface water, water bodies, gardens, shelter belts and other environmentally sensitive areas.

151. WWW.DPI.NSW.GOV.AU Working in partnership with industry For information about these crop agronomy projects please contact: Southern Pulse Agronomy Eric Armstrong, Wagga Wagga (02) 6938 1999 eric.armstrong@dpi.nsw.gov.au Eric Koetz, Wagga Wagga (02) 6938 1999 eric.koetz@dpi.nsw.gov.au Variety Specific Agronomy Packages Southern NSW – Rohan Brill, Wagga Wagga, (02) 6938 1999 rohan.brill@dpi.nsw.gov.au Northern NSW – Research Agronomist (Cropping Systems), Tamworth (02) 6763 1100 Southern Barley Agronomy Rick Graham, Condobolin (02) 6895 1025 ricky.graham@dpi.nsw.gov.au Northern Pulse Agronomy Project Andrew Verrell, Tamworth 0429 422 150 andrew.verrell@dpi.nsw.gov.au NSW DPI in partnership with industry.indd 1 10/02/2014 10:33:52 AM

42. 40 Table 6. Herbicides for presowing seedbed weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Salvage seedbed preparation Tribenuron- methyl 750 g/kg Metosulam 100 g/L Carfentrazone- ethyl 240 g/L Saflufenacil 700 g/kg Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Flumioxazin 500 g/kg Pyraflufen-ethyl 2.1 g/L + 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Pyraflufen-ethyl 20g/L Fluroxpyr 333 g/L Clopyralid 600 g/L Dicamba 500 g/L Dicamba 700 g/kg Paraquat + Diquat 135 g + 115 g/L Paraquat 250 g/L Amitrole 250 g/L + Paraquat 125 g/L Glyphosate 570 g/L Glyphosate 470 g/L Glyphosate 510 g/L Express® Eclipse® 100 SC Hammer® s Sharpen® WG Goal® Valor® 500 WG Pyresta® Ecopar® Starane™ Advanced b Lontrel™ Advanced # Kamba® 500 g Cadence® Spra y . S eed® 250 Gramoxone® 250 Alliance® Roundup Ultra® Max g Weedmaster® DST® g Raze® Crop type W,B,O AC AC W,B,O,CH, FP,FB,L,LE AC AC AC WC W, B, CH WC, C AC AC AC AC WC, C, F, L AC AC AC aircraft (A) or ground (B) AB AB B B AB B B B AB AB AB AB B B B AB AB AB Weeds controlled (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (grams) (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Always add non ionic-surfactant at 100 mL/100 L spray volume. For best results tankmix with recommended label rates of glyphosate. – – Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. 9–26 Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. Add Bonza® adjuvant at 1% (Sharpen® WG herbicide may be used alone with a suitable adjuvant for control of volunteer cotton seedlings including Roundup Ready® Flex cotton. Canola has a 16 week plantback.) 75 Always apply with recommended label rates of glyphosate, paraquat or paraquat/diquat mixtures. Addition of Goal® will improve knockdown and increase speed of control. – Always add label rate of tankmix partner plus Hasten™ or Quicken™ at 0.5 L/100L. 0.25–0.5 i Always add with recommended rate of glyphosate at no less than coarse to very coarse droplets. – Apply as a tankmix with Raze® or other glyphosate product. Apply when weeds are actively growing and at the 2–6-leaf growth stage. Addition of Hot-up™ Spray Adjuvant at 0.5% v/v may be beneficial when applying Ecopar® with a glyphosate herbicide. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L of spray. Plant-back for wheat, barley and chickpea is 7 days for rates up to 1.5 L/ha. – Observe plant-back with both cereal and broadleaf crops. Lontrel™ can bind tightly to stubble. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. 0.8–2.4 Use lower rates for full soil disturbance and rates greater than 1 L/ha for minimum soil disturbance at seeding. See label. Add wetting agent where water volume is above 100 L/ha. – Use lower rates for full soil disturbance and higher rates for minimum soil disturbance at seeding. See label. Add wetting agent where water volume is above 100 L/ha. – 0.625–0.95* Lower rates on small weeds and full soil disturbance. No surfactant required. 0.38–1.15* 0.7–1.0 Lower rates with young weeds and full soil disturbance. Wetting agent not normally required – see label. annual phalaris – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 – 0.625–0.95 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.0 annual ryegrass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 barley grass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.35–1.0 bedstraw – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – – black bindweed 25 i – – – 75 – – – 0.45 t – 0.28 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – – 1.2–1.9 – – brome grass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 0.35–1.4 caltrop 25 – – – 75 30 i – 0.3 t – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – – 0.425–1.3 – – canola – volunteer – – – 9–26 – 30 i – – – – – 1.8–2.4 l 1.8–2.4 l 1.5–2.8 l – – – capeweed – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – 75 y z 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 – 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 0.75–1.4 chickpea–volunteer – – – – – – 0.9 i – – 75 y – – – – – – – – cereals – volunteer – – – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i o – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.33–1.0 cleavers – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – – – – deadnettle 25 or 25 i – – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i 0.1–0.2 † – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.425–1.3 – – dock – – – – 75 – 0.5 e i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c – – – 1.2–1.9 0.76–1.9 0.7–1.8 erodium – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i j – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 x 2.0–2.8 1.2–1.9 1.44–1.9 0.7–1.8 w faba bean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – 75 y z – – – – – – – – fleabane – – – 17–34 – – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 – – – fieldpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c – – 2.0–2.8 0.32–0.95* – – fumitory – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.32–0.95* 0.76–1.5* 0.7–1.0 goosefoot – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.32–0.56 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – 2.0–2.8 0.625–0.95 – 0.7–1.0 lesser swine cress – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – 9–26 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–1.8 m – – 0.32–0.95* 0.76–1.5* 0.7–1.0 marshmallow – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † 0.6 – – – – – 2.0–2.8 – – – medics 30 50 – 9–26 – 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16-0.24 c 115–170 c 1.2–1.8 v – 2.0–2.8 – – – Mexican poppy – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 – 0.625–0.95 – 0.7–1.0 Muskweed – – – 9–26 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 f i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 f 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.3 New Zealand spinach 20 – – – 75 – – – – – 0.28 200 0.8–2.4 – – 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.0 Paterson’s curse – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 1.2–3.2 – 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3

100. 98 Table 34. Fungicide/herbicide compatibility chart for wheat Product Fungicides Herbicides Amistar® Xtra 200 g/L azoxystrobin, 80 g/L cyproconazole – Syngenta Hornet® 430 g/L tebuconazole – Nufarm Opera®, 85 g/L pyraclostrobin, 62.5 g/L epoxiconazole – Nufarm Opus® 125, 125 g/L epoxiconazole – Nufarm Prosaro®, 210 g/L prothioconazole, 210 g/L tebuconazole – Bayer CropScience Throttle® 500, 500 g/L propiconazole – Nufarm Tilt®, 250 g/L propiconazole – Syngenta Tilt® Xtra, 250 g/L propiconazole, 80 g/L cyproconazole – Syngenta 2,4-D LV Estercide Xtra 680, 680 g/L 2,4-D (present as the ethylhexyl ester) – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects including reduced growth and yield loss through phenoxy herbicide damage, if applied at the incorrect crop growth stage. The use of an adjuvant in the mix is likely to result in increased damage. If using an adjuvant limit Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha and adhere to all recommendations on the use of phenoxy herbicides for the crop. Note that generally adjuvants are not recommended with 2,4-D ester. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Achieve® WG, 400 g/kg tralkoxydim – CropCare Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible, very good crop safety, with no indication the addition of Prosaro® increased crop effects. Hasten™ was used as the adjuvant. Supercharge® is generally recommended for use with Achieve® but has not been evaluated with Prosaro®. Any adjuvant recommended for use with Prosaro® may be used. Contact Achieve® manufacturer to confirm suitability of alternative adjuvants to Supercharge®. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Agritone® 750 SL, 750 g/L MCPA (as dimethylamine salt) + Hasten™ 1% – Nufarm Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible, No info on crop safety or efficacy available. BS1000® @ 0.25% recommended adjuvant. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Ally® 7 g/ha, 600 g/kg metsulfuron-methyl (+ BS1000®) – DuPont – – Physically compatible with Associate®. Nufarm recommend including Chemwet® 1000. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Associate®. Nufarm recommend including Chemwet® 1000. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. The addition of Prosaro® to Ally® increased crop effects although effects were generally transient and crops recovered. This was done with the addition of Hasten™ adjuvant. The use of a non-ionic surfactant should improve crop safety although the rate required (0.25%) is higher than usually recommended for use with Ally®. Physically compatible with Associate®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – Amicide® Advance 700, 2,4-D (present as the dimethylamine and monomethylamine salts) – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects including reduced growth and yield loss through phenoxy herbicide damage, if applied at the incorrect crop growth stage . The use of an adjuvant in the mix is likely to result in increased damage. If using an adjuvant limit Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha and adhere to all recommendations on the use of phenoxy herbicides for the crop. Note that generally adjuvants are not recommended with Amicide® 625. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Atlantis® OD, 30 g/L mesosulfuron-methyl + 90 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. May result in increased crop effects, limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. BS1000® @ 0.25%,Hasten™ 1% or Rocket® 1% (chose adjuvant depending on weed target for Atlantis® OD.) – – – Axial® 100 EC, pinoxaden 100 g/L + cloquintocet- mexyl 25 g/L (+ Adigor® 0.5%) Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if used late in the season. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Axial® application.Use Adigor® 0.5% (as required for Axial® use). – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Cadence® WG, 700 g/kg (dicamba present as sodium salt) – Syngenta Not compatible. – – – Physically compatible. Good crop safety. Typical dicamba wilting effects on the crop are often observed within days of application, these effects have been transient in the trials conducted. – Not recommended. Not recommended. Hoegrass® 500, 500 g/L diclofop-methyl – Bayer CropScience Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if using hasten adjuvant. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety and only use non- ionic surfactant (BS1000® @ 0.25%) Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Hoegrass® application. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Logran® 750 WG, 750 g/kg trisulfuron – Syngenta Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available.

101. 99 Fungicide compatibilities Lontrel™ SL, 300 g/L clopyralid (present as triisopropanolamine salt) (+Hasten™) – Dow Agrosciences – – – – Physically compatible, very good crop safety. – – – LVE Agritone®, 570 g/L MCPA (present as the 2-ethylhexyl ester) – Nufarm Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible with MCPA LVE 500 g/L ai. (+Hasten™). Very good crop safety. Any adjuvant recommended for use with Prosaro® may be used. – Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Mataven® 90, 90 g/L flamprop-M-methyl – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – Physically compatible. Very good crop safety, negligible increase in crop effects, Hasten™ used as adjuvant. Mataven® label indicates compatibility with Uptake™. This is the preferred adjuvant when mixing with Prosaro®. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Paragon® 500 g/L MCPA (present as the ethylhexyl ester) + 50 g/L picolinafen – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Tigrex® 250 g/L MCPA as ethylhexl ester + 25 g/L diflufenican – Bayer CropScience Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. Crop safety with Tigrex® is very good even though Hasten™ was used in all trials, against the recommendation for use of Tigrex®. The use of a non ionic-surfactant rather than a crop oil should further improve crop safety. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Topik® 240 EC, 240 g/L clodinafop propargyl + cloquintocet-mexyl 125 mL/ha – Syngenta Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if used late in the season. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Topik® application. Recommended adjuvant Uptake™ 0.5% or D-C-Trate 1%. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Tordon™ 75-D, 300 g/L 2,4-D (as the triisopropanolamine salt) + 75 g/L picloram (as the triisopropanolamine salt) – Dow Agrosciences – – – – Physically compatible. No information on crop safety of the mixture is available. The use of an adjuvant with Tordon™ 75-D is NOT recommended. This may compromise efficacy of Prosaro®. – – – Tristar® Advance, 250 g/L diclofop-methyl + 13 g/L fenoxaprop-P-ethyl + 7.4 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – 1.5 L/ha – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if using Hasten™ adjuvant. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety and only use non-ionic surfactant. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Tristar Advance® application. BS1000® 0.25% recommended adjuvant. – – – Velocity® bromoxynil (mixed heptanoic and octanoic acid esters) + 37.5 g/L pyrasulfotole + 9.4 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – – – – Physically compatible. Limited data but good crop safety indicated. Use Hasten™ 1% or an alternative crop oil that is recommended for use with both products. – – – Wildcat® 110 EC, 110 g/L fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, + 30 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl 500 mL/ha – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. Good crop safety. BS1000® @ 0.25%. – – – Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern, rates, surfactants, compatibility agents, temperature and water quality. Mixtures generally require constant agitation. Mixing more than two products is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation March 2012. Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of all labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. See tips for tank mixing page 19 . 3 way mixes can cause compatibility problems in some instances. Important to read critical comments on technical sheets and labels as some rates can cause an adverse crop effect. Product compatibility is sourced from technical notes and labels of the fungicide maufacturer. Both products and companies should be consulted prior to undertaking a tank mix. This chart is for wheat, however individual wheat varieties will need to be checked for suitability for use with any particular herbicide or fungicide listed here. In many cases it is useful to mix a herbicide and fungicide together to save on further application passes within a paddock. This has been more common in recent years with less varietal resistance to stripe rust. Mixing herbicides and fungicides whilst practical, can be risky. Many products may be Physically compatible, however interactions may occur between the herbicide and the fungicide which may reduce the efficacy of either or both products. Crop damage may also be greater when mixing herbicides and fungicides. An adjuvant recommended for one product in a tank mix may have an adverse effect on the other product. The same is true of water quality where solubility for one product might be quite different for the other. Whilst this table provides the best available information regarding common herbicide and fungicide mixtures, always consult with your advisor and product manufacturers before tankmixing herbicides with fungicides, and check for any updated technical information on such mixes.

41. BROAD-SPECTRUM Controls toughest broadleaf weeds including glyphosate resistant weeds. FAST 3 to 5 times faster than glyphosate or 2,4-D. FLEXIBLE – Preplant flexibility. – Wide range of crops. 1 2 3 Sharpen is an innovative new herbicide developed by BASF which represents a new standard in broadleaf weed control. Sharpen is a highly effective herbicide with both contact and systemic activity on a wide range of broadleaf weeds including fleabane, sow thistle and capeweed. In contrast to several other group G products Sharpen has strong activity on a wide range of broadleaf weeds and importantly provides standalone control. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. This brochure is intended as general advice. Disclaimer: The information submitted in this publication is based on current BASF knowledge and experience. In view of the many factors that may affect its application, this data does not relieve the user from carrying out their own tests. The data does not imply assurance of certain properties or of suitability for a specific purpose. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that any proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed. BASF Australia Limited. Level 12, 28 Freshwater Place Southbank Victoria 3006, Australia. ©Copyright BASF 2014 ®Registered trademark of BASF. Toll Free: 1800 558 399 agro.basf.com.au Sharpen ® Broadleaf herbicide Flexible fallow and preplant control of broadleaf weeds BASF0061 Sharpen Guide.indd 1 14/03/2014 4:33 pm

61. Moderate Resistance Risk (continued) CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP J Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors) Chlorocarbonic acids: 2,2–DPA (Dalapon®), flupropanate (Frenock®) Thiocarbamates: EPTC (Eptam®), molinate (Ordram®), pebulate (Tillam®), prosulfocarb (Boxer® Gold*), thiobencarb (Saturn®), triallate (Avadex®), vernolate (Vernam®) Phosphorodithioates: bensulide (Prefar®) Benzofurans: ethofumesate (Tramat®) GROUP K Inhibitors of cell division / Inhibitors of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA inhibitors) Acetamides: napropamide (Devrinol®) Chloroacetamides: dimethenamid (Frontier®-P, Outlook®), metolachlor (Boxer® Gold*, Bounce®, Dual® Gold, Primextra® Gold*), propachlor (Ramrod®, Prothal®*) Isoxazolines: proxasulfone (Sakura®) GROUP L Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem I (PSI inhibitors) Bipyridyls: diquat (Reglone®, Revolver®, Spray Seed®*), paraquat (Gramoxone®, Nuquat®, Shirquat®, Spray Seed®*, Alliance®*) GROUP M Inhibitors of EPSP synthase Glycines: glyphosate (Gladiator®, Roundup®, Trounce®*, Illico®*, Arsenal Xpress®*, Broadway®*, Resolva®, Weedmaster®, Concentrate Tough Roundup®* Weedkiller) GROUP N Inhibitors of glutamine synthetase Phosphinic acids: glufosinate (Basta®, Biffo®, Liberty®) GROUP O Inhibitors of cell wall (cellulose) synthesis Nitriles: dichlobenil (Casoron®) Benzamides: isoxaben (Gallery®, X-Pand®*) GROUP P Inhibitors of auxin transport Phthalamates: naptalam (Alanap-L®) GROUP Q Bleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis unknown target Triazoles: amitrole (Amitrole®, Illico®*, Alliance®*) Isoxazolidinones: clomazone (Command®, Director®, Viper®*) GROUP R Inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase (DHP inhibitors) Carbamates: asulam (Asulox®) GROUP Z Herbicides with unknown and probably diverse sites of action Arylaminopropionic acids: flamprop (Mataven L®) Dicarboxylic acids: endothal (Endothal®) Organoarsenicals: DSMA (disodium methylarsonate) (Methar®), MSMA (Daconate®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. This strategy is a guide only and does not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. Always follow the product label for specific use instructions. While all effort has been taken with the information supplied in this document no responsibility, actual or implied, is taken for the day to day accuracy of product or active constituent specific information. Readers should check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and actives. The data base can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au. The information given in this strategy is provided in good faith and without any liability for loss or damage suffered as a result of its application and use. Advice given in this strategy is valid as at 27 June 2013. All previous versions of this strategy are now invalid. Phone: 02 6230 6399 Email: info@cropLifeaustralia.org.au Fax: (02) 6230 6355 Website: www.croplifeaustralia.org.au 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 4 26/03/2014 2:07:46 PM

172. Moderate Resistance Risk (continued) CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP J Inhibitors of fat synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors) Chlorocarbonic acids: 2,2–DPA (Dalapon®), flupropanate (Frenock®) Thiocarbamates: EPTC (Eptam®), molinate (Ordram®), pebulate (Tillam®), prosulfocarb (Boxer® Gold*), thiobencarb (Saturn®), triallate (Avadex®), vernolate (Vernam®) Phosphorodithioates: bensulide (Prefar®) Benzofurans: ethofumesate (Tramat®) GROUP K Inhibitors of cell division / Inhibitors of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA inhibitors) Acetamides: napropamide (Devrinol®) Chloroacetamides: dimethenamid (Frontier®-P, Outlook®), metolachlor (Boxer® Gold*, Bounce®, Dual® Gold, Primextra® Gold*), propachlor (Ramrod®, Prothal®*) Isoxazolines: proxasulfone (Sakura®) GROUP L Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem I (PSI inhibitors) Bipyridyls: diquat (Reglone®, Revolver®, Spray Seed®*), paraquat (Gramoxone®, Nuquat®, Shirquat®, Spray Seed®*, Alliance®*) GROUP M Inhibitors of EPSP synthase Glycines: glyphosate (Gladiator®, Roundup®, Trounce®*, Illico®*, Arsenal Xpress®*, Broadway®*, Resolva®, Weedmaster®, Concentrate Tough Roundup®* Weedkiller) GROUP N Inhibitors of glutamine synthetase Phosphinic acids: glufosinate (Basta®, Biffo®, Liberty®) GROUP O Inhibitors of cell wall (cellulose) synthesis Nitriles: dichlobenil (Casoron®) Benzamides: isoxaben (Gallery®, X-Pand®*) GROUP P Inhibitors of auxin transport Phthalamates: naptalam (Alanap-L®) GROUP Q Bleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis unknown target Triazoles: amitrole (Amitrole®, Illico®*, Alliance®*) Isoxazolidinones: clomazone (Command®, Director®, Viper®*) GROUP R Inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase (DHP inhibitors) Carbamates: asulam (Asulox®) GROUP Z Herbicides with unknown and probably diverse sites of action Arylaminopropionic acids: flamprop (Mataven L®) Dicarboxylic acids: endothal (Endothal®) Organoarsenicals: DSMA (disodium methylarsonate) (Methar®), MSMA (Daconate®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. This strategy is a guide only and does not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. Always follow the product label for specific use instructions. While all effort has been taken with the information supplied in this document no responsibility, actual or implied, is taken for the day to day accuracy of product or active constituent specific information. Readers should check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and actives. The data base can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au. The information given in this strategy is provided in good faith and without any liability for loss or damage suffered as a result of its application and use. Advice given in this strategy is valid as at 27 June 2013. All previous versions of this strategy are now invalid. Phone: 02 6230 6399 Email: info@cropLifeaustralia.org.au Fax: (02) 6230 6355 Website: www.croplifeaustralia.org.au 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 4 26/03/2014 2:07:46 PM

152. BROAD-SPECTRUM Controls toughest broadleaf weeds including glyphosate resistant weeds. FAST 3 to 5 times faster than glyphosate or 2,4-D. FLEXIBLE – Preplant flexibility. – Wide range of crops. 1 2 3 Sharpen is an innovative new herbicide developed by BASF which represents a new standard in broadleaf weed control. Sharpen is a highly effective herbicide with both contact and systemic activity on a wide range of broadleaf weeds including fleabane, sow thistle and capeweed. In contrast to several other group G products Sharpen has strong activity on a wide range of broadleaf weeds and importantly provides standalone control. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. This brochure is intended as general advice. Disclaimer: The information submitted in this publication is based on current BASF knowledge and experience. In view of the many factors that may affect its application, this data does not relieve the user from carrying out their own tests. The data does not imply assurance of certain properties or of suitability for a specific purpose. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that any proprietary rights and existing laws and legislation are observed. BASF Australia Limited. Level 12, 28 Freshwater Place Southbank Victoria 3006, Australia. ©Copyright BASF 2014 ®Registered trademark of BASF. Toll Free: 1800 558 399 agro.basf.com.au Sharpen ® Broadleaf herbicide Flexible fallow and preplant control of broadleaf weeds BASF0061 Sharpen Guide.indd 1 14/03/2014 4:33 pm

15. 13 WARNING — When spraying use extreme caution and carefully consider the possibility of spray drift onto susceptible plants – e.g. cotton, canola, lucerne, grapevines, horticultural crops, belah and kurrajong trees. Harvest aid or salvage spraying of winter crops Salvage spraying or pre-harvest desiccation is required in some years to desiccate weeds and assist timely harvesting of winter crops. Situations do arise due to late establishing weeds combined with wet and prolonged springs or harvest periods, where salvage spraying may be necessary. IMPORTANT NOTE: Before using these products for this use check registration. Weeds such as skeleton weed, bindweed, melons, sowthistle, prickly lettuce, fat hen and New Zealand spinach can interfere with harvesting whilst weed seeds such as saffron thistle, rough poppy, Mexican poppy and black/field bindweed can contaminate grain. Chemical 2,4-D LV Ester 680 g/L 2,4-D Amine 700 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 470 g/L Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg + Glyphosate 540 g/L Diquat 200 g/L Diquat 200 g/L Paraquat 250 g/L Herbicide product LV Ester 680 Amicide®Advance 700 Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® DST® Ally® + Weedmaster Argo Reglone® Reglone® Gramoxone® Registered/Permit Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Use Harvest aid/ Salvage spray Harvest aid/ Salvage spray Harvest aid/ Weed control Harvest aid/Weed control (in-crop spraytopping) Desiccation/ Weed control Preharvest cut - ting application Desiccation Pre-harvest crop desic - cation Pre-harvest weed control In-crop spraytopping Crop Winter cereals Winter cereals Wheat Field pea, faba bean Field pea, faba bean, chickpea, lentil Hay/silage Chickpea Canola, linseed, peas, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, lupin Wheat Field pea, lupin, chickpea, faba bean, lentil and vetch Rate 1.7 L/ha 1.1–1.5 L/ha 1.0–2.1 L/ha 0.365–0.78 L/ha 0.78–2.1 L/ha 1.4–4.1 L/ha 5 g/ha Ally® + 0.58–1.2 L/ha Weedmaster Argo Canola 1.5–3 L/ha; linseed, peas, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, lupin 2–3 L/ha 1, 2 or 3 L/ha 400 or 800 mL/ha Weeds Desiccate broad - leaf weeds Desiccate broadleaf weeds Annual weeds Annual ryegrass Annual weeds Not applicable Registered Not applicable Not stated Annual ryegrass Spraying timing After the dough stage After the dough stage Late dough onwards At or after crop maturity At or after crop maturity Refer to label At or after crop maturity Refer to label Refer to label When ryegrass is at the optimum timing. Refer to label. Harvest WHP Nil when used as directed Nil when used as directed 7 days 7 days 7 days Refer to label 7 days Canola 4 days; peas, lupin, linseed not stated; lentil, chickpea, faba bean 2 days Nil 7 days Application Ground/Aerial Ground/Aerial Ground Ground Ground/Aerial Ground/Aerial Not stated Ground/Aerial Ground/ Aerial Ground Comments Beware of sensi - tive crops nearby Beware of sensitive crops nearby Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting – Not to be applied on crops to be used for seed or sprouting – – Reduction in crop yield may occur if the crop is less advanced relative to the ryegrass

153. 40 Table 6. Herbicides for presowing seedbed weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Salvage seedbed preparation Tribenuron- methyl 750 g/kg Metosulam 100 g/L Carfentrazone- ethyl 240 g/L Saflufenacil 700 g/kg Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Flumioxazin 500 g/kg Pyraflufen-ethyl 2.1 g/L + 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Pyraflufen-ethyl 20g/L Fluroxpyr 333 g/L Clopyralid 600 g/L Dicamba 500 g/L Dicamba 700 g/kg Paraquat + Diquat 135 g + 115 g/L Paraquat 250 g/L Amitrole 250 g/L + Paraquat 125 g/L Glyphosate 570 g/L Glyphosate 470 g/L Glyphosate 510 g/L Express® Eclipse® 100 SC Hammer® s Sharpen® WG Goal® Valor® 500 WG Pyresta® Ecopar® Starane™ Advanced b Lontrel™ Advanced # Kamba® 500 g Cadence® Spra y . S eed® 250 Gramoxone® 250 Alliance® Roundup Ultra® Max g Weedmaster® DST® g Raze® Crop type W,B,O AC AC W,B,O,CH, FP,FB,L,LE AC AC AC WC W, B, CH WC, C AC AC AC AC WC, C, F, L AC AC AC aircraft (A) or ground (B) AB AB B B AB B B B AB AB AB AB B B B AB AB AB Weeds controlled (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (grams) (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Always add non ionic-surfactant at 100 mL/100 L spray volume. For best results tankmix with recommended label rates of glyphosate. – – Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. 9–26 Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. Add Bonza® adjuvant at 1% (Sharpen® WG herbicide may be used alone with a suitable adjuvant for control of volunteer cotton seedlings including Roundup Ready® Flex cotton. Canola has a 16 week plantback.) 75 Always apply with recommended label rates of glyphosate, paraquat or paraquat/diquat mixtures. Addition of Goal® will improve knockdown and increase speed of control. – Always add label rate of tankmix partner plus Hasten™ or Quicken™ at 0.5 L/100L. 0.25–0.5 i Always add with recommended rate of glyphosate at no less than coarse to very coarse droplets. – Apply as a tankmix with Raze® or other glyphosate product. Apply when weeds are actively growing and at the 2–6-leaf growth stage. Addition of Hot-up™ Spray Adjuvant at 0.5% v/v may be beneficial when applying Ecopar® with a glyphosate herbicide. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L of spray. Plant-back for wheat, barley and chickpea is 7 days for rates up to 1.5 L/ha. – Observe plant-back with both cereal and broadleaf crops. Lontrel™ can bind tightly to stubble. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. 0.8–2.4 Use lower rates for full soil disturbance and rates greater than 1 L/ha for minimum soil disturbance at seeding. See label. Add wetting agent where water volume is above 100 L/ha. – Use lower rates for full soil disturbance and higher rates for minimum soil disturbance at seeding. See label. Add wetting agent where water volume is above 100 L/ha. – 0.625–0.95* Lower rates on small weeds and full soil disturbance. No surfactant required. 0.38–1.15* 0.7–1.0 Lower rates with young weeds and full soil disturbance. Wetting agent not normally required – see label. annual phalaris – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 – 0.625–0.95 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.0 annual ryegrass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 barley grass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.35–1.0 bedstraw – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – – black bindweed 25 i – – – 75 – – – 0.45 t – 0.28 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – – 1.2–1.9 – – brome grass – – – 9–26 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 0.35–1.4 caltrop 25 – – – 75 30 i – 0.3 t – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – – 0.425–1.3 – – canola – volunteer – – – 9–26 – 30 i – – – – – 1.8–2.4 l 1.8–2.4 l 1.5–2.8 l – – – capeweed – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – 75 y z 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 – 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 0.75–1.4 chickpea–volunteer – – – – – – 0.9 i – – 75 y – – – – – – – – cereals – volunteer – – – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i o – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.33–1.0 cleavers – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – – – – deadnettle 25 or 25 i – – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i 0.1–0.2 † – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.425–1.3 – – dock – – – – 75 – 0.5 e i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c – – – 1.2–1.9 0.76–1.9 0.7–1.8 erodium – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i j – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 x 2.0–2.8 1.2–1.9 1.44–1.9 0.7–1.8 w faba bean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – 75 y z – – – – – – – – fleabane – – – 17–34 – – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 – – – fieldpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c – – 2.0–2.8 0.32–0.95* – – fumitory – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.32–0.95* 0.76–1.5* 0.7–1.0 goosefoot – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.32–0.56 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 – 2.0–2.8 0.625–0.95 – 0.7–1.0 lesser swine cress – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – 9–26 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–1.8 m – – 0.32–0.95* 0.76–1.5* 0.7–1.0 marshmallow – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † 0.6 – – – – – 2.0–2.8 – – – medics 30 50 – 9–26 – 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16-0.24 c 115–170 c 1.2–1.8 v – 2.0–2.8 – – – Mexican poppy – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 – 0.625–0.95 – 0.7–1.0 Muskweed – – – 9–26 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – 9–26 75 – 0.5 f i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 f 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.3 New Zealand spinach 20 – – – 75 – – – – – 0.28 200 0.8–2.4 – – 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.0 Paterson’s curse – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 1.2–3.2 – 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3

212. 99 Fungicide compatibilities Lontrel™ SL, 300 g/L clopyralid (present as triisopropanolamine salt) (+Hasten™) – Dow Agrosciences – – – – Physically compatible, very good crop safety. – – – LVE Agritone®, 570 g/L MCPA (present as the 2-ethylhexyl ester) – Nufarm Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible with MCPA LVE 500 g/L ai. (+Hasten™). Very good crop safety. Any adjuvant recommended for use with Prosaro® may be used. – Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Mataven® 90, 90 g/L flamprop-M-methyl – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – Physically compatible. Very good crop safety, negligible increase in crop effects, Hasten™ used as adjuvant. Mataven® label indicates compatibility with Uptake™. This is the preferred adjuvant when mixing with Prosaro®. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Paragon® 500 g/L MCPA (present as the ethylhexyl ester) + 50 g/L picolinafen – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Tigrex® 250 g/L MCPA as ethylhexl ester + 25 g/L diflufenican – Bayer CropScience Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. Crop safety with Tigrex® is very good even though Hasten™ was used in all trials, against the recommendation for use of Tigrex®. The use of a non ionic-surfactant rather than a crop oil should further improve crop safety. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Topik® 240 EC, 240 g/L clodinafop propargyl + cloquintocet-mexyl 125 mL/ha – Syngenta Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if used late in the season. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Topik® application. Recommended adjuvant Uptake™ 0.5% or D-C-Trate 1%. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Tordon™ 75-D, 300 g/L 2,4-D (as the triisopropanolamine salt) + 75 g/L picloram (as the triisopropanolamine salt) – Dow Agrosciences – – – – Physically compatible. No information on crop safety of the mixture is available. The use of an adjuvant with Tordon™ 75-D is NOT recommended. This may compromise efficacy of Prosaro®. – – – Tristar® Advance, 250 g/L diclofop-methyl + 13 g/L fenoxaprop-P-ethyl + 7.4 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – 1.5 L/ha – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if using Hasten™ adjuvant. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety and only use non-ionic surfactant. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Tristar Advance® application. BS1000® 0.25% recommended adjuvant. – – – Velocity® bromoxynil (mixed heptanoic and octanoic acid esters) + 37.5 g/L pyrasulfotole + 9.4 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – – – – Physically compatible. Limited data but good crop safety indicated. Use Hasten™ 1% or an alternative crop oil that is recommended for use with both products. – – – Wildcat® 110 EC, 110 g/L fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, + 30 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl 500 mL/ha – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. Good crop safety. BS1000® @ 0.25%. – – – Where there is a blank compatibility is not known, contact the manufacturer. Compatibility is dependent upon use pattern, rates, surfactants, compatibility agents, temperature and water quality. Mixtures generally require constant agitation. Mixing more than two products is not recommended. This chart only indicates which chemicals are compatible in mixtures at the time of compilation March 2012. Read the compatibility and crop safety sections of all labels before mixing. Mixing chemicals is at the user’s own risk. See tips for tank mixing page 19 . 3 way mixes can cause compatibility problems in some instances. Important to read critical comments on technical sheets and labels as some rates can cause an adverse crop effect. Product compatibility is sourced from technical notes and labels of the fungicide maufacturer. Both products and companies should be consulted prior to undertaking a tank mix. This chart is for wheat, however individual wheat varieties will need to be checked for suitability for use with any particular herbicide or fungicide listed here. In many cases it is useful to mix a herbicide and fungicide together to save on further application passes within a paddock. This has been more common in recent years with less varietal resistance to stripe rust. Mixing herbicides and fungicides whilst practical, can be risky. Many products may be Physically compatible, however interactions may occur between the herbicide and the fungicide which may reduce the efficacy of either or both products. Crop damage may also be greater when mixing herbicides and fungicides. An adjuvant recommended for one product in a tank mix may have an adverse effect on the other product. The same is true of water quality where solubility for one product might be quite different for the other. Whilst this table provides the best available information regarding common herbicide and fungicide mixtures, always consult with your advisor and product manufacturers before tankmixing herbicides with fungicides, and check for any updated technical information on such mixes.

211. 98 Table 34. Fungicide/herbicide compatibility chart for wheat Product Fungicides Herbicides Amistar® Xtra 200 g/L azoxystrobin, 80 g/L cyproconazole – Syngenta Hornet® 430 g/L tebuconazole – Nufarm Opera®, 85 g/L pyraclostrobin, 62.5 g/L epoxiconazole – Nufarm Opus® 125, 125 g/L epoxiconazole – Nufarm Prosaro®, 210 g/L prothioconazole, 210 g/L tebuconazole – Bayer CropScience Throttle® 500, 500 g/L propiconazole – Nufarm Tilt®, 250 g/L propiconazole – Syngenta Tilt® Xtra, 250 g/L propiconazole, 80 g/L cyproconazole – Syngenta 2,4-D LV Estercide Xtra 680, 680 g/L 2,4-D (present as the ethylhexyl ester) – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects including reduced growth and yield loss through phenoxy herbicide damage, if applied at the incorrect crop growth stage. The use of an adjuvant in the mix is likely to result in increased damage. If using an adjuvant limit Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha and adhere to all recommendations on the use of phenoxy herbicides for the crop. Note that generally adjuvants are not recommended with 2,4-D ester. Physically compatible with Estercide® Xtra 680. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Achieve® WG, 400 g/kg tralkoxydim – CropCare Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible, very good crop safety, with no indication the addition of Prosaro® increased crop effects. Hasten™ was used as the adjuvant. Supercharge® is generally recommended for use with Achieve® but has not been evaluated with Prosaro®. Any adjuvant recommended for use with Prosaro® may be used. Contact Achieve® manufacturer to confirm suitability of alternative adjuvants to Supercharge®. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Agritone® 750 SL, 750 g/L MCPA (as dimethylamine salt) + Hasten™ 1% – Nufarm Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible, No info on crop safety or efficacy available. BS1000® @ 0.25% recommended adjuvant. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with MCPA amine, ester LVE. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Ally® 7 g/ha, 600 g/kg metsulfuron-methyl (+ BS1000®) – DuPont – – Physically compatible with Associate®. Nufarm recommend including Chemwet® 1000. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Associate®. Nufarm recommend including Chemwet® 1000. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. The addition of Prosaro® to Ally® increased crop effects although effects were generally transient and crops recovered. This was done with the addition of Hasten™ adjuvant. The use of a non-ionic surfactant should improve crop safety although the rate required (0.25%) is higher than usually recommended for use with Ally®. Physically compatible with Associate®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – Amicide® Advance 700, 2,4-D (present as the dimethylamine and monomethylamine salts) – Nufarm Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects including reduced growth and yield loss through phenoxy herbicide damage, if applied at the incorrect crop growth stage . The use of an adjuvant in the mix is likely to result in increased damage. If using an adjuvant limit Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha and adhere to all recommendations on the use of phenoxy herbicides for the crop. Note that generally adjuvants are not recommended with Amicide® 625. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Atlantis® OD, 30 g/L mesosulfuron-methyl + 90 g/L mefenpyr-diethyl – Bayer CropScience – – – – Physically compatible. May result in increased crop effects, limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. BS1000® @ 0.25%,Hasten™ 1% or Rocket® 1% (chose adjuvant depending on weed target for Atlantis® OD.) – – – Axial® 100 EC, pinoxaden 100 g/L + cloquintocet- mexyl 25 g/L (+ Adigor® 0.5%) Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if used late in the season. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety. Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Axial® application.Use Adigor® 0.5% (as required for Axial® use). – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Cadence® WG, 700 g/kg (dicamba present as sodium salt) – Syngenta Not compatible. – – – Physically compatible. Good crop safety. Typical dicamba wilting effects on the crop are often observed within days of application, these effects have been transient in the trials conducted. – Not recommended. Not recommended. Hoegrass® 500, 500 g/L diclofop-methyl – Bayer CropScience Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – – – Physically compatible. May result in adverse crop effects if using hasten adjuvant. Limiting Prosaro® rate to 150 mL/ha should improve crop safety and only use non- ionic surfactant (BS1000® @ 0.25%) Adhere to the crop stage recommendations for Hoegrass® application. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Logran® 750 WG, 750 g/kg trisulfuron – Syngenta Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible with Nugran®. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. – Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available. Physically compatible. No info on crop safety or efficacy available.

126. 13 WARNING — When spraying use extreme caution and carefully consider the possibility of spray drift onto susceptible plants – e.g. cotton, canola, lucerne, grapevines, horticultural crops, belah and kurrajong trees. Harvest aid or salvage spraying of winter crops Salvage spraying or pre-harvest desiccation is required in some years to desiccate weeds and assist timely harvesting of winter crops. Situations do arise due to late establishing weeds combined with wet and prolonged springs or harvest periods, where salvage spraying may be necessary. IMPORTANT NOTE: Before using these products for this use check registration. Weeds such as skeleton weed, bindweed, melons, sowthistle, prickly lettuce, fat hen and New Zealand spinach can interfere with harvesting whilst weed seeds such as saffron thistle, rough poppy, Mexican poppy and black/field bindweed can contaminate grain. Chemical 2,4-D LV Ester 680 g/L 2,4-D Amine 700 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 540 g/L Glyphosate 470 g/L Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg + Glyphosate 540 g/L Diquat 200 g/L Diquat 200 g/L Paraquat 250 g/L Herbicide product LV Ester 680 Amicide®Advance 700 Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® Argo® Weedmaster® DST® Ally® + Weedmaster Argo Reglone® Reglone® Gramoxone® Registered/Permit Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Registered Use Harvest aid/ Salvage spray Harvest aid/ Salvage spray Harvest aid/ Weed control Harvest aid/Weed control (in-crop spraytopping) Desiccation/ Weed control Preharvest cut - ting application Desiccation Pre-harvest crop desic - cation Pre-harvest weed control In-crop spraytopping Crop Winter cereals Winter cereals Wheat Field pea, faba bean Field pea, faba bean, chickpea, lentil Hay/silage Chickpea Canola, linseed, peas, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, lupin Wheat Field pea, lupin, chickpea, faba bean, lentil and vetch Rate 1.7 L/ha 1.1–1.5 L/ha 1.0–2.1 L/ha 0.365–0.78 L/ha 0.78–2.1 L/ha 1.4–4.1 L/ha 5 g/ha Ally® + 0.58–1.2 L/ha Weedmaster Argo Canola 1.5–3 L/ha; linseed, peas, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, lupin 2–3 L/ha 1, 2 or 3 L/ha 400 or 800 mL/ha Weeds Desiccate broad - leaf weeds Desiccate broadleaf weeds Annual weeds Annual ryegrass Annual weeds Not applicable Registered Not applicable Not stated Annual ryegrass Spraying timing After the dough stage After the dough stage Late dough onwards At or after crop maturity At or after crop maturity Refer to label At or after crop maturity Refer to label Refer to label When ryegrass is at the optimum timing. Refer to label. Harvest WHP Nil when used as directed Nil when used as directed 7 days 7 days 7 days Refer to label 7 days Canola 4 days; peas, lupin, linseed not stated; lentil, chickpea, faba bean 2 days Nil 7 days Application Ground/Aerial Ground/Aerial Ground Ground Ground/Aerial Ground/Aerial Not stated Ground/Aerial Ground/ Aerial Ground Comments Beware of sensi - tive crops nearby Beware of sensitive crops nearby Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting Do not use on crops intended for seed or sprouting – Not to be applied on crops to be used for seed or sprouting – – Reduction in crop yield may occur if the crop is less advanced relative to the ryegrass

29. 27 of high volatile esters present, so caution should be exercised when using these products. The compromise between minimising drift and achieving ideal coverage A significant part of minimising spray drift is the selection of equipment to reduce the number of small droplets produced. However, this in turn may affect coverage of the target, and therefore the possible effectiveness of the pesticide application. This aspect of spraying needs to be carefully considered when planning to spray. As the number of smaller droplets decreases, so does the coverage of the spray. Water rate may need to be increased to compensate for coverage. Reduce spray release height • O perate the boom at the minimum practical height. Drift hazard doubles as nozzle height doubles. If possible, angle nozzles forward 30° to allow lower boom height with double overlap. Lower heights however, can lead to more striping, as the boom sways and dips below the optimum height. • 110° n ozzles produce a higher percentage of fine droplets than 80° nozzles, however they allow a lower boom height while maintaining the required double overlap. • O perate within the pressure range recommended by the nozzle manufacturer. Production of driftable fine droplets increases as the operating pressure is increased. Lower volumes such as 30 to 40 L/ ha produce a higher percentage of fine droplets than higher spray volumes at the same pressure and nozzle design. Aircraft application has an inherently greater risk than ground rig application. This is due to a number of factors, including lower volume application, small droplet sizes, height of application, and turning and wing-tip vortices. An aircraft should not be used to apply herbicide in areas where highly susceptible crops are growing nearby. Size of the area treated When large areas are treated relatively large amounts of active herbicide is applied and the risk of off-target effects increases due to the length of time taken to apply the herbicide. Conditions such as temperature, humidity and wind direction may change during spraying. Applying volatile formulations to large areas increases the chances of vapour drift damage to susceptible crops and pastures. What is your ‘capture surface’? Targets vary in their ability to collect or capture spray droplets. Well grown, leafy crops are efficient collectors of droplets. Turbulent airflow normally carries spray droplets down into the crop within a very short distance. Fallow paddocks or seedling crops are poor catching surfaces. Drift hazard is far greater when applying herbicide in these situations or adjacent to these poor capture surfaces. The type of catching surface between the sprayed area and susceptible crops should always be considered in conjunction with the characteristics of the target area when assessing drift hazard. Nozzle selection for post-emergent herbicides and fungicides Overview Nozzle selection for application of post-emergent herbicides and fungicides to cereals should primarily focus on reducing the risk of spray drift without compromising efficacy. Drift, or loss is a significant issue facing the industry and spray applicators not only have a moral but a legal obligation to adopt drift management best practise. Late season application of fungicides and herbicides requires consideration for coverage and penetration issues that are usually not required for pre-emergent or summer/fallow applications. Fungi typically target specific plant parts such as stems, leaves, and heads or pods. These locations must be adequately covered by droplets for the fungicide to work, and this requires special approaches regarding what nozzle to use. Likewise some weeds may need to be selectively targeted within the crop canopy, potentially a far trickier proposition than knockdown applications. For many years the standard maxim was to spray these products with fine droplets because they were assumed to give the best coverage. But after many years of spray application research around the world, the current recommendation is to avoid fine droplets in preference to a coarse, directed spray applied at higher water volumes than what might be considered ‘normal’ application rates. The problem with fine drops In principle fine drops should mean greater coverage, that is if they actually land on the target and don’t blow away or evaporate. However, small droplets travel slowly and have little inertia/momentum so are easily displaced by wind and turbulence. Incidentally, the logic of increasing the spray pressure to force fine drops into the canopy is wrong. The acceleration of small droplets lasts only milliseconds and has no impact on the overall travel time of the droplet to the target. Spraying at high pressure not only increases the wear rate of nozzles, it also produces finer sprays with a corresponding increase in drift potential. Coarse droplets are the go Coarser sprays provide just as much coverage as long as water volume is sufficient (>80 L/ha). In terms of coverage, the droplet density (or number of drops/cm) is more important than droplet size, and adequate densities (efficacy) can be achieved with nozzles that produce coarse spray qualities. Coarser droplets also maintain their original direction of travel for a longer period of time, and in the case on TwinJets (or double outlet nozzles), can cover the forward and backward sides of the target more effectively. What nozzle? At TeeJet, we recommend 110° TwinJets (or dual pattern nozzles) for both post-emergent herbicides and fungicides. Choices include the Turbo TwinJet (TTJ), the Air Induction Turbo TwinJet (AITTJ) or the Air Induction Dual Pattern AI3070, a new nozzle specifically designed for fungicide application in cereal crops. Double outlet nozzle bodies and caps are also available for growers who might want to mount two conventional nozzles on the one nozzle body.

170. Mode of Action Groups (as at 27 June 2013) Produced courtesy CropLife Australia Limited, Locked Bag 916, Canberra ACT 2601. Phone (02) 6230 6399 Fax (02) 6230 6355 Website www.croplifeaustralia.org.au Email info@croplifeaustralia.org.au High Resistance Risk CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP A Inhibitors of acetyl coA carboxylase (Inhibitors of fat synthesis/ACC’ase inhibitors) Aryloxyphenoxypropionates: (Fops): clodinafop (Topik®), cyhalofop (Barnstorm®), diclofop (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*, Hoegrass®, Tristar® Advance*), fenoxaprop (Cheetah® Gold*,Tristar® Advance*, Wildcat®), fluazifop (Fusilade®), haloxyfop (Motsa®*, Verdict®, Exert®), propaquizafop (Shogun®), quizalofop (Targa®) Cyclohexanediones: (Dims): butroxydim (Factor®, Falcon®, Fusion®), clethodim (Motsa®*, Select®, Sequence®), profoxydim (Aura®), sethoxydim (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*, Sertin®), tepraloxydim (Arama®), tralkoxydim (Achieve®) Phenylpyrazoles: (Dens): pinoxaden (Axial®) GROUP B Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors) Sulfonylureas: (SUs): azimsulfuron (Gulliver®), bensulfuron (Londax®), chlorsulfuron (Glean®), ethoxysulfuron (Hero®), formasulfuron (Tribute®), halosulfuron (Sempra®), iodosulfuron (Hussar®), mesosulfuron (Atlantis®), metsulfuron (Ally®, Associate®, Harmony®* M, Trounce®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide), prosulfuron (Casper®), rimsulfuron (Titus®), sulfometuron (Oust®), sulfosulfuron (Monza®), thifensulfuron (Harmony®* M), triasulfuron, (Logran®, Logran® B-Power®*), tribenuron (Express®), trifloxysulfuron (Envoke®, Krismat®*) Imidazolinones: (Imis): imazamox (Raptor®, Claw®, Intervix®*), imazapic (Flame®, Midas®*, OnDuty®*, Sentry®*, Spark®), imazapyr (Arsenal Xpress®*, Midas®*, OnDuty®*, Intervix®*, Lightning®*), imazethapyr (Spinnaker®, Lightning®*) Triazolopyrimidines: (Sulfonamides): flumetsulam (Broadstrike®, Broadsword®), florasulam (Conclude®*,Torpedo®*, XPand®*), metosulam (Eclipse®), pyroxsulam (Crusader®) Pyrimidinylthiobenzoates: bispyribac (Nominee®), pyrithiobac (Staple®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. Aim to:  Reduce weed numbers by preventing seed set.  Avoid spraying dense weed infestations and begin a cropping phase with low weed numbers.  Use as many different control options (chemical and non-chemical) as possible in both crop and pasture phases. When using herbicides:  Rotate herbicides from different groups.  Reduce reliance on high-risk herbicides (Groups A and B).  Make every herbicide application count – use the rate that kills.  The ‘double knock’ herbicide option; before sowing – glyphosate followed by paraquat + diquat. Preventing herbicide resistance Weed control options for crop and pasture phases Pasture phase Cropping phase Chemical Non-chemical Chemical Non-chemical Spray topping Winter cleaning Chemical Fallow Competitive pasture Make silage or hay Cultivated fallow Grazing Crop topping Pre-sow knockdown Selective spraytop Selective herbicides Lower risk herbicides Rotating modes of action Competitive crop Timely cultivation Green manure crop Later sowing Silage or hay crops Collect or burn weed seeds 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 2 26/03/2014 2:06:51 PM

59. Mode of Action Groups (as at 27 June 2013) Produced courtesy CropLife Australia Limited, Locked Bag 916, Canberra ACT 2601. Phone (02) 6230 6399 Fax (02) 6230 6355 Website www.croplifeaustralia.org.au Email info@croplifeaustralia.org.au High Resistance Risk CHEMICAL FAMILY ACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME) GROUP A Inhibitors of acetyl coA carboxylase (Inhibitors of fat synthesis/ACC’ase inhibitors) Aryloxyphenoxypropionates: (Fops): clodinafop (Topik®), cyhalofop (Barnstorm®), diclofop (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*, Hoegrass®, Tristar® Advance*), fenoxaprop (Cheetah® Gold*,Tristar® Advance*, Wildcat®), fluazifop (Fusilade®), haloxyfop (Motsa®*, Verdict®, Exert®), propaquizafop (Shogun®), quizalofop (Targa®) Cyclohexanediones: (Dims): butroxydim (Factor®, Falcon®, Fusion®), clethodim (Motsa®*, Select®, Sequence®), profoxydim (Aura®), sethoxydim (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*, Sertin®), tepraloxydim (Arama®), tralkoxydim (Achieve®) Phenylpyrazoles: (Dens): pinoxaden (Axial®) GROUP B Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors) Sulfonylureas: (SUs): azimsulfuron (Gulliver®), bensulfuron (Londax®), chlorsulfuron (Glean®), ethoxysulfuron (Hero®), formasulfuron (Tribute®), halosulfuron (Sempra®), iodosulfuron (Hussar®), mesosulfuron (Atlantis®), metsulfuron (Ally®, Associate®, Harmony®* M, Trounce®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide), prosulfuron (Casper®), rimsulfuron (Titus®), sulfometuron (Oust®), sulfosulfuron (Monza®), thifensulfuron (Harmony®* M), triasulfuron, (Logran®, Logran® B-Power®*), tribenuron (Express®), trifloxysulfuron (Envoke®, Krismat®*) Imidazolinones: (Imis): imazamox (Raptor®, Claw®, Intervix®*), imazapic (Flame®, Midas®*, OnDuty®*, Sentry®*, Spark®), imazapyr (Arsenal Xpress®*, Midas®*, OnDuty®*, Intervix®*, Lightning®*), imazethapyr (Spinnaker®, Lightning®*) Triazolopyrimidines: (Sulfonamides): flumetsulam (Broadstrike®, Broadsword®), florasulam (Conclude®*,Torpedo®*, XPand®*), metosulam (Eclipse®), pyroxsulam (Crusader®) Pyrimidinylthiobenzoates: bispyribac (Nominee®), pyrithiobac (Staple®) * This product contains more than one active constituent. Aim to:  Reduce weed numbers by preventing seed set.  Avoid spraying dense weed infestations and begin a cropping phase with low weed numbers.  Use as many different control options (chemical and non-chemical) as possible in both crop and pasture phases. When using herbicides:  Rotate herbicides from different groups.  Reduce reliance on high-risk herbicides (Groups A and B).  Make every herbicide application count – use the rate that kills.  The ‘double knock’ herbicide option; before sowing – glyphosate followed by paraquat + diquat. Preventing herbicide resistance Weed control options for crop and pasture phases Pasture phase Cropping phase Chemical Non-chemical Chemical Non-chemical Spray topping Winter cleaning Chemical Fallow Competitive pasture Make silage or hay Cultivated fallow Grazing Crop topping Pre-sow knockdown Selective spraytop Selective herbicides Lower risk herbicides Rotating modes of action Competitive crop Timely cultivation Green manure crop Later sowing Silage or hay crops Collect or burn weed seeds 11914 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 2 26/03/2014 2:06:51 PM

140. 27 of high volatile esters present, so caution should be exercised when using these products. The compromise between minimising drift and achieving ideal coverage A significant part of minimising spray drift is the selection of equipment to reduce the number of small droplets produced. However, this in turn may affect coverage of the target, and therefore the possible effectiveness of the pesticide application. This aspect of spraying needs to be carefully considered when planning to spray. As the number of smaller droplets decreases, so does the coverage of the spray. Water rate may need to be increased to compensate for coverage. Reduce spray release height • O perate the boom at the minimum practical height. Drift hazard doubles as nozzle height doubles. If possible, angle nozzles forward 30° to allow lower boom height with double overlap. Lower heights however, can lead to more striping, as the boom sways and dips below the optimum height. • 110° n ozzles produce a higher percentage of fine droplets than 80° nozzles, however they allow a lower boom height while maintaining the required double overlap. • O perate within the pressure range recommended by the nozzle manufacturer. Production of driftable fine droplets increases as the operating pressure is increased. Lower volumes such as 30 to 40 L/ ha produce a higher percentage of fine droplets than higher spray volumes at the same pressure and nozzle design. Aircraft application has an inherently greater risk than ground rig application. This is due to a number of factors, including lower volume application, small droplet sizes, height of application, and turning and wing-tip vortices. An aircraft should not be used to apply herbicide in areas where highly susceptible crops are growing nearby. Size of the area treated When large areas are treated relatively large amounts of active herbicide is applied and the risk of off-target effects increases due to the length of time taken to apply the herbicide. Conditions such as temperature, humidity and wind direction may change during spraying. Applying volatile formulations to large areas increases the chances of vapour drift damage to susceptible crops and pastures. What is your ‘capture surface’? Targets vary in their ability to collect or capture spray droplets. Well grown, leafy crops are efficient collectors of droplets. Turbulent airflow normally carries spray droplets down into the crop within a very short distance. Fallow paddocks or seedling crops are poor catching surfaces. Drift hazard is far greater when applying herbicide in these situations or adjacent to these poor capture surfaces. The type of catching surface between the sprayed area and susceptible crops should always be considered in conjunction with the characteristics of the target area when assessing drift hazard. Nozzle selection for post-emergent herbicides and fungicides Overview Nozzle selection for application of post-emergent herbicides and fungicides to cereals should primarily focus on reducing the risk of spray drift without compromising efficacy. Drift, or loss is a significant issue facing the industry and spray applicators not only have a moral but a legal obligation to adopt drift management best practise. Late season application of fungicides and herbicides requires consideration for coverage and penetration issues that are usually not required for pre-emergent or summer/fallow applications. Fungi typically target specific plant parts such as stems, leaves, and heads or pods. These locations must be adequately covered by droplets for the fungicide to work, and this requires special approaches regarding what nozzle to use. Likewise some weeds may need to be selectively targeted within the crop canopy, potentially a far trickier proposition than knockdown applications. For many years the standard maxim was to spray these products with fine droplets because they were assumed to give the best coverage. But after many years of spray application research around the world, the current recommendation is to avoid fine droplets in preference to a coarse, directed spray applied at higher water volumes than what might be considered ‘normal’ application rates. The problem with fine drops In principle fine drops should mean greater coverage, that is if they actually land on the target and don’t blow away or evaporate. However, small droplets travel slowly and have little inertia/momentum so are easily displaced by wind and turbulence. Incidentally, the logic of increasing the spray pressure to force fine drops into the canopy is wrong. The acceleration of small droplets lasts only milliseconds and has no impact on the overall travel time of the droplet to the target. Spraying at high pressure not only increases the wear rate of nozzles, it also produces finer sprays with a corresponding increase in drift potential. Coarse droplets are the go Coarser sprays provide just as much coverage as long as water volume is sufficient (>80 L/ha). In terms of coverage, the droplet density (or number of drops/cm) is more important than droplet size, and adequate densities (efficacy) can be achieved with nozzles that produce coarse spray qualities. Coarser droplets also maintain their original direction of travel for a longer period of time, and in the case on TwinJets (or double outlet nozzles), can cover the forward and backward sides of the target more effectively. What nozzle? At TeeJet, we recommend 110° TwinJets (or dual pattern nozzles) for both post-emergent herbicides and fungicides. Choices include the Turbo TwinJet (TTJ), the Air Induction Turbo TwinJet (AITTJ) or the Air Induction Dual Pattern AI3070, a new nozzle specifically designed for fungicide application in cereal crops. Double outlet nozzle bodies and caps are also available for growers who might want to mount two conventional nozzles on the one nozzle body.

80. 78 Table 19. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 SC Metribuzin 750 g/kg Sencor® 750 WG Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Picolinafen 750g/kg Sniper® MCPA 250 g/L (present as sodium salt only) MCPA 250 a MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Apply at crop growth stage 2–6 nodes Before 3rd node Before 3rd node After 2 node but before flowering 3rd node to flowering 3 node to before flowering 6 node to before flowering 3 node to before flowering Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (grams) (kilograms) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Do not add any spray additives. May cause yellowing, reduced height and delayed flowering. 0.28–0.58 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate and influence of variety and disease. Best results with moist soil surface. Two sunny days before spraying improves crop tolerance. See label. 180–380 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate and influence of disease and variety. Best results with moist soil surface. Two sunny days before spraying improves crop tolerance. See label. – Not on Wirrega field pea post-emergent. Use higher rate on larger weeds. 0.2 (S) Apply before crop canopy obscures weeds. Caution on alkaline soils. – Apply when most wild radish is at the 2–6 leaf stage and capeweeds at 2–4-leaf stage. Maybe some residual control. Not on high pH soils. Not in northern NSW. – May delay crop maturity. – May delay crop maturity. Apply early post-emergence after the 3rd node stage and before the start of flowering. Weeds 4–6-leaf stage. annual phalaris – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – 0.28–0.58 (S) – 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – barley grass – – – – (S) – – – – bedstraw – – – – (S) – – – – brome grass – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – 50 (S) – – capeweed – – – – 0.2 (S) – – – cereals – volunteer – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – charlock – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – 0.9–1.4 0.08–0.1 b chickweed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – corn gromwell – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – cotula – common – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – deadnettle – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 – – – fumitory – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – lupin – volunteer 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – marshmallow 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – mustards 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.15–0.2 – 0.9–1.4 – mustard – Indian hedge 25 – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – (S) 0.2 (S) 33–50 – – prickly – lettuce – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – – 0.08–0.1 b radish – wild 25 (S) 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 – – – rough poppy – – – – 0.2 (S) – – – shepherds purse 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – skeleton weed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 (S) – – – sowthistle – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – spiny emex – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – toad rush – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – turnip weed 25 – – 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – – – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – wild oats – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.15–0.2 – 0.9–1.4 – winter grass – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – wireweed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – (S) 0.2 (S) – – – Rec water L/ha Boom 50–150 50–100 50–100 80–200 70–100 50 min 220–300 30–120 Herbicide group B C C C F F I I a = L abel rates will change if a different salt is present. b = A dd 125–150 mL Agility®. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

191. 78 Table 19. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 SC Metribuzin 750 g/kg Sencor® 750 WG Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Picolinafen 750g/kg Sniper® MCPA 250 g/L (present as sodium salt only) MCPA 250 a MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Apply at crop growth stage 2–6 nodes Before 3rd node Before 3rd node After 2 node but before flowering 3rd node to flowering 3 node to before flowering 6 node to before flowering 3 node to before flowering Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (grams) (kilograms) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Do not add any spray additives. May cause yellowing, reduced height and delayed flowering. 0.28–0.58 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate and influence of variety and disease. Best results with moist soil surface. Two sunny days before spraying improves crop tolerance. See label. 180–380 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate and influence of disease and variety. Best results with moist soil surface. Two sunny days before spraying improves crop tolerance. See label. – Not on Wirrega field pea post-emergent. Use higher rate on larger weeds. 0.2 (S) Apply before crop canopy obscures weeds. Caution on alkaline soils. – Apply when most wild radish is at the 2–6 leaf stage and capeweeds at 2–4-leaf stage. Maybe some residual control. Not on high pH soils. Not in northern NSW. – May delay crop maturity. – May delay crop maturity. Apply early post-emergence after the 3rd node stage and before the start of flowering. Weeds 4–6-leaf stage. annual phalaris – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – 0.28–0.58 (S) – 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – barley grass – – – – (S) – – – – bedstraw – – – – (S) – – – – brome grass – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – 50 (S) – – capeweed – – – – 0.2 (S) – – – cereals – volunteer – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – charlock – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – 0.9–1.4 0.08–0.1 b chickweed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – corn gromwell – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – cotula – common – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – deadnettle – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 – – – fumitory – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – lupin – volunteer 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – marshmallow 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – mustards 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.15–0.2 – 0.9–1.4 – mustard – Indian hedge 25 – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – (S) 0.2 (S) 33–50 – – prickly – lettuce – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – – 0.08–0.1 b radish – wild 25 (S) 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 – – – rough poppy – – – – 0.2 (S) – – – shepherds purse 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – skeleton weed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 (S) – – – sowthistle – 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 – – – – spiny emex – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – toad rush – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – 0.2 (S) – – – turnip weed 25 – – 0.85 or 1.1 0.2 – – – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – wild oats – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 0.28–0.58 180–380 0.85 or 1.1 0.15–0.2 – 0.9–1.4 – winter grass – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – – – – – wireweed – 0.28–0.58 180–380 – (S) 0.2 (S) – – – Rec water L/ha Boom 50–150 50–100 50–100 80–200 70–100 50 min 220–300 30–120 Herbicide group B C C C F F I I a = L abel rates will change if a different salt is present. b = A dd 125–150 mL Agility®. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

13. 11 Table 1. Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow commencement/maintenance and presowing seedbed weed control The following plant back periods are a guide only based on label recommendations. The time indicated between application and safe crop rotation intervals may depend on a range of factors including rainfall (amount and intensity), soil type (pH, soil biological activity and organic carbon), soil type variability within a paddock, temperature and herbicide rate. Some crops are more sensitive to various herbicide groups than others. Always take a conservative approach to plant back periods, especially with sensitive or high input crops. Ally® A Amicide® Advance (700g/L) B Baton® Low (800 g/kg amine) B Cadence® B Eclipse® 100 SC LV Ester 680 (680 g/L) B Express® Flame® Garlon™ Goal® Grazon™ Extra D Hotshot™ D Kamba® 500 B Lontrel™ Advanced 600 g/L E Pyresta® B Starane™ Advanced F Sharpen® WG Terrain™ 500 WG Weedmaster® Argo® Herbicide Group B I I I I I I I I I B I I I B B I G I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I GI GI I I I G G M Specific details pH 5.6–8.5 H <0.5 L/ha 0.5–0.98 L/ha 0.98–1.5 L/ha <0.4 kg/ha 0.4–0.9 kg/ha 0.9–1.3 kg/ha 140 g/ha 200 g/ha 400 g/ha <0.51 L/ha 0.51–1.0 L/ha 1.0–1.6 L/ha NNSW 0.2 L/ha NNSW 0.3 L/ha NNSW 0.4 L/ha NNSW 0.6 L/ha SNSW <0.5 L/ha NNSW <750 mL/ha SNSW <500 mL/ha 0.20 L/ha 0.28 L/ha 0.56 L/ha NNSW <0.0375 L/ha NNSW 0.0375–0.15 L/ha NNSW >0.15 L/ha SNSW <0.15 L/ha SNSW <0.15–0.25 L/ha SNSW >0.25 L/ha 250–500 mL/ha 900 mL/ha 0.225 L/ha 0.45 L/ha 0.9 L/ha 9–26 g/ha 30 g/ha Crop Barley 6w 1d 1d 3d 1d 1d 3d 1d 7d 14d Do not plant susceptible crops until 9 months after application of Eclipse®. Susceptible crops include canola or other brassica crops, field peas, beans, medics, lucerne and sub-clover. 1d 1d 3d 3d Minimum recropping periods are influenced by numerous factors. See label for further information. 7d Goal® herbicide at up to 75 mL/ha may be safely applied 1 day prior to planting wheat, barley, oats, triticale, canola, lupins, fababeans, field peas, lucerne, clover, medics, ryegrass, phalaris and cockfoot and 7 days minimum prior to planting cotton or soybeans, provided minimal tillage planting equipment is used with minimal soil disturbance. 2mo 2mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d Susceptible crops should not be sown for at least 2 years when Lontrel™ Advanced at more than 0.15 L/ha has been used in northern Australia. 7d 7d 7d 1d 1d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Do not disturb weeds by cultivation, sowing or grazing for 6 hours of daylight following treatment of annual weeds and 7 days for perennial weeds. Canola 9mo 14d 21d 28d 14d 21d 28d 7d 10d 14d 14d 21d 28d – – 2mo 4mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 7d G 10d G 14d G 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 14d 21d 16w Canola (Clearfield) 10d Cereal Rye 6w 1d 7d 14d 1d 7d 14d Chickpea 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d – 21d 28d 7d 14d 21d 7d 4mo 6mo 6mo 6mo 24mo 6mo 20mo – 21d 28d 3mo 6mo 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Cotton 10d 14d 21d 10d 14d 21d 7d 7d 14d 10d 14d 21d 14d 9mo 7d 7d 14d 3mo 6mo 10d 14d 14d 14d 28d 6w 1hr Faba Bean 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 4mo 4mo 6mo 6mo 24mo 6mo 20mo 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Field Pea 9mo 7d 14d 14d 7d 14d 14d – 14d 21d 7d 14d 14d 24mo 20mo – 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 1hr 1hr Lentils 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Linseed 9mo 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d Lucerne 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 6mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 24mo 6mo 20mo 9mo 9mo 7d 7d Lupins 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 1hr 1hr Maize 14mo 1d 3d 7d 7/21d C 7d 1d 3d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 1hr Medic 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 14d 21d 7d 7d 10d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d Millet 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d Millet (Japanese) 14mo Millet (Panorama) 14mo Millet (White French) 14mo Mungbean 5d 5d 10d 7/21d C 5mo 5d 5d 10d 1hr Navy Bean 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d Oats 9mo 3d 3d 7d 3d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 3d 3d 7d 3d 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 3d 3d 1hr 1hr Pigeon Pea 5d 5d 10d 5d 5d 10d Safflower 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 14d 21d 28d 7d 14d 21d 14d 21d 28d 7d 14d Sorghum 14mo 3d 7d 10d 3d 7d 10d 1d 3d 7d 3d 7d 10d 7/21d C 7d 3mo 1d 3d 7d 7d 14d 3d 7d 7d 7d 7d 1d 1hr Soybean 14mo 14d 14d 21d 14d 14d 21d 5d 5d 10d 14d 14d 21d 7/21d C 7d 5mo 5d 5d 10d 3mo 6mo 14d 14d 7d 7d 14d 1d 1hr Sub Clover 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 14d 21d 7d 7d 10d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr Sunflower 14mo 7d 10d 14d 7d 10d 14d 1d 7d 14d 7d 10d 14d 7/21d C 7d 5mo 1d 7d 14d 3mo 6mo 7d 10d 7d 7d 7d 16w 1hr Triticale 6w 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d Vetch 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d Wheat 10d 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d 7d 3d 7d 2mo 2mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 1d 3d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr KEY: hr = hours, d = days, w = weeks, mo = months A F or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown through to maturity) should be determined on a small scale, in the previous season, before sowing into larger areas. B W hen applied to dry soils at least 15 mm of rain must fall prior to the commencement of the plantback period. C Expr ess® is broken down in soil, primarily by chemical hydrolysis, but to a lesser degree by microbial degredation. Breakdown is fastest in warm, wet acid soils and slower in cold alkaline soils. For these summer crops, if minimum soil temperatures at planting depth are less than or equal to 15°C for three consecutive days, then plantback intervals should be extended to 21 days. D B lack cracking clays. During drought conditions the plantback period may be significantly longer. E A dditional rainfall requirements need to be observed – see label. F D o not plant susceptible crops, including cotton, pigeon peas and other pulse crops, into irrigated fields with soils containing less than 25% clay content, within 12 months of treatment with Starane™ Advanced. G Plan tback refers to rapeseed not canola. H S oil pH determined by 1:5 soil:water suspension method.

34. 32 Table 4. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Grass weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Imazapic 240 g/L Flame® Pre-emergent Paraquat 250 g/L Gramoxone® 250 Paraquat + Diquat 135 + 115 g/L Spray.Seed® 250 Amitrole 250 g/L + Paraquat 125 g/L Alliance® Glyphosate 570 g/L Roundup Ultra® Max Glyphosate 540 g/L Weedmaster® Argo® Glyphosate 470 g/L Weedmaster® DST® Grass weeds (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) annual phalaris – Fallow residual pre-emergent herbicide. Apply to paddock at least 4 months before planting wheat, barley, chickpea. 200 mm rainfall required for plant-back. See Table 2. Best applied to dry soil surface prior to weeds germinating. Northern NSW only. 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 – 0.625–0.95 0.33–0.67 0.38–1.5 annual ryegrass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95-1.25 1.0–1.3 e 1.15–1.5 barley grass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 barnyard grass 0.15–0.2 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 blowaway grass 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – brome grass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95-1.25 1.0–1.3 0.96–1.5 button grass 0.15–0.2 – – – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 cereals – volunteer – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 couch – – – – 1.2–1.9 b 1.0–2.0 b 1.15–2.3 b Johnson grass – – – – 1.2–1.9 1.3–2.0 1.15–2.3 liverseed grass 0.15–0.2 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 native millet – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 nut grass – – – – 1.9 + 1.9 c 2.0 + 2.0 c 2.3 + 2.3 c phalaris – perennial – – – – 1.2–1.9 – 1.44–1.9 pigeon grass – – – – – – – sorghum – volunteer – – – – 0.425–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 spiny burrgrass – – – – – – – stinkgrass 0.15–0.2 – 1.2–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 summer grass – – – – 0.425–1.3 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 sweet summer grass – – – – – 0.5–1.3 0.57–1.5 vulpia – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 – 0.95-1.25 a 1.0–1.3 e 1.15–1.5 wild oats – 0.6–2.0 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.15 windmill grass – – – – – – – winter grass – 1.2–2.4 – – 0.95-1.25 – 0.96–1.5 Yorkshire fog – – – – 1.2–1.9 – – Rec. water vol L/ha boom 50 min 50–200 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 25–100 Wheat plant back 4 months 1 hr 1 hr 0 hr c 1 hr 6 hr 6 hr Herbicide group B L L L + Q M M M a = When treating dense populations, use higher rate, add Wetter TX ® and water volumes > 70 L/ha. b = B est in conjunction with multiple applications and/or cultivation. c = S ee label for program. e = M inimum water rate of 70 L/ha and appropriate nozzles. See label. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

145. 32 Table 4. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Grass weed control Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Imazapic 240 g/L Flame® Pre-emergent Paraquat 250 g/L Gramoxone® 250 Paraquat + Diquat 135 + 115 g/L Spray.Seed® 250 Amitrole 250 g/L + Paraquat 125 g/L Alliance® Glyphosate 570 g/L Roundup Ultra® Max Glyphosate 540 g/L Weedmaster® Argo® Glyphosate 470 g/L Weedmaster® DST® Grass weeds (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) annual phalaris – Fallow residual pre-emergent herbicide. Apply to paddock at least 4 months before planting wheat, barley, chickpea. 200 mm rainfall required for plant-back. See Table 2. Best applied to dry soil surface prior to weeds germinating. Northern NSW only. 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 – 0.625–0.95 0.33–0.67 0.38–1.5 annual ryegrass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95-1.25 1.0–1.3 e 1.15–1.5 barley grass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 barnyard grass 0.15–0.2 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 blowaway grass 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – brome grass – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95-1.25 1.0–1.3 0.96–1.5 button grass 0.15–0.2 – – – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 cereals – volunteer – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 couch – – – – 1.2–1.9 b 1.0–2.0 b 1.15–2.3 b Johnson grass – – – – 1.2–1.9 1.3–2.0 1.15–2.3 liverseed grass 0.15–0.2 1.2–2.4 1.2–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 native millet – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 nut grass – – – – 1.9 + 1.9 c 2.0 + 2.0 c 2.3 + 2.3 c phalaris – perennial – – – – 1.2–1.9 – 1.44–1.9 pigeon grass – – – – – – – sorghum – volunteer – – – – 0.425–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 spiny burrgrass – – – – – – – stinkgrass 0.15–0.2 – 1.2–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.67–1.3 0.76–1.5 summer grass – – – – 0.425–1.3 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.5 sweet summer grass – – – – – 0.5–1.3 0.57–1.5 vulpia – 1.2–2.4 1.0–3.2 – 0.95-1.25 a 1.0–1.3 e 1.15–1.5 wild oats – 0.6–2.0 1.0–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–0.95 0.33–1.0 0.38–1.15 windmill grass – – – – – – – winter grass – 1.2–2.4 – – 0.95-1.25 – 0.96–1.5 Yorkshire fog – – – – 1.2–1.9 – – Rec. water vol L/ha boom 50 min 50–200 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 25–100 Wheat plant back 4 months 1 hr 1 hr 0 hr c 1 hr 6 hr 6 hr Herbicide group B L L L + Q M M M a = When treating dense populations, use higher rate, add Wetter TX ® and water volumes > 70 L/ha. b = B est in conjunction with multiple applications and/or cultivation. c = S ee label for program. e = M inimum water rate of 70 L/ha and appropriate nozzles. See label. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

26. 24 How to fill out your Pesticide Application Record Sheet (This form includes more than the Records Regulation requires, so compulsory information is in Italics .) Property/holding: Attach a detailed property map (e.g. line drawing), showing adjoining sensitive areas, with paddocks and other features clearly identified. Fill in the residential address. Applicator details: The applicator, or person applying the pesticide, must fill in their contact details. If the applicator is not the owner, e.g. a contractor or employee, then the owner’s details also have to be filled in. In the case of a contractor, one copy of the record should be kept by the applicator and another given to the owner. Sensitive area identification: If there are sensitive areas, either on the property or on land adjoining, these should be identified in advance, and marked on the sensitive areas diagram, together with any precautions or special instructions . When using a contractor or giving the job to an employee, this section should be filled in and given to the person doing the application BEFORE the job starts. The property map with sensitive areas marked should be shown to them, and job fully discussed. Paddock identification: Identify the paddocks/blocks and order of treatment (if there is more than one) in the ‘paddock’ row of the form. This should be filled in prior to the start of application, along with the residential address. If using contractor or employee, this information should also be given to them BEFORE they start the job. Applicators using GPS systems could include a GPS reading in addition to the paddock number/name. Crop/animal identification: The left hand side of the Host/Pest section of the table is for crops, pastures and plants (non-crop, e.g. bushland and fallow), the right hand side for animals. As a minimum, identify the host (crop/situation) and the weed. It would be helpful to provide as much detail about the weed as possible, e.g. 4-leaf. Addition of details such as crop variety and growth stage are often important for QA schemes, but may also be necessary to positively identify the area treated as required by the regulation. Product details: The product name and rate/dose should be transcribed from the label. For tank mixes, include all products in the mixture. If the use pattern is on permit, include the permit number and expiry date as well as the label details. The permit rate/ dose may vary from that on the label. Don’t forget to include the label product name. The water rate may come from the label, or from your standard practice or as a result of your calibration. If additives or wetters are included in the mixture, it is helpful to note these. The total L or kg can be calculated when the application is finished. If the label has a WHP (withholding period), note this down. To calculate the date treated produce is suitable for sale, add the WHP to the date of application, e.g. if you applied a pesticide with a WHP of 7 days on the 7th December, you could harvest or graze the host 7 days later – 15th December. Equipment details: As a minimum, you have to fill in what equipment you used. Positive identification can be assisted by specifying the settings used for the application, e.g. nozzle type and angle, pressure. The nozzle type will usually include the angle. With pressure, the reading should be as close to the nozzle as possible. Other details are useful as a reminder for future use, or as a check on your set-up should you have a treatment failure, e.g. date of calibration and water quality. Water quality is important for herbicide efficacy. At the most basic level, water quality can be described in terms of its source, e.g. rainwater, dam water, bore water. Weather: As a minimum, you have to record wind speed a nd direction. This is better measured with instruments than estimated. Record any changes during application. You must also record the time of day when you started, and the time when you finished. Weather records have to be made for all equipment that distributes pesticide through the air. Rainfall should be recorded for the 24 hours before and the 24 hours after application, unless a different figure is given in the restraints or critical comments sections of the label. Rainfall before or after application can affect efficacy. Temperature and relative humidity should also be recorded, particularly if either or both are referred to in the restraints or critical comments sections of the label. Temperature and relative humidity can affect efficacy, increase the risk of off- target drift or may damage the host (e.g. phytotoxicity) or a combination of all three. Spray record forms are downloadable from the NSW Department of Primary Industries website, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/188687/pesticide-application-form.pdf At this site, there are instructions on how to fill in the form and examples of completed forms. Spray record books containing the record forms on the website are available by ringing 1800 138 351. These spray record books contain 50 numbered, self-carboning forms and cost $12.00 each. Sequentially numbered forms are required for those producers in QA schemes where spray records are mandatory. The forms in the spray record book can be used for livestock and vertebrate pests, as well as crops and pastures.

36. 34 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Tribenuron- methyl 750 g/kg Express® Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Goal® Carfentrazone ethyl 400 g/L Hammer® 400EC f Pyraflufen-ethyl 2.1 g/L 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Pyresta® Triclopyr + Picloram + Aminopyralid 300 + 100 + 8 g/L Grazon™ Extra Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 g Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Aminopyralid 10 g/L + Fluroxypyr 140 g/L Hotshot™ Paraquat + Diquat 135 + 115 g/L Spray.Seed® 250 Amitrole 250 g/L +Paraquat 125 g/L Alliance® Glyphosate 570 g/L Roundup Ultra® Max Glyphosate 470 g/L Weedmaster® DST® Broadleaf weeds (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amaranthus 25 Always add non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L spray volume. For best results tankmix with recommended label rates of glyphosate. – Always apply with recommended label rates of glyphosate. Addition of Goal® will improve knockdown and increase speed of control. – Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. – Always add with recommended rate of glyphosate at no less than coarse to very coarse droplets. – Tankmix Roundup® CT + adjuvant for control. Caution: check minimum recropping periods in Table 1. 0.32–0.56 b Observe plant-back period with broadleaf crops. 230–400 Observe plant-back period with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back periods – see Table 1. – Add wetting agent when water volume is above 100 L/ha. 3.0–4.0 – – amsinckia – – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – – – – blackberry nightshade – – – – 0.2–0.4 (S) b 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – black bindweed 25 b – – – – 0.28 200 0.5 g i – – 0.425–1.3 – bladder ketmia – – – – – – – – 1.6–2.4 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n Boggabri weed – – – – – – – – 1.6–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.38–1.45 burrs – Bathurst – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 – 1.2–1.9 0.76–2.3 burrs – noogoora – – – – – 0.32–0.56 b 230–400 – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n caltrop/yellow vine 25 – – – – 0.32–0.56 b 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.38–1.15 canola – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.8–2.4 m 3.0–4.0 m – – capeweed – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – 0.16–0.24 b – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.96–1.5 charlock – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – chickweed – – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – 0.2 140 – 1.2–3.2 p – 1.2–1.9 c – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – cudweed – – – – – – – – – – – 0.76–1.15 datura (thornapple) 20 b – – – – – 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 –s 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n deadnettle 25 b 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 – 0.425–1.3 0.575–1.5 docks – – 0.5 i e – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – – – 1.2–1.9 – erodium (storksbill) – 75 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 z 3.0–4.0 1.2–1.9 – fat hen – – – – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – 1.6–2.4 – – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.8 p 3.0–4.0 – – fleabane – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 1.15 q r – fumitory – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – 0.76–1.15 goosefoot – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 j 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 ground cherry–annual – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n heliotrope – white – – – – – – – – – – – – Hexham scent – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.6–2.4 – – – hoary cress – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15 horehound – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – 1.2–3.2 – – – lucerne (established) – – – – 0.3–0.5 b – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.8 p – – – marshmallow – 75 u 15–45 0.5–0.9 i – – – – 1,2–1.8 3.0–4.0 – – medic 30 – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 p 3.0–4.0 h – – melons – – – – 0.2–0.4 b – – – 1.6–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 k l 0.74–1.5 k l Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 mustards – – – 0.5 i h – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 New Zealand spinach 20 – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.6–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15

147. 34 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Tribenuron- methyl 750 g/kg Express® Oxyfluorfen 240 g/L Goal® Carfentrazone ethyl 400 g/L Hammer® 400EC f Pyraflufen-ethyl 2.1 g/L 2,4-D LV Ester 421 g/L Pyresta® Triclopyr + Picloram + Aminopyralid 300 + 100 + 8 g/L Grazon™ Extra Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 g Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Aminopyralid 10 g/L + Fluroxypyr 140 g/L Hotshot™ Paraquat + Diquat 135 + 115 g/L Spray.Seed® 250 Amitrole 250 g/L +Paraquat 125 g/L Alliance® Glyphosate 570 g/L Roundup Ultra® Max Glyphosate 470 g/L Weedmaster® DST® Broadleaf weeds (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amaranthus 25 Always add non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L spray volume. For best results tankmix with recommended label rates of glyphosate. – Always apply with recommended label rates of glyphosate. Addition of Goal® will improve knockdown and increase speed of control. – Always apply with recommended label rates of knockdown herbicides. – Always add with recommended rate of glyphosate at no less than coarse to very coarse droplets. – Tankmix Roundup® CT + adjuvant for control. Caution: check minimum recropping periods in Table 1. 0.32–0.56 b Observe plant-back period with broadleaf crops. 230–400 Observe plant-back period with broadleaf crops. See Table 1. – Observe plant-back periods – see Table 1. – Add wetting agent when water volume is above 100 L/ha. 3.0–4.0 – – amsinckia – – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – – – – blackberry nightshade – – – – 0.2–0.4 (S) b 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – black bindweed 25 b – – – – 0.28 200 0.5 g i – – 0.425–1.3 – bladder ketmia – – – – – – – – 1.6–2.4 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n Boggabri weed – – – – – – – – 1.6–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.38–1.45 burrs – Bathurst – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 – 1.2–1.9 0.76–2.3 burrs – noogoora – – – – – 0.32–0.56 b 230–400 – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n caltrop/yellow vine 25 – – – – 0.32–0.56 b 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 – 0.425–1.3 0.38–1.15 canola – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.8–2.4 m 3.0–4.0 m – – capeweed – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – 0.16–0.24 b – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.96–1.5 charlock – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – chickweed – – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – 0.2 140 – 1.2–3.2 p – 1.2–1.9 c – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – cudweed – – – – – – – – – – – 0.76–1.15 datura (thornapple) 20 b – – – – – 230–400 – 1.6–2.4 –s 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n deadnettle 25 b 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 – 0.425–1.3 0.575–1.5 docks – – 0.5 i e – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – – – 1.2–1.9 – erodium (storksbill) – 75 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 z 3.0–4.0 1.2–1.9 – fat hen – – – – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – 1.6–2.4 – – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.8 p 3.0–4.0 – – fleabane – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 1.15 q r – fumitory – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – 0.76–1.15 goosefoot – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 j 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 ground cherry–annual – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n heliotrope – white – – – – – – – – – – – – Hexham scent – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.6–2.4 – – – hoary cress – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15 horehound – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – 1.2–3.2 – – – lucerne (established) – – – – 0.3–0.5 b – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.8 p – – – marshmallow – 75 u 15–45 0.5–0.9 i – – – – 1,2–1.8 3.0–4.0 – – medic 30 – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 p 3.0–4.0 h – – melons – – – – 0.2–0.4 b – – – 1.6–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 k l 0.74–1.5 k l Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 mustards – – – 0.5 i h – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.38–1.5 New Zealand spinach 20 – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.6–2.4 – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15

9. 7 Cereal growth stages – the Zadoks Scale A decimal scale describing cereal crop growth stages is now widely used. This scale, called the Zadoks decimal code, describes the principal growth stages, labelled 0 to 9: 0 Germination 2 Tillering 5 Ear emergence 8 D ough development 1 Seedling growth 3 Stem elongation 6 Flowering 9 R ipening 4 B ooting 7 Milk development Each primary growth stage is further subdivided into secondary stages extending the scale from 00 to 99. The first number represents the growth stage and the following number indicates the numbers of plant parts, e.g. Z12 indicates a young plant with only two leaves fully unfolded, commonly referred to as 2-leaf stage. See the first diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. A series of pairs of numbers can be used to further describe the growth stage. For example Z14/21 indicates the main tiller with 4 fully unfolded leaves, commonly referred to as the 4-leaf stage, but this plant has 1 more tiller. Note that additional tillers are counted separately to the main tiller. See the first diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. The main stages of interest to cereal producers applying herbicides are: 1 Seedling growth 2 Tillering 3 S tem elongation 4 B ooting Zadoks scale is based on the individual plant, not the general appearance of a crop. Therefore, to use the scale, a representative selection of plants should be examined from a paddock. Growth terms used elsewhere in this guide, extracted from registered labels, and their Zadoks equivalents are: 3-leaf 3 fully unfolded leaves on main shoot only. Zadoks 13. 5-leaf 5 f ully unfolded leaves on main shoot only. Zadoks 15. Tillering T iller formation period. Plants past seedling stage and before stem elongation. Zadoks 21 to 29. S ee the diagrams in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. Jointing Cr op becoming erect or booting up to the stage when the flag leaf is just visible. Zadoks 31 to 39. See the fifth diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. Boot H ead plainly felt in stem before head emergence. Zadoks 35 to 45. See the sixth diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’.

137. 24 How to fill out your Pesticide Application Record Sheet (This form includes more than the Records Regulation requires, so compulsory information is in Italics .) Property/holding: Attach a detailed property map (e.g. line drawing), showing adjoining sensitive areas, with paddocks and other features clearly identified. Fill in the residential address. Applicator details: The applicator, or person applying the pesticide, must fill in their contact details. If the applicator is not the owner, e.g. a contractor or employee, then the owner’s details also have to be filled in. In the case of a contractor, one copy of the record should be kept by the applicator and another given to the owner. Sensitive area identification: If there are sensitive areas, either on the property or on land adjoining, these should be identified in advance, and marked on the sensitive areas diagram, together with any precautions or special instructions . When using a contractor or giving the job to an employee, this section should be filled in and given to the person doing the application BEFORE the job starts. The property map with sensitive areas marked should be shown to them, and job fully discussed. Paddock identification: Identify the paddocks/blocks and order of treatment (if there is more than one) in the ‘paddock’ row of the form. This should be filled in prior to the start of application, along with the residential address. If using contractor or employee, this information should also be given to them BEFORE they start the job. Applicators using GPS systems could include a GPS reading in addition to the paddock number/name. Crop/animal identification: The left hand side of the Host/Pest section of the table is for crops, pastures and plants (non-crop, e.g. bushland and fallow), the right hand side for animals. As a minimum, identify the host (crop/situation) and the weed. It would be helpful to provide as much detail about the weed as possible, e.g. 4-leaf. Addition of details such as crop variety and growth stage are often important for QA schemes, but may also be necessary to positively identify the area treated as required by the regulation. Product details: The product name and rate/dose should be transcribed from the label. For tank mixes, include all products in the mixture. If the use pattern is on permit, include the permit number and expiry date as well as the label details. The permit rate/ dose may vary from that on the label. Don’t forget to include the label product name. The water rate may come from the label, or from your standard practice or as a result of your calibration. If additives or wetters are included in the mixture, it is helpful to note these. The total L or kg can be calculated when the application is finished. If the label has a WHP (withholding period), note this down. To calculate the date treated produce is suitable for sale, add the WHP to the date of application, e.g. if you applied a pesticide with a WHP of 7 days on the 7th December, you could harvest or graze the host 7 days later – 15th December. Equipment details: As a minimum, you have to fill in what equipment you used. Positive identification can be assisted by specifying the settings used for the application, e.g. nozzle type and angle, pressure. The nozzle type will usually include the angle. With pressure, the reading should be as close to the nozzle as possible. Other details are useful as a reminder for future use, or as a check on your set-up should you have a treatment failure, e.g. date of calibration and water quality. Water quality is important for herbicide efficacy. At the most basic level, water quality can be described in terms of its source, e.g. rainwater, dam water, bore water. Weather: As a minimum, you have to record wind speed a nd direction. This is better measured with instruments than estimated. Record any changes during application. You must also record the time of day when you started, and the time when you finished. Weather records have to be made for all equipment that distributes pesticide through the air. Rainfall should be recorded for the 24 hours before and the 24 hours after application, unless a different figure is given in the restraints or critical comments sections of the label. Rainfall before or after application can affect efficacy. Temperature and relative humidity should also be recorded, particularly if either or both are referred to in the restraints or critical comments sections of the label. Temperature and relative humidity can affect efficacy, increase the risk of off- target drift or may damage the host (e.g. phytotoxicity) or a combination of all three. Spray record forms are downloadable from the NSW Department of Primary Industries website, www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/188687/pesticide-application-form.pdf At this site, there are instructions on how to fill in the form and examples of completed forms. Spray record books containing the record forms on the website are available by ringing 1800 138 351. These spray record books contain 50 numbered, self-carboning forms and cost $12.00 each. Sequentially numbered forms are required for those producers in QA schemes where spray records are mandatory. The forms in the spray record book can be used for livestock and vertebrate pests, as well as crops and pastures.

120. 7 Cereal growth stages – the Zadoks Scale A decimal scale describing cereal crop growth stages is now widely used. This scale, called the Zadoks decimal code, describes the principal growth stages, labelled 0 to 9: 0 Germination 2 Tillering 5 Ear emergence 8 D ough development 1 Seedling growth 3 Stem elongation 6 Flowering 9 R ipening 4 B ooting 7 Milk development Each primary growth stage is further subdivided into secondary stages extending the scale from 00 to 99. The first number represents the growth stage and the following number indicates the numbers of plant parts, e.g. Z12 indicates a young plant with only two leaves fully unfolded, commonly referred to as 2-leaf stage. See the first diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. A series of pairs of numbers can be used to further describe the growth stage. For example Z14/21 indicates the main tiller with 4 fully unfolded leaves, commonly referred to as the 4-leaf stage, but this plant has 1 more tiller. Note that additional tillers are counted separately to the main tiller. See the first diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. The main stages of interest to cereal producers applying herbicides are: 1 Seedling growth 2 Tillering 3 S tem elongation 4 B ooting Zadoks scale is based on the individual plant, not the general appearance of a crop. Therefore, to use the scale, a representative selection of plants should be examined from a paddock. Growth terms used elsewhere in this guide, extracted from registered labels, and their Zadoks equivalents are: 3-leaf 3 fully unfolded leaves on main shoot only. Zadoks 13. 5-leaf 5 f ully unfolded leaves on main shoot only. Zadoks 15. Tillering T iller formation period. Plants past seedling stage and before stem elongation. Zadoks 21 to 29. S ee the diagrams in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. Jointing Cr op becoming erect or booting up to the stage when the flag leaf is just visible. Zadoks 31 to 39. See the fifth diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’. Boot H ead plainly felt in stem before head emergence. Zadoks 35 to 45. See the sixth diagram in ‘Growth stages of cereal crops’.

124. 11 Table 1. Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow commencement/maintenance and presowing seedbed weed control The following plant back periods are a guide only based on label recommendations. The time indicated between application and safe crop rotation intervals may depend on a range of factors including rainfall (amount and intensity), soil type (pH, soil biological activity and organic carbon), soil type variability within a paddock, temperature and herbicide rate. Some crops are more sensitive to various herbicide groups than others. Always take a conservative approach to plant back periods, especially with sensitive or high input crops. Ally® A Amicide® Advance (700g/L) B Baton® Low (800 g/kg amine) B Cadence® B Eclipse® 100 SC LV Ester 680 (680 g/L) B Express® Flame® Garlon™ Goal® Grazon™ Extra D Hotshot™ D Kamba® 500 B Lontrel™ Advanced 600 g/L E Pyresta® B Starane™ Advanced F Sharpen® WG Terrain™ 500 WG Weedmaster® Argo® Herbicide Group B I I I I I I I I I B I I I B B I G I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I GI GI I I I G G M Specific details pH 5.6–8.5 H <0.5 L/ha 0.5–0.98 L/ha 0.98–1.5 L/ha <0.4 kg/ha 0.4–0.9 kg/ha 0.9–1.3 kg/ha 140 g/ha 200 g/ha 400 g/ha <0.51 L/ha 0.51–1.0 L/ha 1.0–1.6 L/ha NNSW 0.2 L/ha NNSW 0.3 L/ha NNSW 0.4 L/ha NNSW 0.6 L/ha SNSW <0.5 L/ha NNSW <750 mL/ha SNSW <500 mL/ha 0.20 L/ha 0.28 L/ha 0.56 L/ha NNSW <0.0375 L/ha NNSW 0.0375–0.15 L/ha NNSW >0.15 L/ha SNSW <0.15 L/ha SNSW <0.15–0.25 L/ha SNSW >0.25 L/ha 250–500 mL/ha 900 mL/ha 0.225 L/ha 0.45 L/ha 0.9 L/ha 9–26 g/ha 30 g/ha Crop Barley 6w 1d 1d 3d 1d 1d 3d 1d 7d 14d Do not plant susceptible crops until 9 months after application of Eclipse®. Susceptible crops include canola or other brassica crops, field peas, beans, medics, lucerne and sub-clover. 1d 1d 3d 3d Minimum recropping periods are influenced by numerous factors. See label for further information. 7d Goal® herbicide at up to 75 mL/ha may be safely applied 1 day prior to planting wheat, barley, oats, triticale, canola, lupins, fababeans, field peas, lucerne, clover, medics, ryegrass, phalaris and cockfoot and 7 days minimum prior to planting cotton or soybeans, provided minimal tillage planting equipment is used with minimal soil disturbance. 2mo 2mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d Susceptible crops should not be sown for at least 2 years when Lontrel™ Advanced at more than 0.15 L/ha has been used in northern Australia. 7d 7d 7d 1d 1d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Do not disturb weeds by cultivation, sowing or grazing for 6 hours of daylight following treatment of annual weeds and 7 days for perennial weeds. Canola 9mo 14d 21d 28d 14d 21d 28d 7d 10d 14d 14d 21d 28d – – 2mo 4mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 7d G 10d G 14d G 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 14d 21d 16w Canola (Clearfield) 10d Cereal Rye 6w 1d 7d 14d 1d 7d 14d Chickpea 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d – 21d 28d 7d 14d 21d 7d 4mo 6mo 6mo 6mo 24mo 6mo 20mo – 21d 28d 3mo 6mo 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Cotton 10d 14d 21d 10d 14d 21d 7d 7d 14d 10d 14d 21d 14d 9mo 7d 7d 14d 3mo 6mo 10d 14d 14d 14d 28d 6w 1hr Faba Bean 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 4mo 4mo 6mo 6mo 24mo 6mo 20mo 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Field Pea 9mo 7d 14d 14d 7d 14d 14d – 14d 21d 7d 14d 14d 24mo 20mo – 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 1hr 1hr Lentils 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr 1hr Linseed 9mo 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d Lucerne 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 6mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 24mo 6mo 20mo 9mo 9mo 7d 7d Lupins 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 14d 1hr 1hr Maize 14mo 1d 3d 7d 7/21d C 7d 1d 3d 7d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 1hr Medic 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 14d 21d 7d 7d 10d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d Millet 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d Millet (Japanese) 14mo Millet (Panorama) 14mo Millet (White French) 14mo Mungbean 5d 5d 10d 7/21d C 5mo 5d 5d 10d 1hr Navy Bean 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d 14d 10d 10d Oats 9mo 3d 3d 7d 3d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 3d 3d 7d 3d 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 3d 3d 1hr 1hr Pigeon Pea 5d 5d 10d 5d 5d 10d Safflower 9mo 7d 14d 21d 7d 14d 21d 14d 21d 28d 7d 14d 21d 14d 21d 28d 7d 14d Sorghum 14mo 3d 7d 10d 3d 7d 10d 1d 3d 7d 3d 7d 10d 7/21d C 7d 3mo 1d 3d 7d 7d 14d 3d 7d 7d 7d 7d 1d 1hr Soybean 14mo 14d 14d 21d 14d 14d 21d 5d 5d 10d 14d 14d 21d 7/21d C 7d 5mo 5d 5d 10d 3mo 6mo 14d 14d 7d 7d 14d 1d 1hr Sub Clover 9mo 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 14d 21d 7d 7d 10d 24mo 20mo 7d 14d 21d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d 1hr Sunflower 14mo 7d 10d 14d 7d 10d 14d 1d 7d 14d 7d 10d 14d 7/21d C 7d 5mo 1d 7d 14d 3mo 6mo 7d 10d 7d 7d 7d 16w 1hr Triticale 6w 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d Vetch 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 7d 7d 10d 9mo 12mo 24mo 7d 7d Wheat 10d 1d 3d 7d 1d 3d 7d 1d 7d 14d 1d 3d 7d 3d 7d 2mo 2mo 4mo 4mo 9mo 4mo 9mo 1d 7d 14d 7d 7d 7d 7d 7d 1d 3d 7d 7d 7d 1hr 1hr KEY: hr = hours, d = days, w = weeks, mo = months A F or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown through to maturity) should be determined on a small scale, in the previous season, before sowing into larger areas. B W hen applied to dry soils at least 15 mm of rain must fall prior to the commencement of the plantback period. C Expr ess® is broken down in soil, primarily by chemical hydrolysis, but to a lesser degree by microbial degredation. Breakdown is fastest in warm, wet acid soils and slower in cold alkaline soils. For these summer crops, if minimum soil temperatures at planting depth are less than or equal to 15°C for three consecutive days, then plantback intervals should be extended to 21 days. D B lack cracking clays. During drought conditions the plantback period may be significantly longer. E A dditional rainfall requirements need to be observed – see label. F D o not plant susceptible crops, including cotton, pigeon peas and other pulse crops, into irrigated fields with soils containing less than 25% clay content, within 12 months of treatment with Starane™ Advanced. G Plan tback refers to rapeseed not canola. H S oil pH determined by 1:5 soil:water suspension method.

21. 19 Tankmixing herbicides is a common practice to improve weed control and broaden the weed spectrum. There may also be some advantages in helping avoid herbicide resistance problems. Many tankmixes are included on registered herbicide labels. Generally provided herbicides are registered for a particular use, they may be tankmixed provided they are compatible and label mixing instructions are followed. Note that some herbicides although being physically compatible can be antagonistic to weed control. This information is usually outlined on herbicide labels under compatability. Ratios for tank-mixing, crop safety, herbicide efficacy and special use of adjuvants, need to be considered also. The order that herbicides are mixed is also important and the following mixing sequence is usually followed: 1. W ater conditioning agents (if required – e.g. LI 700, Liase® or Primabuff®). 2. W ater dispersable granules (WG)/dry flowable products (including those in water-soluble bags first). 3. W ettable powders (WP). 4. Flo wables or suspension concentrates (e.g. atrazine- simazine liquids). 5. Em ulsifiable concentrates (EC) (e.g. Trifluralin, Topik®, Kamba®, Bromoxynil). 6. W ater-soluble concentrates (e.g. glyphosate, Amicide® Advance 700, Spray . Seed® 250, Gramoxone® 250). 7. S urfactants and oils (e.g. BS1000®, Hasten™, D-C-Trate®). 8. S oluble fertilisers. Tips for tankmixing herbicides Directory of herbicide manufacturers/distributors Distributor/Manufacturer Contact Contact Person Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd 391–393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. Ph: (03) 9248 6888 Fax: (03) 9248 6800. Web: www.bayercropscience.com.au Technical Enquiries 1800 804 479 Crop Care Australasia Pty Ltd PO Box 84, Morningside Qld 4170. Ph: 1800 111 454 Fax: (07) 3909 2010. Web: www.cropcare.com.au Customer Service 1800 111 454 Dow AgroSciences Locked Bag 502, Frenchs Forest NSW 2086. Ph: (02) 9776 3400 Fax: (02) 9776 3435. Web: www.dowagrosciences.com.au Customer Service 1800 700 096 DuPont Australia PO Box 960, 168 Walker Street, North Sydney NSW 2059. Web: www.dupont.com.au Ag Products Hotline 1800 257 169 Farmoz Pty Ltd Level 4 Building B, 207 Pacific Highway, St Leonards, Sydney NSW 2065. Ph: (02) 9431 7800 Fax: (02) 9431 7700. Web: www.farmoz.com.au Peter Chalmers peter.chalmers@farmoz.com.au Nufarm Australia Ltd 103–105 Pipe Road, Laverton North, Vic 3026. Ph: (03) 9282 1000 Fax: (03) 9282 1022. Web: www.nufarm.com.au Technical Enquiries 1800 639 899 Sinochem Level 8/606 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Vic 3004 Ph: (03) 9520 8888 Web: www.sinochem.com.au Customer Service 1800 334 096 Sumitomo Chemical Aust Pty Ltd 501 Victoria Ave, Chatswood NSW 2067. Ph: (02) 9904 6499 Fax: (02) 9904 7499. Web: www.sumitomo-chem.com.au Chris van der Hoven chris.vanderhoven@sumitomo-chem.com.au Syngenta Crop Protection Pty Ltd Level 1, 2–4 Lyon Park Road, North Ryde NSW 2113. Ph: 1800 067 108 Fax: 1800 805 871. Web: www.syngenta.com.au Syngenta Product Technical Advice Line 1800 067 108

132. 19 Tankmixing herbicides is a common practice to improve weed control and broaden the weed spectrum. There may also be some advantages in helping avoid herbicide resistance problems. Many tankmixes are included on registered herbicide labels. Generally provided herbicides are registered for a particular use, they may be tankmixed provided they are compatible and label mixing instructions are followed. Note that some herbicides although being physically compatible can be antagonistic to weed control. This information is usually outlined on herbicide labels under compatability. Ratios for tank-mixing, crop safety, herbicide efficacy and special use of adjuvants, need to be considered also. The order that herbicides are mixed is also important and the following mixing sequence is usually followed: 1. W ater conditioning agents (if required – e.g. LI 700, Liase® or Primabuff®). 2. W ater dispersable granules (WG)/dry flowable products (including those in water-soluble bags first). 3. W ettable powders (WP). 4. Flo wables or suspension concentrates (e.g. atrazine- simazine liquids). 5. Em ulsifiable concentrates (EC) (e.g. Trifluralin, Topik®, Kamba®, Bromoxynil). 6. W ater-soluble concentrates (e.g. glyphosate, Amicide® Advance 700, Spray . Seed® 250, Gramoxone® 250). 7. S urfactants and oils (e.g. BS1000®, Hasten™, D-C-Trate®). 8. S oluble fertilisers. Tips for tankmixing herbicides Directory of herbicide manufacturers/distributors Distributor/Manufacturer Contact Contact Person Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd 391–393 Tooronga Road, Hawthorn East, Vic 3123. Ph: (03) 9248 6888 Fax: (03) 9248 6800. Web: www.bayercropscience.com.au Technical Enquiries 1800 804 479 Crop Care Australasia Pty Ltd PO Box 84, Morningside Qld 4170. Ph: 1800 111 454 Fax: (07) 3909 2010. Web: www.cropcare.com.au Customer Service 1800 111 454 Dow AgroSciences Locked Bag 502, Frenchs Forest NSW 2086. Ph: (02) 9776 3400 Fax: (02) 9776 3435. Web: www.dowagrosciences.com.au Customer Service 1800 700 096 DuPont Australia PO Box 960, 168 Walker Street, North Sydney NSW 2059. Web: www.dupont.com.au Ag Products Hotline 1800 257 169 Farmoz Pty Ltd Level 4 Building B, 207 Pacific Highway, St Leonards, Sydney NSW 2065. Ph: (02) 9431 7800 Fax: (02) 9431 7700. Web: www.farmoz.com.au Peter Chalmers peter.chalmers@farmoz.com.au Nufarm Australia Ltd 103–105 Pipe Road, Laverton North, Vic 3026. Ph: (03) 9282 1000 Fax: (03) 9282 1022. Web: www.nufarm.com.au Technical Enquiries 1800 639 899 Sinochem Level 8/606 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Vic 3004 Ph: (03) 9520 8888 Web: www.sinochem.com.au Customer Service 1800 334 096 Sumitomo Chemical Aust Pty Ltd 501 Victoria Ave, Chatswood NSW 2067. Ph: (02) 9904 6499 Fax: (02) 9904 7499. Web: www.sumitomo-chem.com.au Chris van der Hoven chris.vanderhoven@sumitomo-chem.com.au Syngenta Crop Protection Pty Ltd Level 1, 2–4 Lyon Park Road, North Ryde NSW 2113. Ph: 1800 067 108 Fax: 1800 805 871. Web: www.syngenta.com.au Syngenta Product Technical Advice Line 1800 067 108

58. Herbicide resistance management Defining herbicide resistance Herbicide resistance is the inherent ability of a weed to survive a herbicide rate that would normally control it. This is not the same phenomena as poor herbicide performance. Why it is a problem? If herbicide resistance develops, herbicides from different chemical ‘groups’ or different control methods will have to be used to control the weed. These options may be more expensive or less effective. Once developed, herbicide resistance will persist for many years. Understanding herbicides Herbicides act by interfering with specific processes in plants. This is known as the herbicides ‘mode of action’ (MOA). Watch your paddocks  Keep accurate records.  Monitor weed populations and record results of herbicides used.  If herbicide resistance is suspected, prevent weed seed set.  If a herbicide does not work, find out why.  Check that weed survival is not due to spraying error.  Conduct your own paddock tests to confirm herbicide failure and what herbicides are still effective.  Have a herbicide resistance test carried out on seed from suspected plants testing for resistance to other herbicide (MOA) groups.  Do not introduce or spread resistant weeds in contaminated grain or hay.  Resistance can develop from fence lines and irrigation channels. Closely monitor and test for resistance in these areas. • Rotate herbicide groups • Avoid spraying dense weed infestations Herbicide resistance management Tony Cook 3/14 11914 Herbicide resistance testing The best investment a grain grower can make is to test any weedy outbreak that is suspected of having herbicide resistance. It provides valuable information about the herbicides that don’t work, but more importantly the herbicides that are effective. An approximate cost of a broad spectrum test is $600 to $700. This would include at least six to seven herbicides. This cost is rather insignificant compared to a widespread spray failure over 200 hectares that costs $30/ha in herbicides; totalling $6,000 in wasted herbicide, not including crop yield losses and the blow out in weed seed for future years. There are two types of tests available; a quick test and a seed test. The quick test involves live seedlings being sent away for re-potting and spraying. Once the plants have fully recovered they are sprayed with herbicides of your choice. Results are usually reported between four and eight weeks after arrival at the testing facility. This is usually too late to enable re-treatment of the ‘suspect’ patches, but does provide early knowledge about the nature of the problem and what is likely to work in the future. One disadvantage of the quick test is it cannot test for pre-emergence herbicides, as the plants are already emerged. A seed test requires seed to be sent and often involves breaking seed dormancy upon arrival. It is a useful test if you require herbicide resistance testing of pre-emergence herbicides. The turnover time is approximately four months and results are usually sent to clients in April (if seed was sent in December). This will allow ample time to decide what herbicides to use for the next crop. Which herbicides should I test? Ideally test any and every herbicide that you might wish to use in the future for the target weed species (there are a few exceptions – read on). Any application of herbicide that results in survivors setting seed will classify as some selection pressure for resistance. Be sure to include some herbicides that you have not yet used. There are two reasons for this; firstly you may have developed cross resistance, i.e. confirmed resistance without a history of it being used, or new crop rotations in the future will allow the use of new herbicide groups. A good mixture of ‘fop’ and ‘dim’ herbicides is recommended and if you intend to use Axial® (‘den’ herbicide) include it. If ARG (annual ryegrass) is your key weed and you grow wheat, pulse or a Clearfield crop it is worthwhile including a sulfonylurea herbicide (e.g. Glean®, Ally® or Logran®) and an imidazolinone herbicide (e.g. Spinnaker®, Raptor®). Testing for trifluralin or Avadex® resistance would only be required if you have a history of using them for at least 10 applications in that paddock of concern. The inclusion of Mataven® in the list of herbicides is essential if wild oats are to be tested because it can be applied late post-emergence in wheat crops to prevent wild oat seed set and is a Group Z herbicide – could be a vital tool in herbicide resistance management – but it has a history of often being cross resistant with Group A resistance. Lastly, never under-estimate the number of glyphosate applications these weeds could have received. As a cautious measure, including glyphosate as a test herbicide is a wise choice, especially for ARG. There are many cases of glyphosate resistant ARG in NSW. Although there is a chance of discovering glyphosate resistant weeds, resistance testing may discover concerning or low levels of survival following glyphosate application. If this occurs, it maybe the precursor for the development of glyphosate resistance. What contact details do I need to get started? There are two testing services; the contact details and other relevant information are provided in Table 1. Table 1. Information about each herbicide resistance provider Information Plant Science Consulting Charles Sturt Uni – Herbicide Resistance Testing Service Office number (08) 8342 4606 – fax (02) 6933 2420, (02) 6933 2924 – fax Mobile number 0400 664 460 N/A Email info@plantscienceconsulting.com jbroster@csu.edu.au Postal Address 22 Linley Avenue, Prospect SA 5082 Herbicide Resistance Testing, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 Webpage www.plantscienceconsulting.com N/A Seed Test? Yes Yes Quick Test? Yes No Tony Cook, Technical Specialist, Weeds, NSW DPI, Tamworth 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 1 26/03/2014 2:05:29 PM

169. Herbicide resistance management Defining herbicide resistance Herbicide resistance is the inherent ability of a weed to survive a herbicide rate that would normally control it. This is not the same phenomena as poor herbicide performance. Why it is a problem? If herbicide resistance develops, herbicides from different chemical ‘groups’ or different control methods will have to be used to control the weed. These options may be more expensive or less effective. Once developed, herbicide resistance will persist for many years. Understanding herbicides Herbicides act by interfering with specific processes in plants. This is known as the herbicides ‘mode of action’ (MOA). Watch your paddocks  Keep accurate records.  Monitor weed populations and record results of herbicides used.  If herbicide resistance is suspected, prevent weed seed set.  If a herbicide does not work, find out why.  Check that weed survival is not due to spraying error.  Conduct your own paddock tests to confirm herbicide failure and what herbicides are still effective.  Have a herbicide resistance test carried out on seed from suspected plants testing for resistance to other herbicide (MOA) groups.  Do not introduce or spread resistant weeds in contaminated grain or hay.  Resistance can develop from fence lines and irrigation channels. Closely monitor and test for resistance in these areas. • Rotate herbicide groups • Avoid spraying dense weed infestations Herbicide resistance management Tony Cook 3/14 11914 Herbicide resistance testing The best investment a grain grower can make is to test any weedy outbreak that is suspected of having herbicide resistance. It provides valuable information about the herbicides that don’t work, but more importantly the herbicides that are effective. An approximate cost of a broad spectrum test is $600 to $700. This would include at least six to seven herbicides. This cost is rather insignificant compared to a widespread spray failure over 200 hectares that costs $30/ha in herbicides; totalling $6,000 in wasted herbicide, not including crop yield losses and the blow out in weed seed for future years. There are two types of tests available; a quick test and a seed test. The quick test involves live seedlings being sent away for re-potting and spraying. Once the plants have fully recovered they are sprayed with herbicides of your choice. Results are usually reported between four and eight weeks after arrival at the testing facility. This is usually too late to enable re-treatment of the ‘suspect’ patches, but does provide early knowledge about the nature of the problem and what is likely to work in the future. One disadvantage of the quick test is it cannot test for pre-emergence herbicides, as the plants are already emerged. A seed test requires seed to be sent and often involves breaking seed dormancy upon arrival. It is a useful test if you require herbicide resistance testing of pre-emergence herbicides. The turnover time is approximately four months and results are usually sent to clients in April (if seed was sent in December). This will allow ample time to decide what herbicides to use for the next crop. Which herbicides should I test? Ideally test any and every herbicide that you might wish to use in the future for the target weed species (there are a few exceptions – read on). Any application of herbicide that results in survivors setting seed will classify as some selection pressure for resistance. Be sure to include some herbicides that you have not yet used. There are two reasons for this; firstly you may have developed cross resistance, i.e. confirmed resistance without a history of it being used, or new crop rotations in the future will allow the use of new herbicide groups. A good mixture of ‘fop’ and ‘dim’ herbicides is recommended and if you intend to use Axial® (‘den’ herbicide) include it. If ARG (annual ryegrass) is your key weed and you grow wheat, pulse or a Clearfield crop it is worthwhile including a sulfonylurea herbicide (e.g. Glean®, Ally® or Logran®) and an imidazolinone herbicide (e.g. Spinnaker®, Raptor®). Testing for trifluralin or Avadex® resistance would only be required if you have a history of using them for at least 10 applications in that paddock of concern. The inclusion of Mataven® in the list of herbicides is essential if wild oats are to be tested because it can be applied late post-emergence in wheat crops to prevent wild oat seed set and is a Group Z herbicide – could be a vital tool in herbicide resistance management – but it has a history of often being cross resistant with Group A resistance. Lastly, never under-estimate the number of glyphosate applications these weeds could have received. As a cautious measure, including glyphosate as a test herbicide is a wise choice, especially for ARG. There are many cases of glyphosate resistant ARG in NSW. Although there is a chance of discovering glyphosate resistant weeds, resistance testing may discover concerning or low levels of survival following glyphosate application. If this occurs, it maybe the precursor for the development of glyphosate resistance. What contact details do I need to get started? There are two testing services; the contact details and other relevant information are provided in Table 1. Table 1. Information about each herbicide resistance provider Information Plant Science Consulting Charles Sturt Uni – Herbicide Resistance Testing Service Office number (08) 8342 4606 – fax (02) 6933 2420, (02) 6933 2924 – fax Mobile number 0400 664 460 N/A Email info@plantscienceconsulting.com jbroster@csu.edu.au Postal Address 22 Linley Avenue, Prospect SA 5082 Herbicide Resistance Testing, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 Webpage www.plantscienceconsulting.com N/A Seed Test? Yes Yes Quick Test? Yes No Tony Cook, Technical Specialist, Weeds, NSW DPI, Tamworth 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 1 26/03/2014 2:05:29 PM

48. 46 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Terbutryn + MCPA 275 + 160 g/L Agtryne® MA MCPA + Bromoxynil + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced b 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50g/L Torpedo ™ Picolinafen 50 g/L+ MCPA 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen 35 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L + MCPA 350 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen- ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot 2 L–Full Till 3–5-leaf 3 L–Full Till 3 L–Flag 2 L–1st node 5L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 5 L–Ea Till 3 L–Flag 2 L–1st node 3 L–5 L 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Mid Till Zadoks code 12–31 13–39 12–29 13–15 13–30 13–39 12–31 15–31 13–31 13–25 15–22 13–39 12–31 13–15 13–28 12–25 Weeds controlled (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) amsinckia 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate®/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35–0.5 L LVE MCPA/ha to broaden weed spectrum. – NW slopes and plains only. 0.75 Can be used on undersown sub-clover and lucerne. Not annual medics. Application should be made from the first to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 1.0 0.75–1.4 – Can be tankmixed with Ally®, MCPA LVE or MCPA amine to broaden weed spectrum. – – Boom only. Good quality water essential. – Add BS1000® (when mixed with metsulfuron-methyl). 115 m or p Add wetter. Do not apply after mid-tillering stage as crop damage may result. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or crop after mid- tillering stage. Small weeds. – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. – – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – – annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – barley grass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw 50 (S) u – 1.0 (S) – – 0.3 – – – – – 0.7 0.1 h – – 0.4 i black bindweed – 40 0.5–1.0 – 1.0–1.4 0.3–0.45 – – 0.5–0.75 e 200 m or p 0.28 – – – – – brome grass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – buchan weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer 50 o – 0.5–0.75* – 1.4 – – – – – – – – 0.25 * 360 0.4 i * capeweed 35–50 u – 0.5–1.0 1.0 0.75–1.4 – 0.15 h 2.1–3.2 – 115 p (S) 0.16 v 0.7 (S) 0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i charlock – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m or r 0.16 v – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – chickpea – volunteer 35–50 u – – – – – 0.1 h – 0.75 e 115–200 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – 0.4 l cleavers – – – – – 0.6 – – – – – – – – – – clover 50 (S) nu – – – – – 0.075–0.1 h – – 115–200 0.28 – – – – 0.4 ln corn gromwell – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – – 0.5 720 – common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – 30 0.5–0.75 1.5 – 0.9 – – 0.5–0.75 ce 115 m 0.2–0.28 m – – 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l dock – – 1.0 (S) – 0.75–1.4 – – 2.1–3.2 x – 200 r 0.16 or 0.28 v – – – – – erodium – – 0.5 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.4 i faba bean – volunteer 35–50 u – – – – – 0.125 h – 0.5–0.75 f 200 r – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – 0.4 l field pea – volunteer 50 (S) u – 0.75 (S) – – – 0.075 h – 0.5–0.75 f 115–200 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – – fumitory – 40 0.75–1.0 (S) 1.0 1.0–1.4 – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – – 0.5 (S) 540–720 (S) h 0.4 l lesser swinecress – – 1.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer 35–50 u – 0.5–1 (S) – – 0.9 0.125 h – 0.5 g 115 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 0.5 (S) 720 (S) i 0.4 i medics 50 (S) u – – – – – 0.075–0.1 h – – – – – 0.075–0.1 j – – 0.4 l Mexican poppy – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – – – – – mintweed – – 1.0 (S) – – – – – – 200 t 0.28 t – – – – – mustards 50 45 0.5–1.0 1.0 0.75–1.4 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m or p 0.16 v 0.7 0.075–0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i New Zealand spinach – 40 – – – – – – – 200 0.28 – – – – –

62. 11914 Table 5: Situations containing glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass Situation Number of sites States Broadacre croppingChemical fallow 29 NSW Winter grains 99NSW, Vic, SA, WA Irrigated crops Summer grains 1 1 SA NSW HorticultureTree crops 5 NSW, SA Vine crops 22 SA, WA Vegetables 2 Vic Other Driveway 4NSW, Vic, SA, WA Fence line/Crop margin82NSW, Vic, SA, WA Around buildings 2 NSW Irrigation channel/Drain12NSW, Vic, SA Airstrip 1 SA Railway 2 NSW, WA Roadside 85NSW, SA, WA From Preston, C. (2009) Australian Glyphosate Resistance Register. Australian Glyphosate Sustainability Working Group. Online. Available from www.glyphosateresistance.org.au Table 6: Glyphosate resistant fleabane across Australia Situation Number of sites States Broadacre croppingChemical fallow 8 NSW, Qld Around buildings 1 NSW Irrigation channel/Drain10 NSW Railway 3 NSW Roadside 27NSW, Qld, SA Table 7: Percentage of paddocks with herbicide resistant broadleaf weeds in cropping regions of Victoria Region Year Indian hedge mustard Wild radish Sowthistle Populations resistant (%) Glean®2,4-DGlean®2,4-DGlean® Vic – Western2010350ntnt 81 Vic – Southern2010ntnt00 64 Surveys for herbicide resistant grass weeds in southern Australia Key points ■ Herbicide resistance is common in annual ryegrass in most cropping regions of southern Australia ■ Trifluralin and Select® resistance are increasing ■ Resistance to herbicides is also present in wild oats and brome grass ■ Glyphosate resistance occurs where there is intensive use of glyphosate and few or no other weed control tactics ■ Some alternatives to glyphosate will control glyphosate-resistant annual ryegrass on fence lines. Random surveys of weed populations across southern Australia have identified considerable levels of herbicide resistance in annual ryegrass across southern Australia. There are variations across regions, with trifluralin beginning to emerge as an issue (Table 1). These regional differences reflect differences in cropping practices and hence herbicide use patterns. Of particular concern is the increase in Select® resistance and was reported in 7% of samples (Table 3). More emphasis should be aimed at crop competition and annual ryegrass weed seed capture/destruction at harvest to maintain or extend the life of Select® and other effective post-emergence herbicides. The incidence of multiple resistance within annual ryegrass concerning. Approximatley 80% of samples tested had resistance to at least 2 herbicide mode of actions. In some rare cases resistance to 4 herbicide groups has developed (Table 2). Management of wild oats was previously reliant on post-emergence herbicides. Consequently there is a high frequency of resistance to ‘fops’, ‘dims’, and ‘den’ chemistry. Although there is some reasonable benefit of using the ‘dim’ chemistry, in the past two years there has been a steady increase in resistance to this group (Table 4). More pre-emergence herbicides are being use in NSW cropping systems to combat these issues with wild oats. Effective crop competition in combination with effective pre- and post-emergence herbicide should prolong the effective life of these herbicides. Herbicide resistance in winter broad leaf species is steadily increasing. In 2013, a population of wild radish was confirmed resistant to 2,4-D amine (Group I) in central NSW. There are other populations of this weed resistant to Group B in southern NSW. Fleabane is glyphosate resistant and is located over all of NSW due to its windborne seed. Another weed spread by wind, sowthistle, has been reported as glyphosate resistant in 2014 and is currently confined to northern NSW. However, Group B resistance is present in this species. Two brassica species, Indian hedge mustard and Charlock are reported to have Group B resistance in NSW. Glyphosate resistance in annual ryegrass There are now 347 confirmed sites with glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass in Australia. These come from four states and a variety of situations (Table 5). Glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass occurs when populations are treated intensively with glyphosate, where no other herbicides are applied and where there is little or no tillage. Relying solely on glyphosate for weed control is the greatest risk factor for glyphosate resistant weeds. Table 1. Percentage of annual ryegrass samples resistant or developing resistance to each herbicide group 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 A (fops)90 90 83 96 90 A (dims)16 26 43 50 12 A (dens)1007010081 84 B 91 93 74 85 93 C 0 1 0 1 0 D 12 13 3 5 3 Current March 2014. Tony Cook, Technical Specialist, Weeds, NSW DPI, Tamworth. Chris Preston 1 , Peter Boutsalis 1 , Jenna Malone 1 , Gurjeet Gill 1 and John Broster 2 . 1 School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, University of Adelaide, PMB1 Glen Osmond SA 5064. 2 School of Agricultural & Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga   Wagga NSW 2678. GRDC Projects UA00098 and UA00104. Table 2. Results of annual ryegrass samples cross resistance screening showing percentage of samples resistant or developing resistance to different groups No of groups 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%) 2012 (%) 2013 (%) 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 01.45.61.30.5 3 21.527.019.412.810.8 2 60.056.847.266.068.6 1 16.913.527.818.016.8 0 1.61.301.93.2 No of samples657436156185 Table 3. Results for ryegrass samples showing percentage resistant (Res) or developing resistance (DR) to individual Group A herbicides Tested Res DR % Susc. ‘Fops’ Hoegrass®176147119018 Verdict® 14120862 ‘Dims’ Select® 2317 9 7215 Achieve® 17121764 Factor® 7 1 0146 ‘Den’ Axial® 43342847 ‘Fop’ and ‘Dim’ Decision® 3 3 01000 Table 4. Percentage of wild oat samples found to be resistant since 2010 (number tested in brackets) 2010 % (no) 2011 % (no) 2012 % (no) 2013 % (no) ‘Fops’ 84 (25)89 (9)74 (71)81 (43) ‘Dims’ 0 (25) 0 (8) 7 (75)9 (55) ‘Dens’ 33 (6)50 (4)12 (51)46 (26) B 17 (6) 0 (4)12 (52)8 (52) Z 14 (21)13 (8)67 (3)44 (9) 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 5 26/03/2014 2:08:06 PM

173. 11914 Table 5: Situations containing glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass Situation Number of sites States Broadacre croppingChemical fallow 29 NSW Winter grains 99NSW, Vic, SA, WA Irrigated crops Summer grains 1 1 SA NSW HorticultureTree crops 5 NSW, SA Vine crops 22 SA, WA Vegetables 2 Vic Other Driveway 4NSW, Vic, SA, WA Fence line/Crop margin82NSW, Vic, SA, WA Around buildings 2 NSW Irrigation channel/Drain12NSW, Vic, SA Airstrip 1 SA Railway 2 NSW, WA Roadside 85NSW, SA, WA From Preston, C. (2009) Australian Glyphosate Resistance Register. Australian Glyphosate Sustainability Working Group. Online. Available from www.glyphosateresistance.org.au Table 6: Glyphosate resistant fleabane across Australia Situation Number of sites States Broadacre croppingChemical fallow 8 NSW, Qld Around buildings 1 NSW Irrigation channel/Drain10 NSW Railway 3 NSW Roadside 27NSW, Qld, SA Table 7: Percentage of paddocks with herbicide resistant broadleaf weeds in cropping regions of Victoria Region Year Indian hedge mustard Wild radish Sowthistle Populations resistant (%) Glean®2,4-DGlean®2,4-DGlean® Vic – Western2010350ntnt 81 Vic – Southern2010ntnt00 64 Surveys for herbicide resistant grass weeds in southern Australia Key points ■ Herbicide resistance is common in annual ryegrass in most cropping regions of southern Australia ■ Trifluralin and Select® resistance are increasing ■ Resistance to herbicides is also present in wild oats and brome grass ■ Glyphosate resistance occurs where there is intensive use of glyphosate and few or no other weed control tactics ■ Some alternatives to glyphosate will control glyphosate-resistant annual ryegrass on fence lines. Random surveys of weed populations across southern Australia have identified considerable levels of herbicide resistance in annual ryegrass across southern Australia. There are variations across regions, with trifluralin beginning to emerge as an issue (Table 1). These regional differences reflect differences in cropping practices and hence herbicide use patterns. Of particular concern is the increase in Select® resistance and was reported in 7% of samples (Table 3). More emphasis should be aimed at crop competition and annual ryegrass weed seed capture/destruction at harvest to maintain or extend the life of Select® and other effective post-emergence herbicides. The incidence of multiple resistance within annual ryegrass concerning. Approximatley 80% of samples tested had resistance to at least 2 herbicide mode of actions. In some rare cases resistance to 4 herbicide groups has developed (Table 2). Management of wild oats was previously reliant on post-emergence herbicides. Consequently there is a high frequency of resistance to ‘fops’, ‘dims’, and ‘den’ chemistry. Although there is some reasonable benefit of using the ‘dim’ chemistry, in the past two years there has been a steady increase in resistance to this group (Table 4). More pre-emergence herbicides are being use in NSW cropping systems to combat these issues with wild oats. Effective crop competition in combination with effective pre- and post-emergence herbicide should prolong the effective life of these herbicides. Herbicide resistance in winter broad leaf species is steadily increasing. In 2013, a population of wild radish was confirmed resistant to 2,4-D amine (Group I) in central NSW. There are other populations of this weed resistant to Group B in southern NSW. Fleabane is glyphosate resistant and is located over all of NSW due to its windborne seed. Another weed spread by wind, sowthistle, has been reported as glyphosate resistant in 2014 and is currently confined to northern NSW. However, Group B resistance is present in this species. Two brassica species, Indian hedge mustard and Charlock are reported to have Group B resistance in NSW. Glyphosate resistance in annual ryegrass There are now 347 confirmed sites with glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass in Australia. These come from four states and a variety of situations (Table 5). Glyphosate resistant annual ryegrass occurs when populations are treated intensively with glyphosate, where no other herbicides are applied and where there is little or no tillage. Relying solely on glyphosate for weed control is the greatest risk factor for glyphosate resistant weeds. Table 1. Percentage of annual ryegrass samples resistant or developing resistance to each herbicide group 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 A (fops)90 90 83 96 90 A (dims)16 26 43 50 12 A (dens)1007010081 84 B 91 93 74 85 93 C 0 1 0 1 0 D 12 13 3 5 3 Current March 2014. Tony Cook, Technical Specialist, Weeds, NSW DPI, Tamworth. Chris Preston 1 , Peter Boutsalis 1 , Jenna Malone 1 , Gurjeet Gill 1 and John Broster 2 . 1 School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, University of Adelaide, PMB1 Glen Osmond SA 5064. 2 School of Agricultural & Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga   Wagga NSW 2678. GRDC Projects UA00098 and UA00104. Table 2. Results of annual ryegrass samples cross resistance screening showing percentage of samples resistant or developing resistance to different groups No of groups 2009 (%) 2010 (%) 2011 (%) 2012 (%) 2013 (%) 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 01.45.61.30.5 3 21.527.019.412.810.8 2 60.056.847.266.068.6 1 16.913.527.818.016.8 0 1.61.301.93.2 No of samples657436156185 Table 3. Results for ryegrass samples showing percentage resistant (Res) or developing resistance (DR) to individual Group A herbicides Tested Res DR % Susc. ‘Fops’ Hoegrass®176147119018 Verdict® 14120862 ‘Dims’ Select® 2317 9 7215 Achieve® 17121764 Factor® 7 1 0146 ‘Den’ Axial® 43342847 ‘Fop’ and ‘Dim’ Decision® 3 3 01000 Table 4. Percentage of wild oat samples found to be resistant since 2010 (number tested in brackets) 2010 % (no) 2011 % (no) 2012 % (no) 2013 % (no) ‘Fops’ 84 (25)89 (9)74 (71)81 (43) ‘Dims’ 0 (25) 0 (8) 7 (75)9 (55) ‘Dens’ 33 (6)50 (4)12 (51)46 (26) B 17 (6) 0 (4)12 (52)8 (52) Z 14 (21)13 (8)67 (3)44 (9) 11914 herbicide resistance management ad - 2014.indd 5 26/03/2014 2:08:06 PM

50. 48 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 3 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon) e Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® 110 EC Clodinafop- propargyl 240 g/L + 60 g/L Cloquintocet- mexyl Topik® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop p-ethyl 250 g/L + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L Decision® Pinoxaden + Cloquintocet- mexyl 100 g/L + 25 g/L Axial® Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 13.6 g/L + Diclofop-methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L Cheetah® Gold Fenoxyprop-p- ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Intervix® Sulfosulfron 750 g/kg Monza® Pyroxsulam 30 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 90 g/L Crusader™ Iodosulfuron- methyl-sodium 100 g/L Hussar® OD Mesosulfuron- methyl 30 g/L Atlantis® OD MCPA + Imazapic + Imazapyr 288.5 g/L + 22 g/L + 7.3 g/L Midas® Wheat only Wheat only Wheat only Clearfield wheat and Clearfield barley only Wheat only Wheat only (not durum) Wheat and barley only Wheat only Clearfield wheat only Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Late Jnt 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–1 Till 2 L–Boot 2 L–2 Till 2 L–Mid Till 3 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node Em –Ea Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–5 Till Not before 3 L 4L–Flag L Zadoks code 12–22 12–21 (w) 12–24 12–37 12–22 12, 14–21 12–49 12–22 12–24 13–30 13–31 11–22 13–31 13–25 > Z13 14–37 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Add 0.75 or 1 L Supercharge® or Amplify®/100 L. – Add wetting agent e.g. 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. Maximum rate for barley 1.1 L/ha at 4–5-leaf stage only. Diclofop-methyl is also available in a 375 g/L formulation (Rhino®, Hostage®). – Add wetting agent, e.g.BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L spray. – Add 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L spray or 0.5 L Uptake™ or Hasten™ oil/100 L spray. – Suppression of annual phalaris may be improved by adding 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. – Add the crop oil Hasten™ at 1% v/v (i.e. 1.0 L/100 L of spray mixture) when Decision® is being applied alone. – Always add 500 mL Adigor® spray adjuvant/100 L of water. Use the lower rate when weeds are actively growing without stress, small in size and of low density. DO NOT apply later than the first awns visible stage (GS49) of the crop. – Cheetah® Gold must be mixed with either Uptake™ at 0.5% v/v or Hasten™ at 1% v/v. – – Do not apply to durum varieties. Spray wild oats from 3-leaf to the end of tillering stage. Do not apply to wheat after beginning of jointing. Apply Uptake™ only when spraytopping. – Not for use in 1 gene wheat such as Clearfield JNZ or Clearfield STL. Always add Supercharge® at 0.5 L/100L. 25 Add D-C-Trate® at 2 L/100 L of spray. Spray small weeds (see label). Not on undersown legumes. Good soil moisture required for effective results – Always use BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L. Note recropping intervals. See label. – Wheat: apply 4–7 weeks after sowing when wheat at 3-leaf–5 tiller stage. Barley: apply 4 leaf–5 tiller stage. See Critical Comments on label for use in barley, as barley can be sensitive to Hussar® OD under certain conditions.Weeds young and actively growing. Use only on varieties listed on label. – Atlantis® OD must always be applied with a non-ionic wetting agent (e.g. BS1000® at 0.25% v/v). Atlantis® OD must not be mixed with zinc based foliar fertilisers as a loss of efficiency can occur. Suppression of brome grass may be improved with the use of Hasten™ at 1% v/v. 0.9 Note: use on Clearfield System wheat varieties only; apply to crops in the 4 L to start of flagleaf stage. Apply early post-emergent to actively growing grass weeds (3-leaf to 2 tiller stage) and broadleaf weeds (2–6 leaf stage). annual phalaris 380–500 (S) – 0.4–0.5 d 85–160 1.5 (S) – 0.2–0.25 1.0 (S) 0.635–0.8 – – – 500 100 x 0.33 0.9 annual ryegrass 380–500 0.75 f 160–210 1.5 1.0 0.25–0.3 (S) 1.0 – – 600–750 – 500 (S) 75–100 0.33 (S) 0.9 w barley grass – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 25 (S) – – 0.33 (S) 0.9 bedstraw – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) – 500 100 (S) – 0.9 black bindweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 (S) brome grass – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 20–25 (S) 500 – 0.33 (S) 0.9 buchan weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – 20 n 500 n – – 0.9 n capeweed – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 + k – – 0.9 cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 – – – – 0.9 charlock – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 i – – 75 – 0.9 corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 common barbgrass – j – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 dock – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) faba bean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 – – 0.9 (S) field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – 20 500 75 (S) – – fumitory – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 lesser swinecress – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – – medics – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – 0.9 (S) Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) mustards – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 25 (S) 500 + k 75 – 0.9 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

72. 70 Stipule •in pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •s maller than leaets •size varies slightly with variety Growing point Leaet •many pairs o f leaets •more in older leaves towards t he top of plant •s hape varies with variety Petiole •s mall stem that holds the leaets Cotyledons •r emain underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as t rue nodes 1st Node 2nd Node Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) Stem Stipule •in pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem Growing point Leaet •i n a whorl on the end of t he petiole •more in older leaves t owards the top of plant Petiole •small stem that holds the lea

ets Cotyledons •a re pushed above the ground (epigeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node (visible later in g rowth when stem elongates) 1st Node •where 1st petiole joins stem •equivalent to 1st fully open leaf Lupin – albus ( Lupinus albus ), pictured, and narrow-leafed ( L. angustifolius ) Stem 2nd Node •where 2nd petiole joins stem •equivalent to 2nd fully open leaf Pulse crop growth stages All pulse species have the same basic structure based on a main stem which can be divided into basic units known as nodes. Two scale leaves appear first and the nodes where they occur are not counted as true nodes. A node is made up of a petiole which has stipules where it joins the stem, and leaflets along its length. In some species it terminates in a simple or more complex tendril.

183. 70 Stipule •in pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •s maller than leaets •size varies slightly with variety Growing point Leaet •many pairs o f leaets •more in older leaves towards t he top of plant •s hape varies with variety Petiole •s mall stem that holds the leaets Cotyledons •r emain underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as t rue nodes 1st Node 2nd Node Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) Stem Stipule •in pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem Growing point Leaet •i n a whorl on the end of t he petiole •more in older leaves t owards the top of plant Petiole •small stem that holds the lea

ets Cotyledons •a re pushed above the ground (epigeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node (visible later in g rowth when stem elongates) 1st Node •where 1st petiole joins stem •equivalent to 1st fully open leaf Lupin – albus ( Lupinus albus ), pictured, and narrow-leafed ( L. angustifolius ) Stem 2nd Node •where 2nd petiole joins stem •equivalent to 2nd fully open leaf Pulse crop growth stages All pulse species have the same basic structure based on a main stem which can be divided into basic units known as nodes. Two scale leaves appear first and the nodes where they occur are not counted as true nodes. A node is made up of a petiole which has stipules where it joins the stem, and leaflets along its length. In some species it terminates in a simple or more complex tendril.

74. 72 Stipule •i n pairs •each side of t he leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •size varies w ith variety •s ome varieties have dark spot Growing point •new leaves and owers Leaet •1 t o 4 pairs o f leaets depending on variety •m ore and larger in older leaves towards the top of plant •size varies w ith variety Petiole •s mall s tem that holds the leaets, terminating with undeveloped tendril-like wisps Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to g round level •not counted a s true nodes 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node Faba bean ( Vicia faba ) Stem Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem Growing point •new leaves and

owers Leaet •1 t o many pairs of lea

ets •m ore in older leaves t owards the top of plant Petiole •s mall s tem that holds the lea

ets, terminating with undeveloped tendril-like wisps Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to g round level •not counted as true nodes 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node 4th Node Lentil ( Lens culinaris ) Stem The Pulse Crop Growth Stages diagrams are reproduced with the permission of Di Holding and Annabel Bowcher, formerly CRC for Australian Weed Management.

185. 72 Stipule •i n pairs •each side of t he leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •size varies w ith variety •s ome varieties have dark spot Growing point •new leaves and owers Leaet •1 t o 4 pairs o f leaets depending on variety •m ore and larger in older leaves towards the top of plant •size varies w ith variety Petiole •s mall s tem that holds the leaets, terminating with undeveloped tendril-like wisps Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to g round level •not counted a s true nodes 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node Faba bean ( Vicia faba ) Stem Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem Growing point •new leaves and

owers Leaet •1 t o many pairs of lea

ets •m ore in older leaves t owards the top of plant Petiole •s mall s tem that holds the lea

ets, terminating with undeveloped tendril-like wisps Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •t wo found at base of plant close to g round level •not counted as true nodes 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node 4th Node Lentil ( Lens culinaris ) Stem The Pulse Crop Growth Stages diagrams are reproduced with the permission of Di Holding and Annabel Bowcher, formerly CRC for Australian Weed Management.

77. 75 Herbicide options in pulses Table 17. Herbicides for weed control for chickpea (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Early post-emergence Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Quizalofop- p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Apply at crop growth stage 7 weeks before harvest 2 Leaf to flowering – Not before 5 Leaf and up until 12 weeks before harvest Not beyond full flower Any time until 12 weeks before harvest 4–6 Leaf Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) amsinckia – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water, Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or 1 L other oils + wetter per 100 L water. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a Fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rates on small actively growing weeds. – Always add BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden and improve grass control. See label. 25 DO NOT use any spray additives or tankmix any other chemicals. May cause transient crop yellowing, reddening and height suppression. Flowering may be delayed resulting in yield suppression. Crop stage 4–6 branches. See label. annual phalaris 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 – 0.15–0.5 r – – annual ryegrass 0.41 0.075–0.1 80–180 0.15 or 0.19 0.15–0.5 0.45 – barley grass 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.2 – brome grass 0.5 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.15 or 0.19 0.175–0.5 0.3 – capeweed – – – – – – – cereals 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.125 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 m – cockspur – Maltese – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – lettuce – wild – – – – – – – medic – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 25 Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – radish – wild – – – – – – 25 (S) rough poppy – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – shepherds purse – – – – – – 25 sowthistle – – – – – – – spear thistle – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – turnip weed – – – – – – 25 vulpia – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – wild oats 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 80–180 0.065 or 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.25 – wild turnip – – – – – – 25 winter grass – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–150 50 min 50–150 50 min 30–150 50–150 Herbicide group/mode A A A A A A B d = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. m = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. r = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa (S) = Suppression only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

159. 46 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Terbutryn + MCPA 275 + 160 g/L Agtryne® MA MCPA + Bromoxynil + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced b 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50g/L Torpedo ™ Picolinafen 50 g/L+ MCPA 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen 35 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L + MCPA 350 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen- ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot 2 L–Full Till 3–5-leaf 3 L–Full Till 3 L–Flag 2 L–1st node 5L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 5 L–Ea Till 3 L–Flag 2 L–1st node 3 L–5 L 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Mid Till Zadoks code 12–31 13–39 12–29 13–15 13–30 13–39 12–31 15–31 13–31 13–25 15–22 13–39 12–31 13–15 13–28 12–25 Weeds controlled (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) amsinckia 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate®/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35–0.5 L LVE MCPA/ha to broaden weed spectrum. – NW slopes and plains only. 0.75 Can be used on undersown sub-clover and lucerne. Not annual medics. Application should be made from the first to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 1.0 0.75–1.4 – Can be tankmixed with Ally®, MCPA LVE or MCPA amine to broaden weed spectrum. – – Boom only. Good quality water essential. – Add BS1000® (when mixed with metsulfuron-methyl). 115 m or p Add wetter. Do not apply after mid-tillering stage as crop damage may result. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or crop after mid- tillering stage. Small weeds. – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. – – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – – annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – barley grass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw 50 (S) u – 1.0 (S) – – 0.3 – – – – – 0.7 0.1 h – – 0.4 i black bindweed – 40 0.5–1.0 – 1.0–1.4 0.3–0.45 – – 0.5–0.75 e 200 m or p 0.28 – – – – – brome grass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – buchan weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer 50 o – 0.5–0.75* – 1.4 – – – – – – – – 0.25 * 360 0.4 i * capeweed 35–50 u – 0.5–1.0 1.0 0.75–1.4 – 0.15 h 2.1–3.2 – 115 p (S) 0.16 v 0.7 (S) 0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i charlock – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m or r 0.16 v – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – chickpea – volunteer 35–50 u – – – – – 0.1 h – 0.75 e 115–200 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – 0.4 l cleavers – – – – – 0.6 – – – – – – – – – – clover 50 (S) nu – – – – – 0.075–0.1 h – – 115–200 0.28 – – – – 0.4 ln corn gromwell – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – – 0.5 720 – common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – 30 0.5–0.75 1.5 – 0.9 – – 0.5–0.75 ce 115 m 0.2–0.28 m – – 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l dock – – 1.0 (S) – 0.75–1.4 – – 2.1–3.2 x – 200 r 0.16 or 0.28 v – – – – – erodium – – 0.5 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.4 i faba bean – volunteer 35–50 u – – – – – 0.125 h – 0.5–0.75 f 200 r – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – 0.4 l field pea – volunteer 50 (S) u – 0.75 (S) – – – 0.075 h – 0.5–0.75 f 115–200 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 – – – fumitory – 40 0.75–1.0 (S) 1.0 1.0–1.4 – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – – 0.5 (S) 540–720 (S) h 0.4 l lesser swinecress – – 1.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer 35–50 u – 0.5–1 (S) – – 0.9 0.125 h – 0.5 g 115 – 0.7 0.075–0.1 0.5 (S) 720 (S) i 0.4 i medics 50 (S) u – – – – – 0.075–0.1 h – – – – – 0.075–0.1 j – – 0.4 l Mexican poppy – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – – – – – mintweed – – 1.0 (S) – – – – – – 200 t 0.28 t – – – – – mustards 50 45 0.5–1.0 1.0 0.75–1.4 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m or p 0.16 v 0.7 0.075–0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i New Zealand spinach – 40 – – – – – – – 200 0.28 – – – – –

161. 48 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 3 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon) e Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® 110 EC Clodinafop- propargyl 240 g/L + 60 g/L Cloquintocet- mexyl Topik® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop p-ethyl 250 g/L + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L Decision® Pinoxaden + Cloquintocet- mexyl 100 g/L + 25 g/L Axial® Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 13.6 g/L + Diclofop-methyl 200 g/L + Sethoxydim 20 g/L Cheetah® Gold Fenoxyprop-p- ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Intervix® Sulfosulfron 750 g/kg Monza® Pyroxsulam 30 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 90 g/L Crusader™ Iodosulfuron- methyl-sodium 100 g/L Hussar® OD Mesosulfuron- methyl 30 g/L Atlantis® OD MCPA + Imazapic + Imazapyr 288.5 g/L + 22 g/L + 7.3 g/L Midas® Wheat only Wheat only Wheat only Clearfield wheat and Clearfield barley only Wheat only Wheat only (not durum) Wheat and barley only Wheat only Clearfield wheat only Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Late Jnt 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–1 Till 2 L–Boot 2 L–2 Till 2 L–Mid Till 3 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node Em –Ea Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–5 Till Not before 3 L 4L–Flag L Zadoks code 12–22 12–21 (w) 12–24 12–37 12–22 12, 14–21 12–49 12–22 12–24 13–30 13–31 11–22 13–31 13–25 > Z13 14–37 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (millilitres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Add 0.75 or 1 L Supercharge® or Amplify®/100 L. – Add wetting agent e.g. 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. Maximum rate for barley 1.1 L/ha at 4–5-leaf stage only. Diclofop-methyl is also available in a 375 g/L formulation (Rhino®, Hostage®). – Add wetting agent, e.g.BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L spray. – Add 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L spray or 0.5 L Uptake™ or Hasten™ oil/100 L spray. – Suppression of annual phalaris may be improved by adding 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. – Add the crop oil Hasten™ at 1% v/v (i.e. 1.0 L/100 L of spray mixture) when Decision® is being applied alone. – Always add 500 mL Adigor® spray adjuvant/100 L of water. Use the lower rate when weeds are actively growing without stress, small in size and of low density. DO NOT apply later than the first awns visible stage (GS49) of the crop. – Cheetah® Gold must be mixed with either Uptake™ at 0.5% v/v or Hasten™ at 1% v/v. – – Do not apply to durum varieties. Spray wild oats from 3-leaf to the end of tillering stage. Do not apply to wheat after beginning of jointing. Apply Uptake™ only when spraytopping. – Not for use in 1 gene wheat such as Clearfield JNZ or Clearfield STL. Always add Supercharge® at 0.5 L/100L. 25 Add D-C-Trate® at 2 L/100 L of spray. Spray small weeds (see label). Not on undersown legumes. Good soil moisture required for effective results – Always use BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L. Note recropping intervals. See label. – Wheat: apply 4–7 weeks after sowing when wheat at 3-leaf–5 tiller stage. Barley: apply 4 leaf–5 tiller stage. See Critical Comments on label for use in barley, as barley can be sensitive to Hussar® OD under certain conditions.Weeds young and actively growing. Use only on varieties listed on label. – Atlantis® OD must always be applied with a non-ionic wetting agent (e.g. BS1000® at 0.25% v/v). Atlantis® OD must not be mixed with zinc based foliar fertilisers as a loss of efficiency can occur. Suppression of brome grass may be improved with the use of Hasten™ at 1% v/v. 0.9 Note: use on Clearfield System wheat varieties only; apply to crops in the 4 L to start of flagleaf stage. Apply early post-emergent to actively growing grass weeds (3-leaf to 2 tiller stage) and broadleaf weeds (2–6 leaf stage). annual phalaris 380–500 (S) – 0.4–0.5 d 85–160 1.5 (S) – 0.2–0.25 1.0 (S) 0.635–0.8 – – – 500 100 x 0.33 0.9 annual ryegrass 380–500 0.75 f 160–210 1.5 1.0 0.25–0.3 (S) 1.0 – – 600–750 – 500 (S) 75–100 0.33 (S) 0.9 w barley grass – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 25 (S) – – 0.33 (S) 0.9 bedstraw – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) – 500 100 (S) – 0.9 black bindweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 (S) brome grass – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 20–25 (S) 500 – 0.33 (S) 0.9 buchan weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – 20 n 500 n – – 0.9 n capeweed – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 + k – – 0.9 cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 – – – – 0.9 charlock – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 i – – 75 – 0.9 corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 common barbgrass – j – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 dock – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) faba bean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 – – 0.9 (S) field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – 20 500 75 (S) – – fumitory – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 lesser swinecress – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – – medics – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – 0.9 (S) Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) mustards – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 25 (S) 500 + k 75 – 0.9 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

5. 3 What’s new in 2014? Axial® in wheat and barley now has a seed sterilization technique registration for selective spray topping of wild oats (black oats) ( Av e n a spp.) (GS30-47) to reduce panicle numbers and/or weed seed viability. 200 mL/ha Axial® (Group A) plus 500 mL Adigor™/100 L water. DO NOT apply later than the flag leaf fully emerged stage (GS39) of the crop. Application timing: Apply Axial® when the majority of wild oats are at the stem elongation stage, up to and including when the flag leaf sheath is just at opening stage (GS30-47). Applications during early stem elongation will provide good control and are most effective in reducing panicle numbers but are less effective in reducing the viability of any weed seed produced. Applications at and beyond the flag leaf fully emerged stage (GS39) will reduce weed seed viability and contribution of seed to the weed seed bank. Carefully monitor weed growth stage to ensure optimum timing of herbicide application and always consider the range in weed growth stages present at application. Late germinating weeds not present at application, will not be controlled. Garlon™ Fallow Master (755 g/L triclopyr) (Group I) replaces Garlon™ 600. Lontrel™ Advanced (600 g/L) (Group I) added to the Lontrel™ armoury of 300 g/L Liquid and Lontrel™ 750 SG. Extended label use patterns to cover volunteer pulses. Outlook® (dimethenamid-P) (Group K). A new IBS herbicide for use in chickpeas and field peas for ryegrass resistance management. Label requirements include only using in low weed populations and the use of knife point and presswheel systems only for incorporation. Sharpen® WG (700 g/kg saflufenacil) (Group G) BASF has been released as a spike to glyphosate in pre-sowing situations (not canola) to give improved control of many weeds including fleabanes. Amitrole T Herbicide (250 g/L amitrole, 220 g/L ammonium thiocyanate) (Group Q) has been registered for Optical Spot Spray technologies for weed cover between 0 and 30%. If percentage weed cover exceeds 30% use approved boom spray rates. Stomp® 440 replaces Stomp® 330EC (Group D). Diuron 900 DF Herbicide (Group C) has had an amended lucerne claim registered post the diuron review. Refer to label. Terrain™ 500 WG (500 g/L flumioxazin) (Group G) has been released as a spike to glyphosate or paraquat/diquat herbicides for rapid knockdown and control of various grass and broadleafed weeds in pre-sowing situations (not canola). Weedmaster® DST® (470 g/L glyphosate) (Group M) registration for pre-harvest cutting application in annual pasture for hay/silage production. Targa® is no longer available and is replaced with Elantra® Xtreme® (200 g/L quizalofop-p-ethyl) (Group A). SprayWise® Decisions is an innovative internet subscriber service that helps rural landholders and contractors to better plan and match the timing of chemical applications to prevailing local weather conditions. New functionality for Spraywise® Decisions includes: • t he ability to choose spray quality to assist with Spray Planning. • s unrise and sunset times. • lo calised forecasts when using smart devices. Go to www.spraywisedecisions.com.au The Cotton Field Awareness Map is an industry initiative which has been designed to highlight the location of cotton fields. The service is provided free of charge with the purpose of minimising off-target damage from downwind pesticide application, particularly during fallow spraying. Farmers, farm managers, resellers, consultants, agronomists, applicators and contractors are encouraged to input their cotton field(s). Users can also access the Cotton Map to check the location of the paddock(s) they may be planning to spray to assess the proximity of the nearest cotton crop. The map is a joint collaboration between Cotton Australia, Cotton Research and Development Corporation (CRDC), Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) and Nufarm Australia Limited, developed to meet industry needs. Go to www.cottonmap.com.au Infopest Free Online: Ag chemicals at your fingertips. Infopest ( www.infopest.com.au ) is a free online database managed by Growcom and updated weekly with new or updated products, permits and Material Safety Data Sheets that have been registered or approved by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). It’s a great place to start to find a chemical solution for the pest/disease problem in your crop or animals. Please always consult the label.

116. 3 What’s new in 2014? Axial® in wheat and barley now has a seed sterilization technique registration for selective spray topping of wild oats (black oats) ( Av e n a spp.) (GS30-47) to reduce panicle numbers and/or weed seed viability. 200 mL/ha Axial® (Group A) plus 500 mL Adigor™/100 L water. DO NOT apply later than the flag leaf fully emerged stage (GS39) of the crop. Application timing: Apply Axial® when the majority of wild oats are at the stem elongation stage, up to and including when the flag leaf sheath is just at opening stage (GS30-47). Applications during early stem elongation will provide good control and are most effective in reducing panicle numbers but are less effective in reducing the viability of any weed seed produced. Applications at and beyond the flag leaf fully emerged stage (GS39) will reduce weed seed viability and contribution of seed to the weed seed bank. Carefully monitor weed growth stage to ensure optimum timing of herbicide application and always consider the range in weed growth stages present at application. Late germinating weeds not present at application, will not be controlled. Garlon™ Fallow Master (755 g/L triclopyr) (Group I) replaces Garlon™ 600. Lontrel™ Advanced (600 g/L) (Group I) added to the Lontrel™ armoury of 300 g/L Liquid and Lontrel™ 750 SG. Extended label use patterns to cover volunteer pulses. Outlook® (dimethenamid-P) (Group K). A new IBS herbicide for use in chickpeas and field peas for ryegrass resistance management. Label requirements include only using in low weed populations and the use of knife point and presswheel systems only for incorporation. Sharpen® WG (700 g/kg saflufenacil) (Group G) BASF has been released as a spike to glyphosate in pre-sowing situations (not canola) to give improved control of many weeds including fleabanes. Amitrole T Herbicide (250 g/L amitrole, 220 g/L ammonium thiocyanate) (Group Q) has been registered for Optical Spot Spray technologies for weed cover between 0 and 30%. If percentage weed cover exceeds 30% use approved boom spray rates. Stomp® 440 replaces Stomp® 330EC (Group D). Diuron 900 DF Herbicide (Group C) has had an amended lucerne claim registered post the diuron review. Refer to label. Terrain™ 500 WG (500 g/L flumioxazin) (Group G) has been released as a spike to glyphosate or paraquat/diquat herbicides for rapid knockdown and control of various grass and broadleafed weeds in pre-sowing situations (not canola). Weedmaster® DST® (470 g/L glyphosate) (Group M) registration for pre-harvest cutting application in annual pasture for hay/silage production. Targa® is no longer available and is replaced with Elantra® Xtreme® (200 g/L quizalofop-p-ethyl) (Group A). SprayWise® Decisions is an innovative internet subscriber service that helps rural landholders and contractors to better plan and match the timing of chemical applications to prevailing local weather conditions. New functionality for Spraywise® Decisions includes: • t he ability to choose spray quality to assist with Spray Planning. • s unrise and sunset times. • lo calised forecasts when using smart devices. Go to www.spraywisedecisions.com.au The Cotton Field Awareness Map is an industry initiative which has been designed to highlight the location of cotton fields. The service is provided free of charge with the purpose of minimising off-target damage from downwind pesticide application, particularly during fallow spraying. Farmers, farm managers, resellers, consultants, agronomists, applicators and contractors are encouraged to input their cotton field(s). Users can also access the Cotton Map to check the location of the paddock(s) they may be planning to spray to assess the proximity of the nearest cotton crop. The map is a joint collaboration between Cotton Australia, Cotton Research and Development Corporation (CRDC), Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) and Nufarm Australia Limited, developed to meet industry needs. Go to www.cottonmap.com.au Infopest Free Online: Ag chemicals at your fingertips. Infopest ( www.infopest.com.au ) is a free online database managed by Growcom and updated weekly with new or updated products, permits and Material Safety Data Sheets that have been registered or approved by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). It’s a great place to start to find a chemical solution for the pest/disease problem in your crop or animals. Please always consult the label.

188. 75 Herbicide options in pulses Table 17. Herbicides for weed control for chickpea (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Early post-emergence Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Quizalofop- p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Apply at crop growth stage 7 weeks before harvest 2 Leaf to flowering – Not before 5 Leaf and up until 12 weeks before harvest Not beyond full flower Any time until 12 weeks before harvest 4–6 Leaf Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) amsinckia – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water, Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or 1 L other oils + wetter per 100 L water. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a Fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rates on small actively growing weeds. – Always add BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden and improve grass control. See label. 25 DO NOT use any spray additives or tankmix any other chemicals. May cause transient crop yellowing, reddening and height suppression. Flowering may be delayed resulting in yield suppression. Crop stage 4–6 branches. See label. annual phalaris 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 – 0.15–0.5 r – – annual ryegrass 0.41 0.075–0.1 80–180 0.15 or 0.19 0.15–0.5 0.45 – barley grass 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.2 – brome grass 0.5 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.15 or 0.19 0.175–0.5 0.3 – capeweed – – – – – – – cereals 0.41 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.125 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 m – cockspur – Maltese – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – lettuce – wild – – – – – – – medic – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 25 Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – radish – wild – – – – – – 25 (S) rough poppy – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – shepherds purse – – – – – – 25 sowthistle – – – – – – – spear thistle – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – turnip weed – – – – – – 25 vulpia – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – wild oats 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 80–180 0.065 or 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.25 – wild turnip – – – – – – 25 winter grass – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–150 50 min 50–150 50 min 30–150 50–150 Herbicide group/mode A A A A A A B d = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. m = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. r = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa (S) = Suppression only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

39. 37 Herbicide options in fallow New Zealand spinach – – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.8 0.7 – – parthenium weed – – – – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse 5 or 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.8–1.7 0.7 – – peachvine (cowvine) – 0.15–0.2 1.4–2.1 – – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.3 h – peppercress – – – – – – – – – pigweed – 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – 0.25–1.125 h – potato weed – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 – – – – radish – wild – – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 – 0.35–0.7 – – rough poppy 5 – – – 0.4–1.3 – 2.1–2.9 0.35–0.7 – – saffron thistle – – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–2.5 0.35–0.7 – – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse 5 – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.8 0.7 – – skeleton weed 7 (S) – – 0.515–0.745 (S) d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 (S) 0.8–1.7 0.7 – – slender thistle – – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–3.3 0.7 – – sorrel 5 – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 – – – – – soursob 5 – – – – – – – – – sowthistle 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d – 0.66–1.2 – – 0.6 y – spear thistle – – – 0.39–0.575 d – 0.9–1.2 1.15–2.1 0.7 – – spiny emex 5 or 7 – – – – – – – 0.9 – spurge – – – – – – – – – – stagger weed 5 – – – – – – – – – star thistle – – – – – – 0.8–1.7 – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – stinking goosefoot – – – – – – 0.8 0.7 – – sub. clover 5 – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.62–0.8 0.5–0.7 – – sunflower 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–0.8 0.35–0.7 0.6 – turnip weed 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.41–0.8 0.35–0.7 – – variegated thistle – – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–3.3 0.35–0.7 – – vetch – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 – 0.7 – – wild lettuce – – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – 0.3 y – wild turnip 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 – 0.35–0.7 – – wireweed 5 or 7 – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 y – Rec Water Vol L/ha Boom 30 min 50 min 50–200 50–250 30–120 30–120 30–100 50–100 50 min 50 min Wheat plant-back 10 days 4 mths NS 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 7 days 7 days Herbicide group B B C I I I I I I I a = 2,4-D A mine also available in 475 g/L, see appropriate labels for rates. b = F luroxypyr also available in 400 g/L. See label for rates. d = Must also add a minimum of 1 .18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo®. e = R ate for prickly paddy melon 65–130 mL/ha and Afghan or camel melon 95–130 mL/ha of Garlon™ Fallowmaster™ 755. f = Must also add a minimum of 1 .18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo®, followed by 1.6–2.0 L/ha Nuquat® within 7–10 days of the first application. h = A dd glyphosate for control. i = 1–1.5 L/ha plus gl yphosate. j = S ee label for appropriate rate given weed size and season consideration. Minimum water rate 70 L/ha. r = F or prickly/paddy melon add 80 mL Garlon™ 600/ha – do not add crop oil when mixing with glyphosate. t = S ee label for rates for controlling Roundup Ready® canola volunteers. v = 1.0 L/ha up t o 4 leaf stage, 1.4 L/ha up to 6 leaf stage. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014. Restrictions now exist that limit the use of Estercide® 800 at certain times of the year. * Currently there is a restriction on the use of high volatile esters. These formulations can only be used between 1 May and 31 August. Other formulations of 2,4-D (Low volatile esters and amine formulations) can be used at any time of the year within restraints listed on the respective labels.

46. 44 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® g Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Sulfosulfuron 750 g/kg Monza® Wheat and triticale only Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® 750 WG Metribuzin 700 g/kg Sencor® 700 Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn flowable 500 g/L Igran® Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG c + MCPA Amine 500 Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon™ 242 MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC o Apply at crop growth stage 3 L–Joint (wheat) Mid Till–Joint (barley) 3 L–Jo 2 L–Ea Till Emerg–Ea Till 1-leaf– Ea Till Not before 3 L stage when tankmixing 3 L–8 Wks 3 L–Full Till 3 L–Ea Till 3–5 L Till 3 L–Full Till Ea Till –Full Till 5 L–Prior to booting 3 L–Bo Ea Till –Full Till 3–5-leaf– L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node (wheat) 5 L–1st node (barley) Zadoks code 13–31, 16–31 13–35 12–23 11–22 11–21 13–8 Wks 13–30 13–21 13–23 13–30 21–30 15–23 13–37 22–30 13–30 12–30 13, 15–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (grams + litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics and sub-clovers after the 2–3 trifoliate leaf stage. Add Uptake™ spraying oil or wetting agent for wheat and undersowns or wetting agent only for barley. 5 or 7 Add surfactant. 15 Not on barley before 2-leaf stage. Add wetting agent. Not Preferred Recommendation for barley. 25 Wheat and triticale only. Add D-C-Trate® 2 L/100 L spray volume. Not for use with undersown legumes. Note: Plant-backs on label. Don’t use on flood or furrow irrigations or soils with pH > 8.5. – Spray before crop reaches early tillering. For best results apply when soil conditions are moist and weeds are small. – 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics, Persian or Berseem clover. Avoid spraying when temperatures above 20 ̊C. 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown medics or lucerne. 280 + 0.5 Use only on moist soils. This is a tank mix. 1.4 –2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing. Do not apply after the fully-tillered stage. – – See label for crop stage, weed size and chemical rate. Barley: Use only from 5-leaf stage to flag-leaf just visible (Z15–37). Maximum rate in barley 1.4 L/ha. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and some other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 0.6–1.0 Add Hasten™ 1% v/v, Supercharge® 0.75% v/v or Uptake™ 0.5% v/v. Note recropping intervals on label. 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate or Hasten™ (1% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Do not use non-ionic-surfactants. Note recropping intervals on label. annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – – 15 or 25 a – – – – – – – – – – – – – – barley grass – – – 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – 0.67–1.0 0.75–1.0 black bindweed – – 20 – 10 p – 1.4–2.0 p – 1.4 –2.1 1.7 0.97–1.35 v – 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – brome grass – – – 20–25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – buchan weed 25 (S) m – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer 25 w – – 20 w – – – – – 1.4–2.0 n – 0.33 l v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5 n 0.5–1.0 n 0.5–1.0 capeweed 25 m – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 1.45 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 f charlock 25 5 15 – – – – 0.55–0.85 b 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5–1.0 – – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – chickpea – volunteer – 5 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 f cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – 5 – – – – – – – – 1.7 – – – – – 0.5 f k corn gromwell – – 20 – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 – – – – 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle 25 (S) m 5 15 or 20 – 10–13 p – – 0.55–0.85 p 280 + 0.5 – – 1.45 v – – 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 dock – 5 or 7 – – – – – – – – 1.0–1.7 – – – 1.0 (S) – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) h – – faba bean – volunteer – – – – 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 0.5 f field pea – volunteer – 7 – 20 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5–1.0 or 0.5 f fumitory – 5 20 – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 – 1.4 –2.0 – 0.93 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.75 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 lesser swinecress – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer 25 5 – – – – – – – – – 0.46–0.96 v – – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 medics – 5 – – 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5 f or 1.0 Mexican poppy – – – – 10–13 p – 2.0 p – 1.4 –2.0 – – – – – – –

7. 5 Weed control management in winter crops Good weed control management in winter crops is a vital part of successful and profitable crop production. Yield losses caused by weeds can vary enormously from being almost negligible to a complete loss. Weeds lower crop yields by competing for soil moisture, nutrients, space and light and can carry diseases which attack crops. This competition reduces grain yield and quality, and can impede harvesting. Some weeds can restrict cropping options as herbicides for control are sometimes limited. Thoroughly investigate which weed species are likely to germinate in a paddock before sowing crops with limited herbicide control options. Weed control is a numbers game. Growers should aim to reduce numbers and keep them low with an ongoing program. An integrated weed management system combining all the available methods is the key to successful control of weeds. • Crop rotation. A well managed rotation in each paddock, which alternates pastures, broadleaf and cereal crops, is a very useful technique for controlling weeds. For example grass weeds are more easily and cheaply controlled chemically in broadleaf crops, whereas broadleaf weeds are much easier to control in cereal crops. In parts of northern NSW alternating summer and winter crops is a time honoured strategy for weed control. Good crop rotation management can substantially reduce the cost of controlling weeds with chemicals. • Haymaking or silage making in crops and pastures is a very effective way of reducing weed burdens. • Pasture management techniques such as pasture topping by mowing or using herbicides, spray grazing, strategic heavy grazing or burning can all have a role in weed control programs. Cleaning grasses out of legume pastures in winter is a common practice. This involves spraying grasses such as barley grass and vulpia out of pastures in winter to stop seed set, improve nitrogen build - up and reduce root diseases in following cereal crops. • Good agronomic practices such as using weed - free seed (preferably registered or certified) and sowing on time with optimal plant populations and adequate nutrition all contribute to good weed control management. Be extremely vigilant with new weed incursions, not allowing them to set seed. Some crops and varieties are more competitive against weeds than others. All weeds growing in a field should be controlled before the crop emerges. Large weeds which have not been controlled prior to or by the sowing operation prove most difficult and often impossible to remedy with in-crop herbicides. • Timely cultivation is a valuable method for killing weeds and preparing seedbeds. Some growers use varying combinations of mechanical and chemical weed control to manage their fallows or stubbles. • Harvest weed-seed management is a tool now considered to be imperative in both delaying and dealing with herbicide resistant weed populations. See www.grdc.com.au and follow the links. • In - cr op weed control. A wide range of pre - emergent and early post-emergent herbicides are available for in - crop weed control. Weeds should be removed from crops as early as possible and certainly no later than 6 weeks after sowing if yield losses are to be minimised. Yield responses will depend on weed species, weed and crop density and seasonal conditions. The stage of growth of the weed and the crop are vital factors to consider when planning the successful use of post - e mergent herbicides. Tolerance to herbicides varies between cereals and between the varieties of each cereal. Read herbicide labels carefully for these details and information on the best conditions for spraying. • Herbicide resistance in weeds is a problem that continues to become more widespread through NSW which growers should be alerted to. It is one of the biggest agronomic threats to the sustainability of our cropping systems. However, this problem can be managed by having a good crop and pasture rotation, by rotating herbicide groups and by combining both chemical and non - chemical methods of weed control. Each table throughout this guide lists the mode of action group for each herbicide (See the section ‘Herbicide resistance management’ in this guide, page 56 .)

63. 61 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn 500 g/L Igran® Triticale only Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Picolinafen + MCPA 50g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L + 350 g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen -ethyl 20g/L Ecopar® Triticale only Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Triticale only Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Torpedo ™ Triticale only MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–5 L 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Jo 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ea Till 2 L–F Till 5 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–5 L 3 L–Late Till 2 L–Mid Till 5 L–Ea Till Ea–Fully Till Ea Till–Full Till 3–5 L 3 L–Flag leaf 2 L–1st node 3 L–Flag Zadoks code 12–15 12–23 13–35 13–30 13–21 13–29 15–30 13–30 13–15 13–28 12–25 15–22 21–30 22–30 13–15 13–39 12–31 13–39 Weed controlled (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – 15 Moist soil or rain within 7 days improves results. Add wetter. 5 or 7 Add surfactant. 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics. Avoid spraying when temperatures above 20 ̊C. Aerial application can be unsatisfactory. 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown lucerne and medics. 0.75 Can be used on clover and lucerne. Not on annual medics. Application should be made from first to eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 1.4–2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. 0.75–1.0 – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – – – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or after mid-tillering stage. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing. Do not apply after the fully tillered stage. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Maximum rate at 3–5-leaf crop stage 0.44 L/ha. – Can be tankmixed with Ally®, MCPA LVE and MCPA amine to broaden weed control. – – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. annual ryegrass – 20 or 25a – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris 0.635– 0.8 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 (S) – – – – 0.4 d – – – – 0.3 0.1 e 0.7 black bindweed – 20 – 1.4–2.0 – 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 – 0.3–0.4 – – capeweed – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – 0.44 – 0.1 e 0.7 (S) canola – volunteer – – – – – 0.5–0.75 j – 1.4 0.25 j 0.36 0.4 d j – – – 0.44 j – – – charlock – 15 5 – 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – 0.44 – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – clover – – 5 – – – – – – – 0.4 fi 0.28 1.7 – – – – – corn gromwell – 20 – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – – – deadnettle – 15 or 20 5 – 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – – – 0.9 – – dock – seedling – – – – – 1.0 (S) – 0.75–1.0 – – – 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – – – – – fumitory – 20 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 0.75–1.0 (S) 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 0.5 (S) 0.54–0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – – 0.44 – – – Mexican poppy – – – 2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – 20 – – – 1.0 (S) 1.4–2.0 – – – – – 1.7 – – – – – mustards – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – 0.075–0.1 e 0.7 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 (S) – – – – Paterson’s curse – 15 5 or 7 2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.4 f – – – 0.44 – – – radish – wild – 15 or 20 – 2.0 – 0.5–1.0 g 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.3–0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 k – 0.075–0.1 e 0.7 Rough poppy – 20 5 – – 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.5 0.72 – – 1.7 1.0 0.44 – – – shepherd’s purse – 20 5 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – 7 (S) – – 1.0 (S) – – – – – – – 1.0 0.44 – – – slender thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – 0.44 – – – sorrel – – 5 – – 1.0 (S) – – – – 0.4 f – 1.0–1.7 – – – – – soursob – 20 5 – – – – – – – 0.4 f – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 5 – – – 1.4–2.1 h – 0.5(S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – 1.0 – 0.6 – – spiny emex – – 5 or 7 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.5(S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 – 0.9 0.1 e 0.7 Continued over page

67. 65 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 13. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Low Volatile 2,4-D Ester 680 g/L Estercide® Xtra 680 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only Picloram + 2,4-D + aminopyralid (75 + 300 + 7.5 g/L) FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage Flower to early dough Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot 5 L–Boot Ea Till–Full Till Mid Till–Joint Zadoks code 61–83 31–37 31–37 31–37 15–33 31–37 15–37 22–30 23–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least-mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from flowering to early dough stage. Add Uptake™ oil or wetter. Can be used on undersown lucerne clovers and annual medics. – – – – Boom only. Good quality water essential. – Undersown sub-clovers may be slightly retarded. Do not apply to undersown medics or lucerne. See label for comments regarding weed size and application rate. – Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – 0.46–1.45 – 1.0 0.3 capeweed – 0.53–0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – canola – volunteer – – 0.9-1.25 – – – 1.31 a – – charlock – 0.41 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – clover – 0.62–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – – – corn gromwell – 0.8 – – – – – – – deadnettle – 0.8 – – – – – – – fumitory – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – Mexican poppy – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – – – – mintweed – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b mustards – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b New Zealand spinach – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 Paterson’s curse – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – Prickly Lettuce – – – – 2.1-3.2 – – – – radish – wild 25 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 d 1.0 0.3 b rough poppy – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 – – – saffron thistle – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 Scotch thistle – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 – – shepherd’s purse – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 – – – – skeleton weed – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – slender thistle – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – sorrel – – 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.285–1.25 – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 spear thistle – – – – 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – spiny emex – – – – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 turnip weed 25 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b variegated thistle – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b wild oats – – – – – – – – wild turnip – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – wireweed – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 b Recom water L/ha boom 100 min 30–100 30–120 30–120 110–220 60–220 30–120 50 min 50 min Herbicide group/mode B I I I I I I I I All the above herbicides will damage undersown legumes except 2,4-DB, which has not been fully tested on all lucerne varieties and may cause unacceptable damage. 2,4-DB is safe for use on sub-clover and medics. 2,4-DB is not safe on woolly pod vetch, berseem and red clovers. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014. a = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. b = Tank mix with 0.375 L/ha 2,4-D amine (625 g/L) for control. c = S ee label for tankmix options. d = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control in wild radish. h = C an be tankmixed with MCPA or 2,4-D amine. (S) = Suppr ession only.

118. 5 Weed control management in winter crops Good weed control management in winter crops is a vital part of successful and profitable crop production. Yield losses caused by weeds can vary enormously from being almost negligible to a complete loss. Weeds lower crop yields by competing for soil moisture, nutrients, space and light and can carry diseases which attack crops. This competition reduces grain yield and quality, and can impede harvesting. Some weeds can restrict cropping options as herbicides for control are sometimes limited. Thoroughly investigate which weed species are likely to germinate in a paddock before sowing crops with limited herbicide control options. Weed control is a numbers game. Growers should aim to reduce numbers and keep them low with an ongoing program. An integrated weed management system combining all the available methods is the key to successful control of weeds. • Crop rotation. A well managed rotation in each paddock, which alternates pastures, broadleaf and cereal crops, is a very useful technique for controlling weeds. For example grass weeds are more easily and cheaply controlled chemically in broadleaf crops, whereas broadleaf weeds are much easier to control in cereal crops. In parts of northern NSW alternating summer and winter crops is a time honoured strategy for weed control. Good crop rotation management can substantially reduce the cost of controlling weeds with chemicals. • Haymaking or silage making in crops and pastures is a very effective way of reducing weed burdens. • Pasture management techniques such as pasture topping by mowing or using herbicides, spray grazing, strategic heavy grazing or burning can all have a role in weed control programs. Cleaning grasses out of legume pastures in winter is a common practice. This involves spraying grasses such as barley grass and vulpia out of pastures in winter to stop seed set, improve nitrogen build - up and reduce root diseases in following cereal crops. • Good agronomic practices such as using weed - free seed (preferably registered or certified) and sowing on time with optimal plant populations and adequate nutrition all contribute to good weed control management. Be extremely vigilant with new weed incursions, not allowing them to set seed. Some crops and varieties are more competitive against weeds than others. All weeds growing in a field should be controlled before the crop emerges. Large weeds which have not been controlled prior to or by the sowing operation prove most difficult and often impossible to remedy with in-crop herbicides. • Timely cultivation is a valuable method for killing weeds and preparing seedbeds. Some growers use varying combinations of mechanical and chemical weed control to manage their fallows or stubbles. • Harvest weed-seed management is a tool now considered to be imperative in both delaying and dealing with herbicide resistant weed populations. See www.grdc.com.au and follow the links. • In - cr op weed control. A wide range of pre - emergent and early post-emergent herbicides are available for in - crop weed control. Weeds should be removed from crops as early as possible and certainly no later than 6 weeks after sowing if yield losses are to be minimised. Yield responses will depend on weed species, weed and crop density and seasonal conditions. The stage of growth of the weed and the crop are vital factors to consider when planning the successful use of post - e mergent herbicides. Tolerance to herbicides varies between cereals and between the varieties of each cereal. Read herbicide labels carefully for these details and information on the best conditions for spraying. • Herbicide resistance in weeds is a problem that continues to become more widespread through NSW which growers should be alerted to. It is one of the biggest agronomic threats to the sustainability of our cropping systems. However, this problem can be managed by having a good crop and pasture rotation, by rotating herbicide groups and by combining both chemical and non - chemical methods of weed control. Each table throughout this guide lists the mode of action group for each herbicide (See the section ‘Herbicide resistance management’ in this guide, page 56 .)

174. 61 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn 500 g/L Igran® Triticale only Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Picolinafen + MCPA 50g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L + 350 g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen -ethyl 20g/L Ecopar® Triticale only Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Triticale only Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Torpedo ™ Triticale only MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–5 L 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Jo 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ea Till 2 L–F Till 5 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–5 L 3 L–Late Till 2 L–Mid Till 5 L–Ea Till Ea–Fully Till Ea Till–Full Till 3–5 L 3 L–Flag leaf 2 L–1st node 3 L–Flag Zadoks code 12–15 12–23 13–35 13–30 13–21 13–29 15–30 13–30 13–15 13–28 12–25 15–22 21–30 22–30 13–15 13–39 12–31 13–39 Weed controlled (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – 15 Moist soil or rain within 7 days improves results. Add wetter. 5 or 7 Add surfactant. 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics. Avoid spraying when temperatures above 20 ̊C. Aerial application can be unsatisfactory. 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown lucerne and medics. 0.75 Can be used on clover and lucerne. Not on annual medics. Application should be made from first to eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 1.4–2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. 0.75–1.0 – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – – – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or after mid-tillering stage. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing. Do not apply after the fully tillered stage. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Maximum rate at 3–5-leaf crop stage 0.44 L/ha. – Can be tankmixed with Ally®, MCPA LVE and MCPA amine to broaden weed control. – – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. annual ryegrass – 20 or 25a – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris 0.635– 0.8 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 (S) – – – – 0.4 d – – – – 0.3 0.1 e 0.7 black bindweed – 20 – 1.4–2.0 – 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 – 0.3–0.4 – – capeweed – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – 0.44 – 0.1 e 0.7 (S) canola – volunteer – – – – – 0.5–0.75 j – 1.4 0.25 j 0.36 0.4 d j – – – 0.44 j – – – charlock – 15 5 – 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – 0.44 – – – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – clover – – 5 – – – – – – – 0.4 fi 0.28 1.7 – – – – – corn gromwell – 20 – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – – – deadnettle – 15 or 20 5 – 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – – – 0.9 – – dock – seedling – – – – – 1.0 (S) – 0.75–1.0 – – – 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 – – – – – fumitory – 20 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 0.75–1.0 (S) 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.4 0.5 (S) 0.54–0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – – 0.44 – – – Mexican poppy – – – 2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – 20 – – – 1.0 (S) 1.4–2.0 – – – – – 1.7 – – – – – mustards – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – 0.075–0.1 e 0.7 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 (S) – – – – Paterson’s curse – 15 5 or 7 2.0 0.55–0.85 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.4 f – – – 0.44 – – – radish – wild – 15 or 20 – 2.0 – 0.5–1.0 g 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.3–0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 k – 0.075–0.1 e 0.7 Rough poppy – 20 5 – – 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.5 0.72 – – 1.7 1.0 0.44 – – – shepherd’s purse – 20 5 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – 7 (S) – – 1.0 (S) – – – – – – – 1.0 0.44 – – – slender thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – 0.44 – – – sorrel – – 5 – – 1.0 (S) – – – – 0.4 f – 1.0–1.7 – – – – – soursob – 20 5 – – – – – – – 0.4 f – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 5 – – – 1.4–2.1 h – 0.5(S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f – – 1.0 – 0.6 – – spiny emex – – 5 or 7 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 0.5(S) 0.72 (S) 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 – 0.9 0.1 e 0.7 Continued over page

73. 71 Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins t he s tem •size varies w ith variety Growing point •inside stipules Leaet •1 t o many pairs of leaets depending on variety •more in older leaves t owa rd s the top of plant •size and shape varies with variety Petiole •s mall stem that holds the leaets, terminating with a t endril Cotyledons •r emain underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •two found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as true nodes Tendrils •simple i n young leaves, more complex i n older leaves towards the top of plant 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node 4th Node Field pea – conventional leaf type ( Pisum sativum ) e.g. Dundale, Paraeld, Alma. Stem Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •s ize much larger t han i n conventional leaf t ypes Petiole •s mall stem that t erminates with a well developed tendril Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •two found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as true nodes Tendrils •well developed in semi-leaess eld peas •simple in young leaves, more complex i n older leaves t owa rd s the top of plant 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node Field pea – semi-leaess type ( Pisum sativum ) e.g. Kaspa, Excell, Snowpeak, Mukta, Morgan. Stem Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Growing point •inside stipules

184. 71 Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins t he s tem •size varies w ith variety Growing point •inside stipules Leaet •1 t o many pairs of leaets depending on variety •more in older leaves t owa rd s the top of plant •size and shape varies with variety Petiole •s mall stem that holds the leaets, terminating with a t endril Cotyledons •r emain underground (hypogeal emergence) Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •two found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as true nodes Tendrils •simple i n young leaves, more complex i n older leaves towards the top of plant 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node 4th Node Field pea – conventional leaf type ( Pisum sativum ) e.g. Dundale, Paraeld, Alma. Stem Stipule •i n pairs •each side of the leaf axis whe re i t joins the stem •s ize much larger t han i n conventional leaf t ypes Petiole •s mall stem that t erminates with a well developed tendril Branch •originate in leaf axil or node Scale leaves •two found at base of plant close to ground level •not counted as true nodes Tendrils •well developed in semi-leaess eld peas •simple in young leaves, more complex i n older leaves t owa rd s the top of plant 1st Node 2nd Node 3rd Node Field pea – semi-leaess type ( Pisum sativum ) e.g. Kaspa, Excell, Snowpeak, Mukta, Morgan. Stem Cotyledons •r emains underground (hypogeal emergence) Growing point •inside stipules

150. 37 Herbicide options in fallow New Zealand spinach – – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.8 0.7 – – parthenium weed – – – – – – – – – – Paterson’s curse 5 or 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.8–1.7 0.7 – – peachvine (cowvine) – 0.15–0.2 1.4–2.1 – – 1.8–2.7 – – 0.3 h – peppercress – – – – – – – – – pigweed – 0.15–0.2 – – – – – – 0.25–1.125 h – potato weed – – – 0.745–1.15 d 0.4–1.3 1.8–2.7 – – – – radish – wild – – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 – 0.35–0.7 – – rough poppy 5 – – – 0.4–1.3 – 2.1–2.9 0.35–0.7 – – saffron thistle – – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–2.5 0.35–0.7 – – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse 5 – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 0.8 0.7 – – skeleton weed 7 (S) – – 0.515–0.745 (S) d 0.4–1.3 1.2–1.8 (S) 0.8–1.7 0.7 – – slender thistle – – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.8–3.3 0.7 – – sorrel 5 – – 0.515–0.745 d 0.4–1.3 – – – – – soursob 5 – – – – – – – – – sowthistle 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d – 0.66–1.2 – – 0.6 y – spear thistle – – – 0.39–0.575 d – 0.9–1.2 1.15–2.1 0.7 – – spiny emex 5 or 7 – – – – – – – 0.9 – spurge – – – – – – – – – – stagger weed 5 – – – – – – – – – star thistle – – – – – – 0.8–1.7 – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – stinking goosefoot – – – – – – 0.8 0.7 – – sub. clover 5 – – – 0.4–1.3 – 0.62–0.8 0.5–0.7 – – sunflower 7 – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–0.8 0.35–0.7 0.6 – turnip weed 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 0.41–0.8 0.35–0.7 – – variegated thistle – – – 0.39–0.515 d 0.4–1.3 0.9–1.2 0.41–3.3 0.35–0.7 – – vetch – – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 – 0.7 – – wild lettuce – – – 0.39–0.515 d – 0.9–1.2 – – 0.3 y – wild turnip 5 – – 0.28–0.815 d 0.4–1.3 0.66–1.2 – 0.35–0.7 – – wireweed 5 or 7 – – 0.515–0.745 d – 1.2–1.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 y – Rec Water Vol L/ha Boom 30 min 50 min 50–200 50–250 30–120 30–120 30–100 50–100 50 min 50 min Wheat plant-back 10 days 4 mths NS 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 1–7 days 7 days 7 days Herbicide group B B C I I I I I I I a = 2,4-D A mine also available in 475 g/L, see appropriate labels for rates. b = F luroxypyr also available in 400 g/L. See label for rates. d = Must also add a minimum of 1 .18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo®. e = R ate for prickly paddy melon 65–130 mL/ha and Afghan or camel melon 95–130 mL/ha of Garlon™ Fallowmaster™ 755. f = Must also add a minimum of 1 .18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo®, followed by 1.6–2.0 L/ha Nuquat® within 7–10 days of the first application. h = A dd glyphosate for control. i = 1–1.5 L/ha plus gl yphosate. j = S ee label for appropriate rate given weed size and season consideration. Minimum water rate 70 L/ha. r = F or prickly/paddy melon add 80 mL Garlon™ 600/ha – do not add crop oil when mixing with glyphosate. t = S ee label for rates for controlling Roundup Ready® canola volunteers. v = 1.0 L/ha up t o 4 leaf stage, 1.4 L/ha up to 6 leaf stage. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014. Restrictions now exist that limit the use of Estercide® 800 at certain times of the year. * Currently there is a restriction on the use of high volatile esters. These formulations can only be used between 1 May and 31 August. Other formulations of 2,4-D (Low volatile esters and amine formulations) can be used at any time of the year within restraints listed on the respective labels.

157. 44 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® g Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Sulfosulfuron 750 g/kg Monza® Wheat and triticale only Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® 750 WG Metribuzin 700 g/kg Sencor® 700 Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn flowable 500 g/L Igran® Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG c + MCPA Amine 500 Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon™ 242 MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 210 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC o Apply at crop growth stage 3 L–Joint (wheat) Mid Till–Joint (barley) 3 L–Jo 2 L–Ea Till Emerg–Ea Till 1-leaf– Ea Till Not before 3 L stage when tankmixing 3 L–8 Wks 3 L–Full Till 3 L–Ea Till 3–5 L Till 3 L–Full Till Ea Till –Full Till 5 L–Prior to booting 3 L–Bo Ea Till –Full Till 3–5-leaf– L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node (wheat) 5 L–1st node (barley) Zadoks code 13–31, 16–31 13–35 12–23 11–22 11–21 13–8 Wks 13–30 13–21 13–23 13–30 21–30 15–23 13–37 22–30 13–30 12–30 13, 15–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (grams + litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics and sub-clovers after the 2–3 trifoliate leaf stage. Add Uptake™ spraying oil or wetting agent for wheat and undersowns or wetting agent only for barley. 5 or 7 Add surfactant. 15 Not on barley before 2-leaf stage. Add wetting agent. Not Preferred Recommendation for barley. 25 Wheat and triticale only. Add D-C-Trate® 2 L/100 L spray volume. Not for use with undersown legumes. Note: Plant-backs on label. Don’t use on flood or furrow irrigations or soils with pH > 8.5. – Spray before crop reaches early tillering. For best results apply when soil conditions are moist and weeds are small. – 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics, Persian or Berseem clover. Avoid spraying when temperatures above 20 ̊C. 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown medics or lucerne. 280 + 0.5 Use only on moist soils. This is a tank mix. 1.4 –2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing. Do not apply after the fully-tillered stage. – – See label for crop stage, weed size and chemical rate. Barley: Use only from 5-leaf stage to flag-leaf just visible (Z15–37). Maximum rate in barley 1.4 L/ha. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and some other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. 0.6–1.0 Add Hasten™ 1% v/v, Supercharge® 0.75% v/v or Uptake™ 0.5% v/v. Note recropping intervals on label. 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate or Hasten™ (1% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Do not use non-ionic-surfactants. Note recropping intervals on label. annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual ryegrass – – 15 or 25 a – – – – – – – – – – – – – – barley grass – – – 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – 0.67–1.0 0.75–1.0 black bindweed – – 20 – 10 p – 1.4–2.0 p – 1.4 –2.1 1.7 0.97–1.35 v – 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – brome grass – – – 20–25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – buchan weed 25 (S) m – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – canola – volunteer 25 w – – 20 w – – – – – 1.4–2.0 n – 0.33 l v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5 n 0.5–1.0 n 0.5–1.0 capeweed 25 m – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 1.45 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 f charlock 25 5 15 – – – – 0.55–0.85 b 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.5–1.0 – – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – chickpea – volunteer – 5 – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 f cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – 5 – – – – – – – – 1.7 – – – – – 0.5 f k corn gromwell – – 20 – – – 1.4–2.0 0.55–0.85 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 – – – – 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle 25 (S) m 5 15 or 20 – 10–13 p – – 0.55–0.85 p 280 + 0.5 – – 1.45 v – – 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 dock – 5 or 7 – – – – – – – – 1.0–1.7 – – – 1.0 (S) – – erodium – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) h – – faba bean – volunteer – – – – 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 0.5 f field pea – volunteer – 7 – 20 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5–1.0 or 0.5 f fumitory – 5 20 – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 – 1.4 –2.0 – 0.93 v 0.44–1.84 v – 0.75 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 lesser swinecress – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – – lupin – volunteer 25 5 – – – – – – – – – 0.46–0.96 v – – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 medics – 5 – – 10 p – – p – – – – – – – 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5 f or 1.0 Mexican poppy – – – – 10–13 p – 2.0 p – 1.4 –2.0 – – – – – – –

11. 9 The recommended timing for application of each herbicide is indicated in the chemical control tables in this guide. Barley, oats and winter wheat sown in early autumn for grazing develops much more quickly to the tillering stage than cereals sown in May–June. Given adequate moisture and warm weather, early development can be relatively quick. The terms ‘early tillering’ and ‘late or fully tillered’ are not definitive and are commonly used in a very general sense. The number of fully emerged main shoot or stem leaves, together with the number of tillers when there is more than one, is the Using the growth stages of cereal crops to time herbicide applications only accurate definitive description of the growth stage of a cereal plant. See the diagrams in ‘Cereal crop growth stages’, and ‘Cereal growth stages – Zadoks’ in this guide. In many cereal crops: • 3-le af (on main stem) stage is before tillering. • 5-le af (on main stem) stage coincides with early tillering. • 6–7-le af (on main stem) stage coincides with mid to fully tillered stage. • J ointing or node formation indicates the start of the reproductive phase in the crop, and tillering can be said to be complete. Product Chemical Cereal growth stage 2-leaf 3-leaf 4-leaf 5-leaf –Early Till Mid Till Late Till Full Till– Jointing Booting Zadoks Cereal code 12 13 14 15–21 25 29 3 4 Monza® (post-em) Sulfosulfuron wheat and triticale only, 1–3-leaf stage Glean® (post-em) Chlorsulfuron Achieve®/Pentagon® Tralkoxydim Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop-methyl wheat Wildcat® Fenoxaprop - p-ethyl not barley Topik® Clodinafop-propargyl wheat only Axial® Pinoxaden + Cloquintocet-mexyl Up to Z49 Tristar® Advance Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl wheat & barley Decision® Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim Cheetah® Gold Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim + Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl Velocity® Pyrasulfotole + Bromoxynil Eclipse® 100 SC Metosulam 1st node Jaguar® Bromoxynil + Diflufenican Intervix® Imazamox + Imazapyr Clearfield plus wheat only + barley Mataven® 90 Flamprop-m-methyl wheat Agtryne® MA Terbutryn + MCPA Ally® Metsulfuron-methyl Broadside® Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba Bromicide® Bromoxynil low rate only at 3–5-leaf stage Bromicide® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Broadstrike™ Flumetsulam Diuron ◆ Diuron ◆ Diuron ◆ + MCPA 280 g + 0.5 L Harmony® M Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron-methyl Atlantis® OD Mesosulfuron-methyl wheat only Hussar® OD Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium Crusader™ Pyroxsulam + Cloquintocet-mexyl wheat only 1st node Midas® Imazapic + Imazapyr + MCPA Clearfied wheat only Flag leaf Igran® Terbutryn Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Precept® 300 EC MCPA + Pyrasulfotole wheat only wheat only Cadence® Dicamba Hotshot™ Aminopyralid + Fluroxypyr 1st node Starane™, Starane™ Advanced Fluroxypyr Paragon® MCPA + Picolinafen Flight® EC MCPA + Picolinafen + Bromoxynil Conclude™ MCPA + Florasulam Torpedo™ Clopyralid + Florasulam 1st node MCPA LVE MCPA 0.5 L MCPA 0.5 L–2.1 L Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop-methyl barley Lontrel™ Advanced Clopyralid Tordon™ 242 Picloram + MCPA MCPA amine MCPA 0.7 L MCPA 0.7–2.1 L 2,4 - DB Kamba® Dicamba Kamba® M MCPA + Dicamba FallowBoss™ Tordon™ Picloram + 2,4 - D + aminopyralid Amicide® Advance 700 2,4 - D amine 2,4 - D ester 2,4 - D LV ester Mataven® 90 Selective spraytopping wheat only Logran® Triasulfuron before flowering Recommended and preferred timing Less preferred timing ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . The recommended timing of application has been determined after significant research by the marketing company, with the aim of minimising crop damage and maximising yield. Pay attention to two vital stages of crop development; at 3–5-leaf stage or commencement of tillering; and at the start of jointing.

178. 65 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 13. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Low Volatile 2,4-D Ester 680 g/L Estercide® Xtra 680 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only Picloram + 2,4-D + aminopyralid (75 + 300 + 7.5 g/L) FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage Flower to early dough Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot 5 L–Boot Ea Till–Full Till Mid Till–Joint Zadoks code 61–83 31–37 31–37 31–37 15–33 31–37 15–37 22–30 23–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least-mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from flowering to early dough stage. Add Uptake™ oil or wetter. Can be used on undersown lucerne clovers and annual medics. – – – – Boom only. Good quality water essential. – Undersown sub-clovers may be slightly retarded. Do not apply to undersown medics or lucerne. See label for comments regarding weed size and application rate. – Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – 0.46–1.45 – 1.0 0.3 capeweed – 0.53–0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – canola – volunteer – – 0.9-1.25 – – – 1.31 a – – charlock – 0.41 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – clover – 0.62–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – – – corn gromwell – 0.8 – – – – – – – deadnettle – 0.8 – – – – – – – fumitory – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – Mexican poppy – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – – – – mintweed – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b mustards – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b New Zealand spinach – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 Paterson’s curse – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – Prickly Lettuce – – – – 2.1-3.2 – – – – radish – wild 25 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 d 1.0 0.3 b rough poppy – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 – – – saffron thistle – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 Scotch thistle – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 – – shepherd’s purse – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 – – – – skeleton weed – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – slender thistle – 0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – sorrel – – 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.285–1.25 – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 spear thistle – – – – 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – spiny emex – – – – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 turnip weed 25 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b variegated thistle – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b wild oats – – – – – – – – wild turnip – 0.41–0.8 0.285–1.25 0.25–1.1 2.1-3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – wireweed – 0.8 – – 2.1-3.2 – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 b Recom water L/ha boom 100 min 30–100 30–120 30–120 110–220 60–220 30–120 50 min 50 min Herbicide group/mode B I I I I I I I I All the above herbicides will damage undersown legumes except 2,4-DB, which has not been fully tested on all lucerne varieties and may cause unacceptable damage. 2,4-DB is safe for use on sub-clover and medics. 2,4-DB is not safe on woolly pod vetch, berseem and red clovers. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014. a = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. b = Tank mix with 0.375 L/ha 2,4-D amine (625 g/L) for control. c = S ee label for tankmix options. d = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control in wild radish. h = C an be tankmixed with MCPA or 2,4-D amine. (S) = Suppr ession only.

52. 50 Table 9. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flamprop-M-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Wheat only Pinoxaden 100 g/L + cloquintocet-mexyl 25 g/L Axial® Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Low Volatile 2,4-D Ester 680 g/L Estercide® Xtra 680 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon™ 242 Picloram + 2,4-D 75 + 300 g/L Tordon™ 75-D Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced a e Apply at crop growth stage Prior flag leaf Up to awn peep Prior flower Fi–Ea dough Full Till–Bo Full Till–Bo Full Till–Bo 5 L–F Till Full Till–Bo 3 L–Bo Ea Till–Full Till M Till–Joint 2 L–1st node Zadoks code Prior Z40 12–49 31–60 61–83 31–37 30–37 30–37 15–37 30–37 13–37 22–30 23–31 12–31 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Selective spray topping rates for wild oats. Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L spray. Spray wild oats between stem elongation and booting stage and wheat no later than flag leaf stage (Z40). Do NOT apply to Durum varieties. See label. – For spray topping wild oats. Zadok 30–47. Always add 500 mL of Adigor®/100 L. Do not apply Axial® more than once per crop. Sth NSW 150–200 ml Axial® Nth NSW 200 mL. – Late salvage spray. Add crop oil at 1 L/100 L spray or surfactant at recommended rates. Spray radish during early flowering. DO NOT spray crop during flowering. – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least-mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from flowering to early dough stage. Add Uptake™ oil or wetter (barley). Can be used on undersown lucerne, clovers and annual medics. – – Maximum rate on wheat 1.5 L/ha, barley 1.25 L/ha. – Maximum rate on wheat 1.3 L/ha, barley 1.1 L/ha. – Boom only. Good quality water essential. Tankmix 1 Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – See label for crop stage, weed size and chemical rate. Barley: Use only from 5-leaf stage to flag-leaf just visible (Z15–37). Maximum rate in barley 1.4 L/ha. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 – 1.0 d 0.3 – capeweed – – – – 0.53–0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j – – 0.15 canola – volunteer – – – – 0.41–0.8 i 0.9–1.25 – – See label 0.44–1.84 j – – – charlock – – – – 0.41 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j – – – clover – – – – 0.62–0.8 1.1 0.25–1.3 – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – deadnettle – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – erodium – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – fleabane – – – – – 1.4 k – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – Mexican poppy – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1– – – – – – mintweed – – – – 0.8 0.98 – – 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b – mustards – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – New Zealand spinach – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 – Paterson’s curse – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – radish – wild – – 10–15 h 25 0.41–0.8 1.25–1.5 0.25–1.3 – Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – rough poppy – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.98 0.25–1.3 – 0.46–1.45 – – – – saffron thistle – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – 0.44–1.84 j – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 – – 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 – – slender thistle – – – – 0.8 0.715–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.84 j – – – sorrel – – – – – 1.5 0.25–1.3 – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – 1.5 – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 – spear thistle – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 – 1.0 0.3 – St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.15 sunflower – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.25 0.25–1.3 – – 0.44–1.84 j – 0.3 b – turnip weed – – – 25 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – variegated thistle – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.05 wild oats 1.25–1.875 c 0.2 – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 – – wireweed – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0(S) 0.3 b (S) – Recom water L/ha boom 30–100 min 50 min 30–100 100 min 30–100 50–250 30–120 110 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50–100 min 50 min Herbicide group Z A B B I I I I I I I I I 2,4-DB is not safe on woolly pod vetch, berseem and red clovers. a = See label for tankmix options. b = Tank mix with 0.47 L/ha 2,4-D amine for control. c = Judgement® contains 75 g/L flamprop-M-methyl. See label for rates. d = Preferred option for northern NSW only. e = Also available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). f = Subclover. (S) = Suppression only. h = 10 g/ha rate, only on some triasulfuron labels. i = See label for controlling RR canola volunteers. j = See critical comments on label in ‘Directions for Use’, showing varying rate according to weed size. k = Fleabane up to 6-leaf rosette stage. Apply in 70–100 L water. Tankmix 1 = 330 mL/ha + 500 mL/ha Crop Care Diuron Flowable. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

70. 68 Table 15. Herbicides for weed control for safflower Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. pre-sowing early post-emergence Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330EC f Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg Ally® g Incorporation/growth stage application PSI PSI PSI – Any time until 20 weeks before harvest 4–6 Leaf IBS IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) annual phalaris 1.2–1.7 Apply between 4 weeks and just before sowing and incorporate. See label. Apply 1.2 L/ha on light soils and between 1.5–1.7 L/ha on medium-heavy soils – In Northern NSW double incorporate at rate of 2.5–3.0 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing at rate of 2–3 L/ha. See label. – c Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Add wetting agent. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L water. Can be mixed with Sertin® to broaden and improve grass control. See label. – annual ryegrass 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 – c 1.0 0.45 – barley grass – – – – 0.2 – brome grass – – – – 0.3 – capeweed – – – – – – cereals – – – – 0.2 e – common barbgrass – – – 1.25 – – deadnettle – – – – – 5.0 field pea – volunteer – – – – – 7.0 fumitory 1.2–1.7 (S) – – – – 5.0 Mexican poppy – – – – – – medics – volunteer – – – – – 5.0 mustards – – – – – 5.0 saffron thistle – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – – 5.0 skeleton weed – – – – – 7.0 (S) subterranean clover – – – – – 5.0 wild oats 1.2–1.7 a (S) 1.6 dc 1.5–2.0 0.25 – wireweed 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 c – – 5.0–7.0 Rec water L/ha boom 70–450 50–200 30–100 50–150 30–150 50 L min Herbicide group/mode D D J A A B a = Tankmix with Avadex® Xtra for improved control. c = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats and annual ryegrass or wireweed. See label. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. f = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. g = Sir onaria, Saffola, Sirothora varieties only. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

65. 63 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop-p -ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl 250 g + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 (Rhino® 375) i Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon®) e Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Triticale only Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Triticale only Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG g + MCPA Amine 500 Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 10 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC b Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel™ Advanced s Triticale only Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Triticale only MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Early Till 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Full Till 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot Mid Till–Ea Jo 3–5 L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Boot 3 L–1st node 3–5 L to L Till Zadoks code 12–24 12–22 13–21 12–22 13–30 12–31 13–30 23–31 13–23 12–30 13–31 13–25 12–35/45 13–31 13–30 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (grams) (kg + L) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Add wetting agent e.g. BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L spray. – Suppression of annual phalaris may be improved by the addition of 250 mL BS1000®/100 L spray. – Add wetting agent e.g. 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. Diclofop-methyl is also available in a 375 g/L formulation (Rhino®, Hostage®). – Add 0.75 or 1 L Supercharge® or Amplify® 100 L spray. – Spray wild oats from 3-leaf to end of tillering stage. Spray crop before beginning of jointing. Do not use any wetting agent. 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35 – 0.5 L/ha LVE MCPA for improved control. See label. – 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics, sub-clover, after the 2 – 3 trifoliate leaf stage. Use Uptake™ spraying oil on wetting agents such as BS1000® with triticale and cereal rye. 0.28 + 0.5 Use only on moist soils. 0.6–1.0 Add Hasten™ (1% v/v). Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperatures and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate, Hasten™ (1% v/v), Supercharge® (0.75% v/v) or Uptake™ (0.5% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. – Add wetting agent. Do not apply after mid-tillering stage, as crop damage may occur. – Lontrel™ also available as soluble granule 750 g/kg formulation. – Add BS1000® (when mixing with metsulfuron-methyl). – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. annual ryegrass a 1.5 0.75 380–500 – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris 0.4–0.5 k 1.5(S) – 380–500 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – 50 (S) y – – – 0.67–1.0 0.75–1.0 – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – 40 – – 0.5–1.0 – 200 w – 0.5–0.75 v – canola – volunteer – – – – – 50 o – 25 o – 0.5–1.0 A 0.5–1.0 A – – – 0.5 A capeweed – – – – – 35–50 y – 25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5 u 115 t 0.15 – 0.5–1.0 charlock – – – – – – – 25 0.28 + 0.5 – – 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 chickpea – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 u – 0.125 0.75 v – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – 50 (S) xy – – – – 0.5 x 115 t 0.075 x – – common barbgrass – – j – – – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 1.0 deadnettle – – – – – – 30 – 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.5–0.75 fv 1.0 dock – – – – – – – – – – – 115 t – – 1.0 (S) faba bean – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5 u 200 w 0.125 0.5–0.75 d – field pea – volunteer – – – – – 50 (S) y – – – 0.5 (S) 0.67–1.0 0.5–1.0 u 115 t 0.075 0.5–0.75 d – fumitory – – – – – – 40 25 n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 0.75 lupin – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – 25 n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – 0.125 0.5 m 1.0 (S) Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – 50 45 25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5 l 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – 40 25 (S) – – – 200 w – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 25 (S) n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 1.0 (S) peppercress – – – – – – 30–40 25 – – – – – – 1.0 (S) radish – wild – – – – – 50 – 25 (S) n 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 q rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – 115 p w – – 1.0 (S) saffron thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.67–1.0 – – Tankmix M – 1.0 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – 25 – 0.5–1.0 – 115 p w – – 0.5–1.0 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.25 h – 1.0 (S) slender thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – – Tankmix M – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – 1.1 w – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – 35–50 y 30–40 – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.5–0.75 q v or f 1.0 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – 40–45 25 (S) 0.28 + 0.5 0.75–1.0 (S) 0.75–1.0 (S) 115 t – 0.5–0.75 qv 1.0 (S) Continued over page

103. Cereal foliar fungicides 101 Table 35. Cereal foliar fungicides – 2014 currently registered products (NSW) – winter cereals (continued) Various trade names sometimes available under these active ingredients and concentrations. See specific labels for details. Active and Concentration Examples of commercial trade names WHP (weeks) W = wheat B = barley Cost per Litre 1 Adjuvant (as per label) Diseases Controlled 2 Registered for aerial application Product Manu- facturer Grazing Harvest Stripe Rust Stem Rust Leaf Rust Crown (leaf ) Rust Septoria tritici blotch Septoria nodorum blotch Yellow Spot Barley Scald Net Blotch Powdery Mildew Tebuconazole 225 g/L + flutriafol 75 g/L Impact Topguard® Ospray 7-W 10-B 7-W 10-B $13.06 2 L/100 L of Ospray 1000 or 1 L/100 L D-C-Trate 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (barley) $2.61–$5.22 Ye s Tebuconazole 45 g/kg + sulfur 700 g/kg Unicorn 745 WG Sulphur Mills Aust. Limited 2 5 - 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha No Triadimefon 125 g/L Triadimefon 125 EC Ospray Not stated, see footnote $ 4 $6.22 Not required 500 mL or 1,000 mL (wheat) ^^^ $3.11–$6.22 1,000 mL (barley) $6.22 1,000 mL (barley) $6.22 Ye s Triadimefon 500 g/kg Triadimefon 500WG Ospray Not stated, see footnote @ 4 $17.36 Not required 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 250 g (barley) 125 g–250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 Ye s Notes: 1 Indic ative costs only: significantly lower prices are often obtained for bulk purchases of commonly used products. 2 B ody of table shows rate mL/ha, g/ha and associated cost $/ha for registered products. 3 R ate on barley is 250 mL–500 mL. 4 P ropiconazole and propiconazole + tebuconazole is registered for suppression of Septoria leaf blotch in oats. 5 Spot for m of net blotch. 6 N et form of net blotch only. 7 R ate on barley is 200 mL–800 mL. 8 P rosaro 420 is registered for the control of Fusarium head blight. ## V arious formulations and active ingredient concentrations of propiconazole and tebuconazle are available. @ D o not mix leaves treated with this product with feed intended for animal consumption. $ F eed treated with this product must not be used for animal consumption, poultry feed or mixed with animal feed. + ESI Expor t slaughter interval applies. Do not slaughter animals destined for export within 7 days of consumption of treated cereal forage or straw. NR N ot required when used as directed. Growers applying a foliar fungicide to control rust or other diseases need to observe the withholding period (WHP). Fungicides applied late, closer to harvest, may produce an excessive, illegal residue if applied within the WHP. For most of the fungicides registered to control diseases in winter cereals, the maximum residue limit (MRL) is set very low, at the limit of detection. A residue above the MRL is illegal under the Pesticides Act and renders the offender liable to prosecution and a fine. Excessive residues also put Australia’s export trade at risk. If it is necessary to apply a fungicide late, select a product with a short WHP. ^^^ P ermit 12654 – Stripe rust control in triticale – use under permit, tebuconazole 430 g/L, tebuconazole 500 g/L, propiconazole 250 g/L, tridimefon 125 g/L based products, see permit for full use patterns

122. 9 The recommended timing for application of each herbicide is indicated in the chemical control tables in this guide. Barley, oats and winter wheat sown in early autumn for grazing develops much more quickly to the tillering stage than cereals sown in May–June. Given adequate moisture and warm weather, early development can be relatively quick. The terms ‘early tillering’ and ‘late or fully tillered’ are not definitive and are commonly used in a very general sense. The number of fully emerged main shoot or stem leaves, together with the number of tillers when there is more than one, is the Using the growth stages of cereal crops to time herbicide applications only accurate definitive description of the growth stage of a cereal plant. See the diagrams in ‘Cereal crop growth stages’, and ‘Cereal growth stages – Zadoks’ in this guide. In many cereal crops: • 3-le af (on main stem) stage is before tillering. • 5-le af (on main stem) stage coincides with early tillering. • 6–7-le af (on main stem) stage coincides with mid to fully tillered stage. • J ointing or node formation indicates the start of the reproductive phase in the crop, and tillering can be said to be complete. Product Chemical Cereal growth stage 2-leaf 3-leaf 4-leaf 5-leaf –Early Till Mid Till Late Till Full Till– Jointing Booting Zadoks Cereal code 12 13 14 15–21 25 29 3 4 Monza® (post-em) Sulfosulfuron wheat and triticale only, 1–3-leaf stage Glean® (post-em) Chlorsulfuron Achieve®/Pentagon® Tralkoxydim Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop-methyl wheat Wildcat® Fenoxaprop - p-ethyl not barley Topik® Clodinafop-propargyl wheat only Axial® Pinoxaden + Cloquintocet-mexyl Up to Z49 Tristar® Advance Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl wheat & barley Decision® Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim Cheetah® Gold Diclofop-methyl + Sethoxydim + Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl Velocity® Pyrasulfotole + Bromoxynil Eclipse® 100 SC Metosulam 1st node Jaguar® Bromoxynil + Diflufenican Intervix® Imazamox + Imazapyr Clearfield plus wheat only + barley Mataven® 90 Flamprop-m-methyl wheat Agtryne® MA Terbutryn + MCPA Ally® Metsulfuron-methyl Broadside® Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba Bromicide® Bromoxynil low rate only at 3–5-leaf stage Bromicide® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Broadstrike™ Flumetsulam Diuron ◆ Diuron ◆ Diuron ◆ + MCPA 280 g + 0.5 L Harmony® M Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron-methyl Atlantis® OD Mesosulfuron-methyl wheat only Hussar® OD Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium Crusader™ Pyroxsulam + Cloquintocet-mexyl wheat only 1st node Midas® Imazapic + Imazapyr + MCPA Clearfied wheat only Flag leaf Igran® Terbutryn Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Precept® 300 EC MCPA + Pyrasulfotole wheat only wheat only Cadence® Dicamba Hotshot™ Aminopyralid + Fluroxypyr 1st node Starane™, Starane™ Advanced Fluroxypyr Paragon® MCPA + Picolinafen Flight® EC MCPA + Picolinafen + Bromoxynil Conclude™ MCPA + Florasulam Torpedo™ Clopyralid + Florasulam 1st node MCPA LVE MCPA 0.5 L MCPA 0.5 L–2.1 L Hoegrass® 500 Diclofop-methyl barley Lontrel™ Advanced Clopyralid Tordon™ 242 Picloram + MCPA MCPA amine MCPA 0.7 L MCPA 0.7–2.1 L 2,4 - DB Kamba® Dicamba Kamba® M MCPA + Dicamba FallowBoss™ Tordon™ Picloram + 2,4 - D + aminopyralid Amicide® Advance 700 2,4 - D amine 2,4 - D ester 2,4 - D LV ester Mataven® 90 Selective spraytopping wheat only Logran® Triasulfuron before flowering Recommended and preferred timing Less preferred timing ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . The recommended timing of application has been determined after significant research by the marketing company, with the aim of minimising crop damage and maximising yield. Pay attention to two vital stages of crop development; at 3–5-leaf stage or commencement of tillering; and at the start of jointing.

163. 50 Table 9. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flamprop-M-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Wheat only Pinoxaden 100 g/L + cloquintocet-mexyl 25 g/L Axial® Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Low Volatile 2,4-D Ester 680 g/L Estercide® Xtra 680 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon™ 242 Picloram + 2,4-D 75 + 300 g/L Tordon™ 75-D Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced a e Apply at crop growth stage Prior flag leaf Up to awn peep Prior flower Fi–Ea dough Full Till–Bo Full Till–Bo Full Till–Bo 5 L–F Till Full Till–Bo 3 L–Bo Ea Till–Full Till M Till–Joint 2 L–1st node Zadoks code Prior Z40 12–49 31–60 61–83 31–37 30–37 30–37 15–37 30–37 13–37 22–30 23–31 12–31 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Selective spray topping rates for wild oats. Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L spray. Spray wild oats between stem elongation and booting stage and wheat no later than flag leaf stage (Z40). Do NOT apply to Durum varieties. See label. – For spray topping wild oats. Zadok 30–47. Always add 500 mL of Adigor®/100 L. Do not apply Axial® more than once per crop. Sth NSW 150–200 ml Axial® Nth NSW 200 mL. – Late salvage spray. Add crop oil at 1 L/100 L spray or surfactant at recommended rates. Spray radish during early flowering. DO NOT spray crop during flowering. – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least-mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from flowering to early dough stage. Add Uptake™ oil or wetter (barley). Can be used on undersown lucerne, clovers and annual medics. – – Maximum rate on wheat 1.5 L/ha, barley 1.25 L/ha. – Maximum rate on wheat 1.3 L/ha, barley 1.1 L/ha. – Boom only. Good quality water essential. Tankmix 1 Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – See label for crop stage, weed size and chemical rate. Barley: Use only from 5-leaf stage to flag-leaf just visible (Z15–37). Maximum rate in barley 1.4 L/ha. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris – – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 – 1.0 d 0.3 – capeweed – – – – 0.53–0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j – – 0.15 canola – volunteer – – – – 0.41–0.8 i 0.9–1.25 – – See label 0.44–1.84 j – – – charlock – – – – 0.41 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j – – – clover – – – – 0.62–0.8 1.1 0.25–1.3 – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – deadnettle – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – erodium – – – – 0.8 – – – Tankmix 1 – – – – fleabane – – – – – 1.4 k – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – Mexican poppy – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1– – – – – – mintweed – – – – 0.8 0.98 – – 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b – mustards – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – New Zealand spinach – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 – Paterson’s curse – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – radish – wild – – 10–15 h 25 0.41–0.8 1.25–1.5 0.25–1.3 – Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – rough poppy – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.98 0.25–1.3 – 0.46–1.45 – – – – saffron thistle – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – 0.44–1.84 j – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – 0.8 0.98–1.5 0.25–1.3 – – 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 – – slender thistle – – – – 0.8 0.715–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.84 j – – – sorrel – – – – – 1.5 0.25–1.3 – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – 1.5 – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 – spear thistle – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 – 1.0 0.3 – St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.15 sunflower – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.25 0.25–1.3 – – 0.44–1.84 j – 0.3 b – turnip weed – – – 25 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – variegated thistle – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–1.5 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 0.3 b – vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.05 wild oats 1.25–1.875 c 0.2 – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – – – 0.41–0.8 0.5–0.98 0.25–1.3 2.1–3.2 Tankmix 1 0.44–1.84 j 1.0 – – wireweed – – – – 0.8 – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0(S) 0.3 b (S) – Recom water L/ha boom 30–100 min 50 min 30–100 100 min 30–100 50–250 30–120 110 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50–100 min 50 min Herbicide group Z A B B I I I I I I I I I 2,4-DB is not safe on woolly pod vetch, berseem and red clovers. a = See label for tankmix options. b = Tank mix with 0.47 L/ha 2,4-D amine for control. c = Judgement® contains 75 g/L flamprop-M-methyl. See label for rates. d = Preferred option for northern NSW only. e = Also available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). f = Subclover. (S) = Suppression only. h = 10 g/ha rate, only on some triasulfuron labels. i = See label for controlling RR canola volunteers. j = See critical comments on label in ‘Directions for Use’, showing varying rate according to weed size. k = Fleabane up to 6-leaf rosette stage. Apply in 70–100 L water. Tankmix 1 = 330 mL/ha + 500 mL/ha Crop Care Diuron Flowable. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

176. 63 Herbicide options in cereal rye and triticale Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop-p -ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl 250 g + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 (Rhino® 375) i Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon®) e Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Triticale only Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Triticale only Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG g + MCPA Amine 500 Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 10 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC b Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel™ Advanced s Triticale only Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Triticale only MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Early Till 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Full Till 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot Mid Till–Ea Jo 3–5 L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Boot 3 L–1st node 3–5 L to L Till Zadoks code 12–24 12–22 13–21 12–22 13–30 12–31 13–30 23–31 13–23 12–30 13–31 13–25 12–35/45 13–31 13–30 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (grams) (kg + L) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Add wetting agent e.g. BS1000® at 250 mL/100 L spray. – Suppression of annual phalaris may be improved by the addition of 250 mL BS1000®/100 L spray. – Add wetting agent e.g. 250 mL BS1000®/100 L water. Diclofop-methyl is also available in a 375 g/L formulation (Rhino®, Hostage®). – Add 0.75 or 1 L Supercharge® or Amplify® 100 L spray. – Spray wild oats from 3-leaf to end of tillering stage. Spray crop before beginning of jointing. Do not use any wetting agent. 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35 – 0.5 L/ha LVE MCPA for improved control. See label. – 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics, sub-clover, after the 2 – 3 trifoliate leaf stage. Use Uptake™ spraying oil on wetting agents such as BS1000® with triticale and cereal rye. 0.28 + 0.5 Use only on moist soils. 0.6–1.0 Add Hasten™ (1% v/v). Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperatures and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate, Hasten™ (1% v/v), Supercharge® (0.75% v/v) or Uptake™ (0.5% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. – Add wetting agent. Do not apply after mid-tillering stage, as crop damage may occur. – Lontrel™ also available as soluble granule 750 g/kg formulation. – Add BS1000® (when mixing with metsulfuron-methyl). – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. annual ryegrass a 1.5 0.75 380–500 – – – – – – – – – – – annual phalaris 0.4–0.5 k 1.5(S) – 380–500 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – 50 (S) y – – – 0.67–1.0 0.75–1.0 – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – 40 – – 0.5–1.0 – 200 w – 0.5–0.75 v – canola – volunteer – – – – – 50 o – 25 o – 0.5–1.0 A 0.5–1.0 A – – – 0.5 A capeweed – – – – – 35–50 y – 25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5 u 115 t 0.15 – 0.5–1.0 charlock – – – – – – – 25 0.28 + 0.5 – – 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 chickpea – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 u – 0.125 0.75 v – cleavers – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – clover – – – – – 50 (S) xy – – – – 0.5 x 115 t 0.075 x – – common barbgrass – – j – – – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 1.0 deadnettle – – – – – – 30 – 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.5–0.75 fv 1.0 dock – – – – – – – – – – – 115 t – – 1.0 (S) faba bean – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5 u 200 w 0.125 0.5–0.75 d – field pea – volunteer – – – – – 50 (S) y – – – 0.5 (S) 0.67–1.0 0.5–1.0 u 115 t 0.075 0.5–0.75 d – fumitory – – – – – – 40 25 n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 0.75 lupin – volunteer – – – – – 35–50 y – 25 n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – 0.125 0.5 m 1.0 (S) Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – 50 45 25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5 l 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – 40 25 (S) – – – 200 w – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 25 (S) n – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – – – 1.0 (S) peppercress – – – – – – 30–40 25 – – – – – – 1.0 (S) radish – wild – – – – – 50 – 25 (S) n 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 q rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – 115 p w – – 1.0 (S) saffron thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.67–1.0 – – Tankmix M – 1.0 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – 25 – 0.5–1.0 – 115 p w – – 0.5–1.0 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.25 h – 1.0 (S) slender thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – – Tankmix M – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – 1.1 w – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – 35–50 y 30–40 – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.5–0.75 q v or f 1.0 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – 40–45 25 (S) 0.28 + 0.5 0.75–1.0 (S) 0.75–1.0 (S) 115 t – 0.5–0.75 qv 1.0 (S) Continued over page

181. 68 Table 15. Herbicides for weed control for safflower Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. pre-sowing early post-emergence Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330EC f Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg Ally® g Incorporation/growth stage application PSI PSI PSI – Any time until 20 weeks before harvest 4–6 Leaf IBS IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) annual phalaris 1.2–1.7 Apply between 4 weeks and just before sowing and incorporate. See label. Apply 1.2 L/ha on light soils and between 1.5–1.7 L/ha on medium-heavy soils – In Northern NSW double incorporate at rate of 2.5–3.0 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing at rate of 2–3 L/ha. See label. – c Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Add wetting agent. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L water. Can be mixed with Sertin® to broaden and improve grass control. See label. – annual ryegrass 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 – c 1.0 0.45 – barley grass – – – – 0.2 – brome grass – – – – 0.3 – capeweed – – – – – – cereals – – – – 0.2 e – common barbgrass – – – 1.25 – – deadnettle – – – – – 5.0 field pea – volunteer – – – – – 7.0 fumitory 1.2–1.7 (S) – – – – 5.0 Mexican poppy – – – – – – medics – volunteer – – – – – 5.0 mustards – – – – – 5.0 saffron thistle – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – – 5.0 skeleton weed – – – – – 7.0 (S) subterranean clover – – – – – 5.0 wild oats 1.2–1.7 a (S) 1.6 dc 1.5–2.0 0.25 – wireweed 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 c – – 5.0–7.0 Rec water L/ha boom 70–450 50–200 30–100 50–150 30–150 50 L min Herbicide group/mode D D J A A B a = Tankmix with Avadex® Xtra for improved control. c = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats and annual ryegrass or wireweed. See label. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. f = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. g = Sir onaria, Saffola, Sirothora varieties only. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

214. Cereal foliar fungicides 101 Table 35. Cereal foliar fungicides – 2014 currently registered products (NSW) – winter cereals (continued) Various trade names sometimes available under these active ingredients and concentrations. See specific labels for details. Active and Concentration Examples of commercial trade names WHP (weeks) W = wheat B = barley Cost per Litre 1 Adjuvant (as per label) Diseases Controlled 2 Registered for aerial application Product Manu- facturer Grazing Harvest Stripe Rust Stem Rust Leaf Rust Crown (leaf ) Rust Septoria tritici blotch Septoria nodorum blotch Yellow Spot Barley Scald Net Blotch Powdery Mildew Tebuconazole 225 g/L + flutriafol 75 g/L Impact Topguard® Ospray 7-W 10-B 7-W 10-B $13.06 2 L/100 L of Ospray 1000 or 1 L/100 L D-C-Trate 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (wheat) $2.61–$5.22 200 mL or 400 mL (barley) $2.61–$5.22 Ye s Tebuconazole 45 g/kg + sulfur 700 g/kg Unicorn 745 WG Sulphur Mills Aust. Limited 2 5 - 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha 1..37 kg/ha 1..37 or 2.75 kg/ha No Triadimefon 125 g/L Triadimefon 125 EC Ospray Not stated, see footnote $ 4 $6.22 Not required 500 mL or 1,000 mL (wheat) ^^^ $3.11–$6.22 1,000 mL (barley) $6.22 1,000 mL (barley) $6.22 Ye s Triadimefon 500 g/kg Triadimefon 500WG Ospray Not stated, see footnote @ 4 $17.36 Not required 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 125 g– 250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 250 g (barley) 125 g–250 g (wheat) $2.17–$4.34 Ye s Notes: 1 Indic ative costs only: significantly lower prices are often obtained for bulk purchases of commonly used products. 2 B ody of table shows rate mL/ha, g/ha and associated cost $/ha for registered products. 3 R ate on barley is 250 mL–500 mL. 4 P ropiconazole and propiconazole + tebuconazole is registered for suppression of Septoria leaf blotch in oats. 5 Spot for m of net blotch. 6 N et form of net blotch only. 7 R ate on barley is 200 mL–800 mL. 8 P rosaro 420 is registered for the control of Fusarium head blight. ## V arious formulations and active ingredient concentrations of propiconazole and tebuconazle are available. @ D o not mix leaves treated with this product with feed intended for animal consumption. $ F eed treated with this product must not be used for animal consumption, poultry feed or mixed with animal feed. + ESI Expor t slaughter interval applies. Do not slaughter animals destined for export within 7 days of consumption of treated cereal forage or straw. NR N ot required when used as directed. Growers applying a foliar fungicide to control rust or other diseases need to observe the withholding period (WHP). Fungicides applied late, closer to harvest, may produce an excessive, illegal residue if applied within the WHP. For most of the fungicides registered to control diseases in winter cereals, the maximum residue limit (MRL) is set very low, at the limit of detection. A residue above the MRL is illegal under the Pesticides Act and renders the offender liable to prosecution and a fine. Excessive residues also put Australia’s export trade at risk. If it is necessary to apply a fungicide late, select a product with a short WHP. ^^^ P ermit 12654 – Stripe rust control in triticale – use under permit, tebuconazole 430 g/L, tebuconazole 500 g/L, propiconazole 250 g/L, tridimefon 125 g/L based products, see permit for full use patterns

79. 77 Herbicide options in pulses Table 19. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Fluazifop-p 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker®700 WDG Imazamox 700 g/kg Raptor® Apply at crop growth stage Up until 9 weeks before harvest Not beyond full flowering Any time until 12 weeks before harvest 2 node to before flowering – Any time, until 7 weeks before harvest – Not after 4th node Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (grams) (grams) amsinckia – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin ™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® Plus or Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L. Use wetter only, when tankmixing with broadleaf herbicides. Products also available containing 130 g/L haloxyfop-R formulation (Assett®). – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a Fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – – Alma, Dun, Dundale, WirrEGA_varieties only. Weeds cotyledon to 3-leaf stage. Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL per 100 L water. See Table 2 for recropping intervals. – Apply only on varieties Alma, Banzer, Dun, Dundale, Glenroy, Laura and Wirrega. Add BS1000® or equivalent at 200 mL/100 L water. Small weeds. See Table 2 for plant-back requirements. annual phalaris – 0.15–0.5 k – 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – annual ryegrass 0.15 or 0.19 0.15–0.5 0.45 0.075–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – barley grass 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.2 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – 45 brome grass 0.15 or 0.19 0.175–0.5 0.3 a 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.5 – 45 (S) capeweed – – – – – – – 45 cereals 0.125 0.2–0.5 i 0.2 b 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – charlock – – – – – – – 45 chickweed – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – cotula – common – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – dock – – – – – – 70 45 fat hen – – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – – – – 45 heliotrope – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 70 n – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 45 radish – wild – – – – – – – – rough poppy – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – 45 (S) skeleton weed – – – – – – – – sorrell – – – – – – – 45 (S) sowthistle – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – storksbill – – – – – – – 45 (S) toad rush – – – – – – 70 – turnip weed – – – – – – – 45 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – wild oats 0.065 or 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.25 0.0375–0.1 f 80–180 0.41 – 45 wild turnip – – – – – – – 45 winter grass – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – 70 45 (S) Rec water L/ha Boom 50–150 50 min 30–150 50–150 50 min 50–100 50–100 50 min Herbicide group A A A A A A B B a = G reat brome only. b = Volunteer triticale 250 mL/ha. e = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. i = U se high rate for volunteer barley. k = U se high rate on Phalaris paradoxa n = Indian hedge mustar d (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

55. 53 Herbicide options in oats Table 11. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Picloram + 2,4-D + aminopyralid (75 + 300 g/L + 7.5 g/L) FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Apply at crop growth stage Late P.E. Fl–Ea dough Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot 5 L–F Till Fully Till–Bo 5L–Ea Flag Ea Till–Full Till Mid Till–Jo Zadoks code 31–60 61–83 30–37 30–37 15–37 30–37 15–38 22–30 23–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Late Salvage Spray. Add crop oil at 1 L/100 L spray. Spray radish at early flowering. DO NOT spray crop during anthesis or flowering. May cause leaf yellowing. – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from lowering to early dough stage. Add wetter only in oats. Can be used on undersown lucerne, clovers and annual medics. – Maximum rate on oats 0.715 L/ha. – – Boomspray only. Good quality water is essential. – Undersown sub-clovers may be slightly retarded. Do not apply to undersown medics or lucerne. See label for comments regarding weed size and application rate. – Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – 1.0 d 0.3 capeweed – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – charlock – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – clover – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b mustards – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b New Zealand spinach – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 Paterson’s curse – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – radish – wild 10–15 c 25 0.715 0.25–0.6 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 f 1.0 0.3 b rough poppy – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – saffron thistle – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 scotch thistle – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 – – – skeleton weed – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – slender thistle – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – sorrel – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.715 – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 spear thistle – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – spiny emex – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 turnip weed – 25s 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b variegated thistle – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b wild oats – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – wireweed – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 b (S) Recom water L/ha boom 30–100 100 min 30–120 30–120 110–220 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min Herbicide group B B I I I I I I I b = Tank mix with 375 mL/ha 2,4-D Amine 625 for control. c = 10 g/ha r ate, only on some triasulfuron labels. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = S ee label for tankmix options. f = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control in wild radish. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

190. 77 Herbicide options in pulses Table 19. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Fluazifop-p 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker®700 WDG Imazamox 700 g/kg Raptor® Apply at crop growth stage Up until 9 weeks before harvest Not beyond full flowering Any time until 12 weeks before harvest 2 node to before flowering – Any time, until 7 weeks before harvest – Not after 4th node Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (grams) (grams) amsinckia – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin ™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® Plus or Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L. Use wetter only, when tankmixing with broadleaf herbicides. Products also available containing 130 g/L haloxyfop-R formulation (Assett®). – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a Fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – – Alma, Dun, Dundale, WirrEGA_varieties only. Weeds cotyledon to 3-leaf stage. Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL per 100 L water. See Table 2 for recropping intervals. – Apply only on varieties Alma, Banzer, Dun, Dundale, Glenroy, Laura and Wirrega. Add BS1000® or equivalent at 200 mL/100 L water. Small weeds. See Table 2 for plant-back requirements. annual phalaris – 0.15–0.5 k – 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – annual ryegrass 0.15 or 0.19 0.15–0.5 0.45 0.075–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – barley grass 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.2 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – 45 brome grass 0.15 or 0.19 0.175–0.5 0.3 a 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.5 – 45 (S) capeweed – – – – – – – 45 cereals 0.125 0.2–0.5 i 0.2 b 0.05–0.1 80–180 0.41 – – charlock – – – – – – – 45 chickweed – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – cotula – common – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – dock – – – – – – 70 45 fat hen – – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – – – – 45 heliotrope – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 70 n – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 45 radish – wild – – – – – – – – rough poppy – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – 45 (S) skeleton weed – – – – – – – – sorrell – – – – – – – 45 (S) sowthistle – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – storksbill – – – – – – – 45 (S) toad rush – – – – – – 70 – turnip weed – – – – – – – 45 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – wild oats 0.065 or 0.125 0.175–0.5 0.25 0.0375–0.1 f 80–180 0.41 – 45 wild turnip – – – – – – – 45 winter grass – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – 70 45 (S) Rec water L/ha Boom 50–150 50 min 30–150 50–150 50 min 50–100 50–100 50 min Herbicide group A A A A A A B B a = G reat brome only. b = Volunteer triticale 250 mL/ha. e = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. i = U se high rate for volunteer barley. k = U se high rate on Phalaris paradoxa n = Indian hedge mustar d (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

166. 53 Herbicide options in oats Table 11. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Late post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Triasulfuron 750 g/kg Logran® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ 2,4-D amine 700 g/L Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D amine 800 g/kg Baton® Low 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Picloram + 2,4-D + aminopyralid (75 + 300 g/L + 7.5 g/L) FallowBoss™ Tordon ™ Apply at crop growth stage Late P.E. Fl–Ea dough Fully Till–Boot Fully Till–Boot 5 L–F Till Fully Till–Bo 5L–Ea Flag Ea Till–Full Till Mid Till–Jo Zadoks code 31–60 61–83 30–37 30–37 15–37 30–37 15–38 22–30 23–31 Weeds controlled (grams) (grams) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Late Salvage Spray. Add crop oil at 1 L/100 L spray. Spray radish at early flowering. DO NOT spray crop during anthesis or flowering. May cause leaf yellowing. – Salvage spray to prevent seed set in wild radish and turnip weed. Spray least mature weeds from early flowering to early pod set of most mature weeds, and crop from lowering to early dough stage. Add wetter only in oats. Can be used on undersown lucerne, clovers and annual medics. – Maximum rate on oats 0.715 L/ha. – – Boomspray only. Good quality water is essential. – Undersown sub-clovers may be slightly retarded. Do not apply to undersown medics or lucerne. See label for comments regarding weed size and application rate. – Undersown legumes tolerant to lower rates – see label. Not on medics or lucerne. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – 1.0 d 0.3 capeweed – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – charlock – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – clover – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – fumitory – – – – 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 – – 0.3 b mustards – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b New Zealand spinach – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 Paterson’s curse – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – radish – wild 10–15 c 25 0.715 0.25–0.6 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 f 1.0 0.3 b rough poppy – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – saffron thistle – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 scotch thistle – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 – – – skeleton weed – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – slender thistle – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 – 0.44–1.4 – – sorrel – – 0.715 0.25–0.6 – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.715 – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 spear thistle – – – – 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 – – spiny emex – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 0.3 turnip weed – 25s 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b variegated thistle – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 0.3 b wild oats – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – 0.5–0.715 0.25–0.6 2.1–3.2 0.46–1.45 0.44–1.4 1.0 – wireweed – – – – 2.1–3.2 – – 1.0 (S) 0.3 b (S) Recom water L/ha boom 30–100 100 min 30–120 30–120 110–220 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min Herbicide group B B I I I I I I I b = Tank mix with 375 mL/ha 2,4-D Amine 625 for control. c = 10 g/ha r ate, only on some triasulfuron labels. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = S ee label for tankmix options. f = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control in wild radish. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

31. 29 Radiation inversions occur most nights. Only when winds are strong enough to completely mix the lowest layers of the atmosphere and/or cloud cover severely restricts surface heating and cooling is there a chance that surface radiation inversions won’t form overnight. Radiation inversions also form over sloping terrain when air in contact with the ground is cooled by terrestrial radiation. The cooled layer remains quite shallow over the slope and is typically only 2 m to 10 m deep because gravity continually pulls it downward; causing drainage winds. Drainage-wind advection of cool air away from the slope and over or into lower lying regions may initiate a drainage inversion or intensify an existing radiation inversion. Drainage inversions, once formed, have similar attributes to radiation inversions. Airborne pesticides can be transported long distances downhill, over flat terrain toward the lowest lying regions and into valleys by drainage winds. Radiation and drainage inversions have caused substantial damage in the northern river valleys to cotton crops and to vineyards in the Murray Valley. Radiation and drainage inversions typically begin in the evening at about sunset as the ground surface cools and the air in contact with the surface loses sufficient heat by conduction to become colder than the air immediately above. With continued overnight cooling, inversions usually intensify and deepen up to the time of the overnight minimum temperature. How to anticipate and recognise radiation inversions The potential for inversions to occur and to adversely hold high concentrations of airborne pesticides near the surface should always be anticipated between sunset and up to an hour or two after sunrise; unless one or more of the following conditions occur: • Th ere is continuous overcast, low and heavy cloud. • Th ere is continuous rain. • W ind speed remains above 11 km/hr for the whole period between sunset and sunrise. Be mindful that established inversions can sometimes still occur when winds are in excess of 11 km/hr. Source: APVMA ‘Surface Inversions for Australian Agricultural Regions’, www.apvma.gov.au Source: Bureau of Meteology. Where to find helpful meteorological information Re al time data needs to be collected in the paddock at the time of spraying. This can be done with: • H andheld units which measure temperature, Delta T and wind speed. • On-fa rm weather stations. Some can now be accessed by mobile phone. Hourly data Hourly data from th e Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) weather stations including temperature, Delta T, wind speed and direction is available for the previous 72 hours from: www.bom.gov.au/weather/nsw/nsw-observations-map.shtml – click on the relevant town. This data can help in planning spray activities and is useful for developing an understanding of the current daily patterns of meteorological conditions. Meteograms™ Meteograms™ provide 7 day fore casts of: • temperature • relative humidity • Delta T • rainfall • wind speed • wind direction. Meteograms™ are very helpful in planning spray programs for periods of lowest drift risk and highest pesticide efficacy. Meteograms are available either free or by subscription. Some examples can be found at email address sent from weatherzone, www.spraywisedecisions.com.au or www.syngenta.com.au (you need to log in for free. Night spraying Spraying during the night and early morning is common, especially during the warmer summer months where controlling fallow weeds is an important agronomic practice. The popularity of spraying at night has also lifted with the introduction of GPS guidance. The main reason for night spraying is because in many cases Delta T conditions less than 8–10 are more common at night or in the early part of the morning, and the risk of physical drift by high wind is lower. However, the risk of inversions is nearly always greater at night or in the early morning. Spraying during inversion conditions has resulted in massive off-target damage in recent seasons, particularly to sensitive crops such as cotton and grapes. Important considerations when spraying at night. • A s a result of the APVMA’s spray drift initiative, labels will increasingly include the Restraint, ‘DO NOT apply during surface temperature inversions conditions at the application site.’ Any Restraint is an absolute prohibition. Since surface inversion conditions are prevalent at night, night spraying should be avoided unless the applicator can demonstrate an inversion was not present. • P lan ahead for spraying by checking local forecast conditions and meteograms. • C ontinuously check for inversions before and during spraying. If they are present DO NOT spray. Observe dust habits behind ground rigs and/or use smoke generators to help identify inversion conditions. • On ly spray with nozzles that produce coarse or very coarse droplets. This may mean spraying slower rather than faster. Coarse droplets will still provide effective control when spraying summer weeds. • U se adjuvants that minimise fine droplets. • En sure boom height is not operated higher than necessary. • B e aware of local off target risks, such as sensitive crops etc. Night spraying therefore carries some inherently high risks that spray applicators should be continuously monitoring and managing. Source: M Scott, Agricultural Chemicals Officer, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange

84. 82 Table 23. Herbicides for weed control for faba bean and lentil – Post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. FluazifopP 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Faba bean only Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Lentil only Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Lentil only Apply at crop growth stage – 2 Leaf to flowering Lentils and Faba beans up until 12 weeks before harvest – Faba – Not beyond full flowering Lentil – Up to 7 Node–Early branching Any time until 7 weeks before harvest 4–8 Leaf 3 Leaf to flowering Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) amsinckia – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or other oils at 1 L + wetter/100 L spray. Asset® (130 g/L product) also available. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rate on small actively growing weeds. Do not apply to lentil after the 7 node early-branching crop stage. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L water or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. 25 0.2 (S) Avoid spray overlap. Not on Northfield variety. annual phalaris 0.41 0.05–0.1 – 80–180 0.15–0.5 p – – – annual ryegrass 0.41 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.15–0.5 0.45 – – barley grass 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.2 – – brome grass 0.5 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.3 – – capeweed – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) canola – volunteer – – – – – – 25 a – cereals 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 n – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) deadnettle – – – – – – – 0.2 fumitory – – – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – – lettuce – prickly – – – – – – – 0.2 medics – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 25 0.15–0.2 Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) radish – wild – – – – – – 25 (S) 0.2 rough poppy – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) saffron thistle – – – – – – – – shepherds purse – – – – – – 25 0.2 (S) soursob – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) turnip weed – – – – – – 25 0.2 vulpia – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – wild oats 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 0.065 or 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.25 – – wild turnip – – – – – – 25 0.15–0.2 winter grass – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–150 50–150 50 min 50 min 30–150 50–150 70–100 Herbicide group/mode A A A A A A B F a = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. e = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. n = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. p = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa. u = Volunteer wheat, barley and oats only. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

142. 29 Radiation inversions occur most nights. Only when winds are strong enough to completely mix the lowest layers of the atmosphere and/or cloud cover severely restricts surface heating and cooling is there a chance that surface radiation inversions won’t form overnight. Radiation inversions also form over sloping terrain when air in contact with the ground is cooled by terrestrial radiation. The cooled layer remains quite shallow over the slope and is typically only 2 m to 10 m deep because gravity continually pulls it downward; causing drainage winds. Drainage-wind advection of cool air away from the slope and over or into lower lying regions may initiate a drainage inversion or intensify an existing radiation inversion. Drainage inversions, once formed, have similar attributes to radiation inversions. Airborne pesticides can be transported long distances downhill, over flat terrain toward the lowest lying regions and into valleys by drainage winds. Radiation and drainage inversions have caused substantial damage in the northern river valleys to cotton crops and to vineyards in the Murray Valley. Radiation and drainage inversions typically begin in the evening at about sunset as the ground surface cools and the air in contact with the surface loses sufficient heat by conduction to become colder than the air immediately above. With continued overnight cooling, inversions usually intensify and deepen up to the time of the overnight minimum temperature. How to anticipate and recognise radiation inversions The potential for inversions to occur and to adversely hold high concentrations of airborne pesticides near the surface should always be anticipated between sunset and up to an hour or two after sunrise; unless one or more of the following conditions occur: • Th ere is continuous overcast, low and heavy cloud. • Th ere is continuous rain. • W ind speed remains above 11 km/hr for the whole period between sunset and sunrise. Be mindful that established inversions can sometimes still occur when winds are in excess of 11 km/hr. Source: APVMA ‘Surface Inversions for Australian Agricultural Regions’, www.apvma.gov.au Source: Bureau of Meteology. Where to find helpful meteorological information Re al time data needs to be collected in the paddock at the time of spraying. This can be done with: • H andheld units which measure temperature, Delta T and wind speed. • On-fa rm weather stations. Some can now be accessed by mobile phone. Hourly data Hourly data from th e Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) weather stations including temperature, Delta T, wind speed and direction is available for the previous 72 hours from: www.bom.gov.au/weather/nsw/nsw-observations-map.shtml – click on the relevant town. This data can help in planning spray activities and is useful for developing an understanding of the current daily patterns of meteorological conditions. Meteograms™ Meteograms™ provide 7 day fore casts of: • temperature • relative humidity • Delta T • rainfall • wind speed • wind direction. Meteograms™ are very helpful in planning spray programs for periods of lowest drift risk and highest pesticide efficacy. Meteograms are available either free or by subscription. Some examples can be found at email address sent from weatherzone, www.spraywisedecisions.com.au or www.syngenta.com.au (you need to log in for free. Night spraying Spraying during the night and early morning is common, especially during the warmer summer months where controlling fallow weeds is an important agronomic practice. The popularity of spraying at night has also lifted with the introduction of GPS guidance. The main reason for night spraying is because in many cases Delta T conditions less than 8–10 are more common at night or in the early part of the morning, and the risk of physical drift by high wind is lower. However, the risk of inversions is nearly always greater at night or in the early morning. Spraying during inversion conditions has resulted in massive off-target damage in recent seasons, particularly to sensitive crops such as cotton and grapes. Important considerations when spraying at night. • A s a result of the APVMA’s spray drift initiative, labels will increasingly include the Restraint, ‘DO NOT apply during surface temperature inversions conditions at the application site.’ Any Restraint is an absolute prohibition. Since surface inversion conditions are prevalent at night, night spraying should be avoided unless the applicator can demonstrate an inversion was not present. • P lan ahead for spraying by checking local forecast conditions and meteograms. • C ontinuously check for inversions before and during spraying. If they are present DO NOT spray. Observe dust habits behind ground rigs and/or use smoke generators to help identify inversion conditions. • On ly spray with nozzles that produce coarse or very coarse droplets. This may mean spraying slower rather than faster. Coarse droplets will still provide effective control when spraying summer weeds. • U se adjuvants that minimise fine droplets. • En sure boom height is not operated higher than necessary. • B e aware of local off target risks, such as sensitive crops etc. Night spraying therefore carries some inherently high risks that spray applicators should be continuously monitoring and managing. Source: M Scott, Agricultural Chemicals Officer, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Orange

195. 82 Table 23. Herbicides for weed control for faba bean and lentil – Post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. FluazifopP 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Faba bean only Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Lentil only Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Lentil only Apply at crop growth stage – 2 Leaf to flowering Lentils and Faba beans up until 12 weeks before harvest – Faba – Not beyond full flowering Lentil – Up to 7 Node–Early branching Any time until 7 weeks before harvest 4–8 Leaf 3 Leaf to flowering Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) amsinckia – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or other oils at 1 L + wetter/100 L spray. Asset® (130 g/L product) also available. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rate on small actively growing weeds. Do not apply to lentil after the 7 node early-branching crop stage. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L water or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. 25 0.2 (S) Avoid spray overlap. Not on Northfield variety. annual phalaris 0.41 0.05–0.1 – 80–180 0.15–0.5 p – – – annual ryegrass 0.41 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.15–0.5 0.45 – – barley grass 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.2 – – brome grass 0.5 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.3 – – capeweed – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) canola – volunteer – – – – – – 25 a – cereals 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 n – – corn gromwell – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) deadnettle – – – – – – – 0.2 fumitory – – – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – – lettuce – prickly – – – – – – – 0.2 medics – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – 25 0.15–0.2 Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) radish – wild – – – – – – 25 (S) 0.2 rough poppy – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) saffron thistle – – – – – – – – shepherds purse – – – – – – 25 0.2 (S) soursob – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) turnip weed – – – – – – 25 0.2 vulpia – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – wild oats 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 0.065 or 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.25 – – wild turnip – – – – – – 25 0.15–0.2 winter grass – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–150 50–150 50 min 50 min 30–150 50–150 70–100 Herbicide group/mode A A A A A A B F a = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. e = Volunteer oats and wheat only. f = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. n = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. p = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa. u = Volunteer wheat, barley and oats only. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

33. 31 Identifying cereal seedlings It is extremely important to accurately identify cereal plants, before applying a herbicide for weed control. Cereal seedlings are identified by looking at four important characteristics. This involves taking a close look at the junction of the leaf blade and the leaf sheath (a hand lens may be useful). leaf blade ligule auricle leaf-sheath Wheat and triticale* Rye Barley Oats and wild oats** Ligule medium short medium medium Auricle medium blunt hairy short hairless long pointed hairless absent Leaf blade twist clockwise clockwise clockwise anticlockwise Leaf hairiness hairy inconsistent ± hairless ± hairless Important characteristics are underlined. * W heat and triticale are difficult to distinguish by vegetative characters. It is possible to distinguish them during early growth by uprooting the seedling and observing the grain shell. Wheat grain shells are a light colour, and oval. Triticale grain shells are darker and longer. ** Oa ts cannot be distinguished from wild oats during vegetative growth. Preferred options Preferred options in this booklet aim to help farmers and advisers to select the more reliable and effective herbicides available from the vast range of registered products. Two types of preferred options are indicated with the registered herbicide rate shown within. i s a preferred option where NO legumes are in association with the cereal crop. i s a preferred option where legumes are present with the cereal crop, either sown or volunteer. In no way are preferred options binding on advisers or farmers; they are a guide only. Specific weeds and circumstances need to be considered in making recommendations. Preferred options should be considered in conjunction with appropriate herbicide resistance strategies. A preferred option is for a weed species controlled by a herbicide in a specific crop. More than one herbicide may have a preferred option for a specific weed at a given stage of crop growth. A preferred option may be for application only at a specific stage of growth of the crop even though the herbicide is registered for application at other stages and uses. They may apply only to a specific geographic area of NSW owing to other constraints – e.g. the effect of picloram on clover-based pastures. Requirements for preferred option status are: • R egistered in commercial use for at least two seasons. • P roven to be sound, reliable and easy to use under farm conditions. • S hown efficacy better than other herbicides in at least three districts. • I f possible, supported by departmentally conducted trial or demonstration results. • C ost effectiveness. Not necessarily the cheapest available. • I nterstate information will be considered.

144. 31 Identifying cereal seedlings It is extremely important to accurately identify cereal plants, before applying a herbicide for weed control. Cereal seedlings are identified by looking at four important characteristics. This involves taking a close look at the junction of the leaf blade and the leaf sheath (a hand lens may be useful). leaf blade ligule auricle leaf-sheath Wheat and triticale* Rye Barley Oats and wild oats** Ligule medium short medium medium Auricle medium blunt hairy short hairless long pointed hairless absent Leaf blade twist clockwise clockwise clockwise anticlockwise Leaf hairiness hairy inconsistent ± hairless ± hairless Important characteristics are underlined. * W heat and triticale are difficult to distinguish by vegetative characters. It is possible to distinguish them during early growth by uprooting the seedling and observing the grain shell. Wheat grain shells are a light colour, and oval. Triticale grain shells are darker and longer. ** Oa ts cannot be distinguished from wild oats during vegetative growth. Preferred options Preferred options in this booklet aim to help farmers and advisers to select the more reliable and effective herbicides available from the vast range of registered products. Two types of preferred options are indicated with the registered herbicide rate shown within. i s a preferred option where NO legumes are in association with the cereal crop. i s a preferred option where legumes are present with the cereal crop, either sown or volunteer. In no way are preferred options binding on advisers or farmers; they are a guide only. Specific weeds and circumstances need to be considered in making recommendations. Preferred options should be considered in conjunction with appropriate herbicide resistance strategies. A preferred option is for a weed species controlled by a herbicide in a specific crop. More than one herbicide may have a preferred option for a specific weed at a given stage of crop growth. A preferred option may be for application only at a specific stage of growth of the crop even though the herbicide is registered for application at other stages and uses. They may apply only to a specific geographic area of NSW owing to other constraints – e.g. the effect of picloram on clover-based pastures. Requirements for preferred option status are: • R egistered in commercial use for at least two seasons. • P roven to be sound, reliable and easy to use under farm conditions. • S hown efficacy better than other herbicides in at least three districts. • I f possible, supported by departmentally conducted trial or demonstration results. • C ost effectiveness. Not necessarily the cheapest available. • I nterstate information will be considered.

81. 79 Herbicide options in pulses Table 20. Herbicides for weed control for lupin – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Simazine 900 g/kg Simazine 500 g/L Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC i Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra b Light soils Simazine 900 DF a b Loam soils Simazine 900 DF a b Light soils Simazine 500 a b Loam soils Simazine 500 a b Incorporation IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE IBS, PSI IBS, PSI IBS, PSI Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days after sowing. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days after sowing. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days of sowing. Simazine also available as 600 g/L. See appropriate label for rates. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days of sowing. Simazine also available as 600 g/L. See appropriate label for rates. – Light soils 1.2 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.5–1.7 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate from 4 weeks up to just before sowing. – In Northern NSW double incorporate at 2.5–3 L/ha. In Southern NSW IBS at 2–3 L/ha. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – 1.2–1.7 – – g annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 – g barley grass – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – brome grass – – – 0.8–1.1 (S) 1.3–2.2 (S) 1.5–2.0 (S) 2.5–4.0 (S) – – – capeweed – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – cereals – – – – – – – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – fumitory – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 (S) – – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – radish–wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – – rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.7–1.0 – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – – toadrush – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – wild lettuce – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.8–1.1 (S) 1.3–2.2 (S) 1.5–2.0 (S) 2.5–4.0 (S) 1.2–1.7 d 2.0–3.0 (S) 1.6 e wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – winter grass – – – – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 – – 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 g Rec water L/ha boom 70–120 50 min 50–100 50–100 50–100 50–100 70–450 50–200 30–100 Herbicide group K C C C C C D D J a = Simazine and B rodal® can be tankmixed. b = Trifluralin, Avadex® Xtra can be tankmixed. d = R efer to label. e = P referred option northern NSW only. g = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed – see label. i = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

192. 79 Herbicide options in pulses Table 20. Herbicides for weed control for lupin – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Simazine 900 g/kg Simazine 500 g/L Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC i Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra b Light soils Simazine 900 DF a b Loam soils Simazine 900 DF a b Light soils Simazine 500 a b Loam soils Simazine 500 a b Incorporation IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE IBS, PSI IBS, PSI IBS, PSI Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days after sowing. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days after sowing. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days of sowing. Simazine also available as 600 g/L. See appropriate label for rates. – Apply to level seedbed within 2 days of sowing. Simazine also available as 600 g/L. See appropriate label for rates. – Light soils 1.2 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.5–1.7 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate from 4 weeks up to just before sowing. – In Northern NSW double incorporate at 2.5–3 L/ha. In Southern NSW IBS at 2–3 L/ha. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – 1.2–1.7 – – g annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 – g barley grass – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – brome grass – – – 0.8–1.1 (S) 1.3–2.2 (S) 1.5–2.0 (S) 2.5–4.0 (S) – – – capeweed – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – cereals – – – – – – – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – fumitory – – – 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 (S) – – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – radish–wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – – rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.7–1.0 – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – – toadrush – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – wild lettuce – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.8–1.1 (S) 1.3–2.2 (S) 1.5–2.0 (S) 2.5–4.0 (S) 1.2–1.7 d 2.0–3.0 (S) 1.6 e wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 – – – winter grass – – – – – 1.5–2.0 2.5–4.0 1.2–1.7 – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 0.8–1.1 1.3–2.2 – – 1.2–1.7 2.0–3.0 g Rec water L/ha boom 70–120 50 min 50–100 50–100 50–100 50–100 70–450 50–200 30–100 Herbicide group K C C C C C D D J a = Simazine and B rodal® can be tankmixed. b = Trifluralin, Avadex® Xtra can be tankmixed. d = R efer to label. e = P referred option northern NSW only. g = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed – see label. i = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

51. 49 Herbicide options in wheat and barley Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – – – – 100 Do not use where group ‘B’ resistance is likely to be a problem or where a group B herbicide has been applied to the current crop. Not compatible with zinc foliar fertilisers. – 0.9 pepper cress – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 – – – – – radish – wild – – – – – – – – – – – 20 500 + k 100 – 0.9 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9(S) shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 + k 100 (S) – 0.9 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 spiny emex – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) – – 100 – 0.9 St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 turnip weed – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – 0.9 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 (S) 75 (S) a – 0.9 (S) vulpia – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) 25 – – – 0.9 (S) wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) wild oats 300–500 1.1–1.5 0.3–0.4 d 65–125 h 1.5 – 0.15–0.2 1.0 0.475–0.635 1.25–2.5 b c 375–750 25 (S) 500 100 0.33 0.9 wild turnip – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 20 – – – 0.9 wireweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–150 50–100 50–110 50–100 50–150 50 min 50–150 50–100 30–100 70 min 40–100 50–100 50–80 50–80 50 min Herbicide group A A A A A A A A A Z B B B B B B + I a = Wild vetch only ( Vicia sativa ). b = U se higher rate prior to jointing. For spraytopping use 1.25–1.875 L/ha. See label for crop variety safety. c = J udgement® contains 75 g/L flamprop-m-methyl. See label for rates. d = M ixtures with some broadleaf herbicides may result in reduced grass weed control. See label. Use alone for phalaris control. e = P entagon® contains 600 g/L tralkoxydim. f = H oegrass® can be tank-mixed with Wildcat® or Puma® Progress for ryegrass control. h = R ate in southern NSW is 65 – 85 mL/ha and in northern NSW 65 – 125 mL/ha. i = Subclo ver only. j = H oegrass® 375 registered for control. k = S ee label for tankmix options. n = N ot Clearfield canola. See label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. w = W here ALS (group B) resistant ryegrass is known to be present, application of a group D herbicide such as trifluralin or Stomp® 330 EC should be made prior to sowing. x = Phalaris paradoxa only. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

162. 49 Herbicide options in wheat and barley Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – – – – 100 Do not use where group ‘B’ resistance is likely to be a problem or where a group B herbicide has been applied to the current crop. Not compatible with zinc foliar fertilisers. – 0.9 pepper cress – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 – – – – – radish – wild – – – – – – – – – – – 20 500 + k 100 – 0.9 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9(S) shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 + k 100 (S) – 0.9 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 spiny emex – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) – – 100 – 0.9 St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 (S) – 0.9 turnip weed – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 75 – 0.9 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – 500 (S) 75 (S) a – 0.9 (S) vulpia – – – – – – – – – – 600–750 (S) 25 – – – 0.9 (S) wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 (S) wild oats 300–500 1.1–1.5 0.3–0.4 d 65–125 h 1.5 – 0.15–0.2 1.0 0.475–0.635 1.25–2.5 b c 375–750 25 (S) 500 100 0.33 0.9 wild turnip – – – – – – – – – – 375–750 20 – – – 0.9 wireweed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 75 – 0.9 Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–150 50–100 50–110 50–100 50–150 50 min 50–150 50–100 30–100 70 min 40–100 50–100 50–80 50–80 50 min Herbicide group A A A A A A A A A Z B B B B B B + I a = Wild vetch only ( Vicia sativa ). b = U se higher rate prior to jointing. For spraytopping use 1.25–1.875 L/ha. See label for crop variety safety. c = J udgement® contains 75 g/L flamprop-m-methyl. See label for rates. d = M ixtures with some broadleaf herbicides may result in reduced grass weed control. See label. Use alone for phalaris control. e = P entagon® contains 600 g/L tralkoxydim. f = H oegrass® can be tank-mixed with Wildcat® or Puma® Progress for ryegrass control. h = R ate in southern NSW is 65 – 85 mL/ha and in northern NSW 65 – 125 mL/ha. i = Subclo ver only. j = H oegrass® 375 registered for control. k = S ee label for tankmix options. n = N ot Clearfield canola. See label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. w = W here ALS (group B) resistant ryegrass is known to be present, application of a group D herbicide such as trifluralin or Stomp® 330 EC should be made prior to sowing. x = Phalaris paradoxa only. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

82. 80 Table 21. Herbicides for weed control for lupin – Post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte k Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop- P-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC x Picolinafen 750 g/kg Sniper® Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Paraquat 250 g/L Gramoxone® Apply at crop growth stage – Any time until 17 weeks before harvest 2 Leaf to flowering Up until 6 weeks before harvest – Before 80% flowering Any time until 15 weeks before harvest 2–10 Leaf 2–6 Leaf 2 Leaf to flowering Physiological maturity Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – 1.25 L/ha controls common barbgrass. Add wetting agent. – – Add 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha or other oils at 1 L + wetter/100 L water. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rates on small actively growing weeds. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L water or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L of spray . Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. – Apply at 2–10 leaf stage of lupin and weeds up to 8 leaf stage. Do not apply with crop oils, surfactants or wetters. At least 10 days should elapse between application of Eclipse® and grass herbicide. Not on Merrit after 8 leaf stage. – Narrow leaf lupin only. Apply at 2–6 leaf stage of crop and 2–8 leaf stage of wild radish. (capeweed 2–4-leaf stage) Not in Northern NSW. 0.2 (S) Apply from 2-leaf stage of crop and before the start of primary flowering. Young weeds actively growing 4–6 weeks after sowing(up to 4-leaf stage). – Spraytop ryegrass to reduce seedset when most of the ryegrass heads have emerged and are flowering or just past flowering. 7 days WHP. Ensure crop has reached physiologically mature stage to avoid yield loss. 7 days WHP. annual phalaris – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 – 80–180 0.15–0.5 m – – – – – annual ryegrass 1.0 0.41–0.82 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.15–0.5 0.45 – – – 0.4–0.8 barley grass – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.2 – – – – brome grass – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.3 – – – – capeweed – – – – – – – – 50(S) 0.2 (S) – cereals – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 b – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – fumitory – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.2 – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – radish–wild – – – – – – – 50–70 33–50 0.2 – rough poppy – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – sowthistle – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – – – – toadrush – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – turnip weed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – vulpia – – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – wild oats 1.5–2.0 0.41–0.82 0.0375–0.1 i 0.065 or 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.25 – – – – wild turnip – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.2 – winter grass – – – – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–100 50–150 50–150 50 min 50 min 30–150 50–100 50 min 70–100 50–100 Herbicide group A A A A A A A B F F L b = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. h = Volunteer oats and wheat only. i = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in central and southern NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se high rate for volunteer barley. k = U se the lower rate when grass weeds are actively growing at 2–5 leaf stage before tillering commences. Use the higher rate when grass weeds are growing actively at 5-leaf to early tillering. m = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa . p = Volunteer wheat, barley and oats only. x = J indalee, Kiev, Quilinock and Wonga varieties. Do not apply past 8-leaf in Wonga. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

23. 21 Boomspray calibration Boomsprays need to be calibrated regularly to work efficiently and economically. Regular calibration ensures the right amount of chemical will be applied to the target without costly wastage. The following template will enable you to calculate how much chemical and water to use. In the template, enter the information asked for such as spray tank capacity, chemical rate and ground speed in the space provided in the right hand column. You will need this information to perform the calculations. The numbers in the black ‘golfballs’ tell you which figures you need to perform the calculations. For example, to work out your water application rate, you need to know your total spray output, your effective spray width and your actual ground speed. The ‘golfball’ numbers in the formula show you where to get these figures. General Information Item of equipment to be calibrated. Spray tank capacity (litres). L  Area to be sprayed (hectares). ha  Chemical used. Recording What is the minimum water application rate – if any (from the chemical label)? L/ha Select the correct chemical application rate from the label. L/ha  Select an appropriate ground speed. gear rpm Record spray operation pressure. bar o r kPa Record nozzle type and size in the spray unit. Check the rated ‘water output’ using the manufacturer’s nozzle charts. R ated output type size ................... mL/min Record minimum boom height above target for these nozzles. cm Measuring Record the output from every nozzle for 1 minute. Total spray output (add all nozzles) L/min  1.......... 2.......... 3.......... 4.......... 5.......... 6.......... 7.......... 8.......... 9.......... 10.......... 11.......... 12.......... 13......... 14.......... 15 .......... 16.......... 17.......... 18.......... 19.......... 20.......... 21.......... 22.......... 23.......... 24.......... Replace any nozzles that vary 10% or more from the manufacturer’s correct nozzle output. (Nozzles with both higher and lower outputs must be replaced.) Record actual effective spray width in metres by measuring the distance across the outside nozzles and adding the distance between two adjacent nozzles. m 

193. 80 Table 21. Herbicides for weed control for lupin – Post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte k Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop- P-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Clethodim 240 g/L Status® Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC x Picolinafen 750 g/kg Sniper® Diflufenican 500 g/L Brodal® Options Paraquat 250 g/L Gramoxone® Apply at crop growth stage – Any time until 17 weeks before harvest 2 Leaf to flowering Up until 6 weeks before harvest – Before 80% flowering Any time until 15 weeks before harvest 2–10 Leaf 2–6 Leaf 2 Leaf to flowering Physiological maturity Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – 1.25 L/ha controls common barbgrass. Add wetting agent. – – Add 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha or other oils at 1 L + wetter/100 L water. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Factor® has good activity on barley grass and wild oats but weaker on brome grass and volunteer cereals. Adding a fop herbicide is recommended. See label. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil/100 L spray. Use lower rates on small actively growing weeds. – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L water or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L of spray . Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. – Apply at 2–10 leaf stage of lupin and weeds up to 8 leaf stage. Do not apply with crop oils, surfactants or wetters. At least 10 days should elapse between application of Eclipse® and grass herbicide. Not on Merrit after 8 leaf stage. – Narrow leaf lupin only. Apply at 2–6 leaf stage of crop and 2–8 leaf stage of wild radish. (capeweed 2–4-leaf stage) Not in Northern NSW. 0.2 (S) Apply from 2-leaf stage of crop and before the start of primary flowering. Young weeds actively growing 4–6 weeks after sowing(up to 4-leaf stage). – Spraytop ryegrass to reduce seedset when most of the ryegrass heads have emerged and are flowering or just past flowering. 7 days WHP. Ensure crop has reached physiologically mature stage to avoid yield loss. 7 days WHP. annual phalaris – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 – 80–180 0.15–0.5 m – – – – – annual ryegrass 1.0 0.41–0.82 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.15–0.5 0.45 – – – 0.4–0.8 barley grass – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.2 – – – – brome grass – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.3 – – – – capeweed – – – – – – – – 50(S) 0.2 (S) – cereals – 0.41–0.82 0.05–0.1 0.125 80–180 0.2–0.5 j 0.2 b – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – deadnettle – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – fumitory – – – – – – – – – – – mustards – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.2 – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – radish–wild – – – – – – – 50–70 33–50 0.2 – rough poppy – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – sowthistle – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – – – – – – – – – toadrush – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – turnip weed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – vulpia – – – – – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – 0.2 – wild oats 1.5–2.0 0.41–0.82 0.0375–0.1 i 0.065 or 0.125 80–180 0.175–0.5 0.25 – – – – wild turnip – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.2 – winter grass – – – – – – – – – – – wireweed – – – – – – – – – 0.2 (S) – Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–100 50–150 50–150 50 min 50 min 30–150 50–100 50 min 70–100 50–100 Herbicide group A A A A A A A B F F L b = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. h = Volunteer oats and wheat only. i = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in central and southern NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. j = U se high rate for volunteer barley. k = U se the lower rate when grass weeds are actively growing at 2–5 leaf stage before tillering commences. Use the higher rate when grass weeds are growing actively at 5-leaf to early tillering. m = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa . p = Volunteer wheat, barley and oats only. x = J indalee, Kiev, Quilinock and Wonga varieties. Do not apply past 8-leaf in Wonga. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

71. 69 Herbicide options in linseed and linola Table 16. Herbicides for weed control for linseed and linola Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-emergence Early post-emergence Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Not Linola Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Not Linola Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Not Linola Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Not Linola Sethoxydim 186 g/L Sertin® Not Linola Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydi m 250 g/kg Factor® WG Not Linola Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Not Linola Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Not Linola Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Bromoxynil MA Not Linola MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Not Linola Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Incorporation/growth stage application PSI PSI Any time until 17 weeks before harvest Any time until 16 weeks before harvest Before budding 5 cm to flowering Not before 4 Leaf 3–6 weeks after sowing 5–15 cm high 5–15 cm high 10–15 cm high and well before budding 8–20 cm high IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Light soils 1.2 L/ha. Medium soils 1.5 L/ha. Heavy soils 1.7 L/ha. Sow 1.3–2.5 cm. Can sow in band. Deeper sowing may result in stand reduction. Apply and incorporate 2–4 weeks before sowing. See label. – Apply and incorporate 1–3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of wild phalaris, ryegrass and wireweed. – – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray, or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 0.5 L/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass weed spectrum and improve control. See label. – Add 1 L/ha DC Tron™ or Ulvapron® crop oil. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or 1 L other oils + wetter per 100 L spray. – Ad Supercharge® at 1 L/100 L, or aerial application 1 L/ha. Canola may be sensitive to Factor®. See label. – Can be used on undersown legumes. Add wetting agent. Do not spray over 25 ̊C. 1.4–2.0 Can be used on undersown legumes except medics. Apply when weeds are less than six leaves, crop 5–15 cm high. Some damage possible. Boom only. Avoid application when temperature > 20 ̊C or if likely to be within a few days. 1.4–2.0 Slight crop damage – leaf burning can occur. Spray when 5–15 cm high. Boom only. – Apply 170 L water/ha min. Maximum rate in NSW 730 mL/ha. – Not if legumes to follow crop – one year. annual phalaris 1.2–1.7 c 0.41 – 0.5 –1.0 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – annual ryegrass 1.2–1.7 c 0.41 0.45 0.5 –1.0 0.075 –0.1 80–180 f 1.0 – – – – barley grass – – 0.41 0.2 – 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 brome grass – – 0.5 0.3 – 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – capeweed – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – cereals – – 0.41 0.2 h 1.0 k 0.05 – 0.1 80–180 f – – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.5–1.0 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – fumitory 1.2–1.7 (S) – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – mustards – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 0.67 –0.84 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – 0.67 –0.84 (S) Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – radish – wild – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 0.67 –0.84 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.1 0.67 –0.84 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – 0.67 –0.84 slender thistle – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.1 – spiny emex – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 turnip weed – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.1 0.67 –0.84 wild oats 1.2–1.7 a 1.6 d 0.41 0.25 0.75 –1.0 0.0375 –0.1 j 80–180 f 1.5–2.0 – – – – wild turnip – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 0.67 –0.84 wireweed 1.2–1.7 c – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 70–450 30–100 50–100 50–150 40–40 40–400 50–150 50–150 50–200 220 min 170 50 min Herbicide group D J A A A A A A C C + I I I a = R efer to label for details. c = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed, see label. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. f = A dd an effective Fop herbicide for control. See label. h = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. j = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L./ha in northern NSW. k = Volunteer oats and wheat only. m = Volunteer wheat, barley, oats and triticale. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

25. 23 Managing your legal responsibilities in applying pesticides Pesticides Act The Pesticides Act 1999 is the primary legislative instrument controlling the use of pesticides in NSW and is administered by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA). The underlying principle of the Pesticides Act is that pesticides must only be used for the purpose described on the product label and all the instructions on the label must be followed. Consequently, all label directions must be read by or explained to the user prior to each use of the pesticide. All pesticide users should take reasonable care to protect their own health and the health of others when using a pesticide. They should also make every reasonable attempt to prevent damage occurring from the use of a pesticide, such as off-target drift onto sensitive areas or harm to endangered and protected species. A Regulation was gazetted in 2009 renewing the requirement for all commercial pesticide users, i.e. all farmers and spray contractors, to keep records of their pesticide application. While no set form has to be used, records must include the following: • f ull product name, • des cription of the crop or situation, • ra te of application and quantity applied, • des cription of the equipment used, • addr ess of the property, identification of the area treated and order of paddocks treated, • d ate and time of the application (including start and finish), • n ame, address, and contact details of the applicator and of the employer or owner if an employee or contractor is the applicator, • es timated wind speed and direction (including any significant changes during application), • o ther weather conditions specified on label as being relevant (e.g. temperature, rainfall, relative humidity). A form that captures all the information required by the Regulation, together with notes on how to fill it in, is included in this guide. The form and notes can also be downloaded from the Department’s website. A self-carboning record book is available from Murrumbidgee Rural Studies Centre, Yanco. Records must be made within 24 hours of application, be made in legible English, and kept for 3 years. The 2009 Regulation requires all commercial pesticide users to be trained in pesticide application. The training of aerial applicators, pest control operators and fumigators is recognised as satisfying the requirements of the Regulation. Apart from these groups, all commercial users must have a prescribed qualification. Only domestic use, such as home gardens, is excluded, provided the pesticide is a specific domestic/ home garden product. Covered by the Regulation is pest control by/on: • p ublic authorities, e.g. State Rail, • g olf courses, sporting fields and bowling greens, • a gricultural, horticultural, aquacultural and forestry operations, • b usinesses, educational institutions, and hospitals. The minimum prescribed training qualification is the AQF2 unit of competency, ‘Apply chemicals under supervision’, although owner-applicators are encouraged to train and be assessed in the two higher AQF3 competencies, ‘Prepare and apply chemicals’ and ‘Transport, handle and store chemicals’. Growers are recommended to undertake the SMARTtrain course, Chemical Application, or the standard ChemCert course, both of which cover the higher AQF3 competencies. For growers with literacy and/or numeracy problems, the lower level AQF2 competency will provide a minimum qualification that satisfies the Regulation. Hazardous Chemicals legislation Many registered pesticides are classified as hazardous chemicals even those that are not, pose some risk to the health of those who use them or are exposed to them. The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 ( WHS), and the Hazardous Chemical section of the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 , detail legal requirements of suppliers, workers and persons conducting businesses or undertakings in the workplace for hazardous chemicals management. The Act and accompanying Regulation are intended to protect workers from both the short and long term health effects of exposure to hazardous chemicals and to improve current health and safety practices by: • p rovision of health and safety information to workers (including a list or register of all hazardous chemicals and an SDS (Safety Data Sheet) for each hazardous chemical), • co nsultation with workers, • t raining of workers, • minimi sing the risks arising from hazardous chemicals exposure, and • h ealth surveillance (if warranted by the risk assessment in respect of organophosphates). Both storage and use are covered by the WHS legislation. Storage limits have changed. Premises storing large quantities require placarding of both the storage shed and the entrances to the premises. If very large quantities are stored – which would be rare on-farm, a manifest, site plan and written emergency plan are required. Consult your local WorkCover office for advice. WorkCover NSW’s Code of practice for the safe use and storage of chemicals (including pesticides and herbicides) in agriculture is an approved industry code of practice and provides practical guidance for farm chemical users to comply with the legislation mentioned here.

134. 21 Boomspray calibration Boomsprays need to be calibrated regularly to work efficiently and economically. Regular calibration ensures the right amount of chemical will be applied to the target without costly wastage. The following template will enable you to calculate how much chemical and water to use. In the template, enter the information asked for such as spray tank capacity, chemical rate and ground speed in the space provided in the right hand column. You will need this information to perform the calculations. The numbers in the black ‘golfballs’ tell you which figures you need to perform the calculations. For example, to work out your water application rate, you need to know your total spray output, your effective spray width and your actual ground speed. The ‘golfball’ numbers in the formula show you where to get these figures. General Information Item of equipment to be calibrated. Spray tank capacity (litres). L  Area to be sprayed (hectares). ha  Chemical used. Recording What is the minimum water application rate – if any (from the chemical label)? L/ha Select the correct chemical application rate from the label. L/ha  Select an appropriate ground speed. gear rpm Record spray operation pressure. bar o r kPa Record nozzle type and size in the spray unit. Check the rated ‘water output’ using the manufacturer’s nozzle charts. R ated output type size ................... mL/min Record minimum boom height above target for these nozzles. cm Measuring Record the output from every nozzle for 1 minute. Total spray output (add all nozzles) L/min  1.......... 2.......... 3.......... 4.......... 5.......... 6.......... 7.......... 8.......... 9.......... 10.......... 11.......... 12.......... 13......... 14.......... 15 .......... 16.......... 17.......... 18.......... 19.......... 20.......... 21.......... 22.......... 23.......... 24.......... Replace any nozzles that vary 10% or more from the manufacturer’s correct nozzle output. (Nozzles with both higher and lower outputs must be replaced.) Record actual effective spray width in metres by measuring the distance across the outside nozzles and adding the distance between two adjacent nozzles. m 

182. 69 Herbicide options in linseed and linola Table 16. Herbicides for weed control for linseed and linola Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-emergence Early post-emergence Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Not Linola Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Not Linola Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Not Linola Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Not Linola Sethoxydim 186 g/L Sertin® Not Linola Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Butroxydi m 250 g/kg Factor® WG Not Linola Diclofop-methyl 375 g/L Rhino® Not Linola Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Not Linola Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Bromoxynil MA Not Linola MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 Not Linola Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Incorporation/growth stage application PSI PSI Any time until 17 weeks before harvest Any time until 16 weeks before harvest Before budding 5 cm to flowering Not before 4 Leaf 3–6 weeks after sowing 5–15 cm high 5–15 cm high 10–15 cm high and well before budding 8–20 cm high IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – Light soils 1.2 L/ha. Medium soils 1.5 L/ha. Heavy soils 1.7 L/ha. Sow 1.3–2.5 cm. Can sow in band. Deeper sowing may result in stand reduction. Apply and incorporate 2–4 weeks before sowing. See label. – Apply and incorporate 1–3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of wild phalaris, ryegrass and wireweed. – – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray, or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 0.5 L/100 L spray. Can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass weed spectrum and improve control. See label. – Add 1 L/ha DC Tron™ or Ulvapron® crop oil. – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum 250 mL/ha Uptake™ or 1 L other oils + wetter per 100 L spray. – Ad Supercharge® at 1 L/100 L, or aerial application 1 L/ha. Canola may be sensitive to Factor®. See label. – Can be used on undersown legumes. Add wetting agent. Do not spray over 25 ̊C. 1.4–2.0 Can be used on undersown legumes except medics. Apply when weeds are less than six leaves, crop 5–15 cm high. Some damage possible. Boom only. Avoid application when temperature > 20 ̊C or if likely to be within a few days. 1.4–2.0 Slight crop damage – leaf burning can occur. Spray when 5–15 cm high. Boom only. – Apply 170 L water/ha min. Maximum rate in NSW 730 mL/ha. – Not if legumes to follow crop – one year. annual phalaris 1.2–1.7 c 0.41 – 0.5 –1.0 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – annual ryegrass 1.2–1.7 c 0.41 0.45 0.5 –1.0 0.075 –0.1 80–180 f 1.0 – – – – barley grass – – 0.41 0.2 – 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – black bindweed – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 brome grass – – 0.5 0.3 – 0.05 –0.1 80–180 f – – – – – capeweed – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – cereals – – 0.41 0.2 h 1.0 k 0.05 – 0.1 80–180 f – – – – – charlock – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.5–1.0 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – fumitory 1.2–1.7 (S) – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – mustards – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 0.67 –0.84 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – – – – 0.67 –0.84 (S) Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – radish – wild – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 0.67 –0.84 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.1 0.67 –0.84 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – 0.67 –0.84 slender thistle – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.1 – spiny emex – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 turnip weed – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.1 0.67 –0.84 wild oats 1.2–1.7 a 1.6 d 0.41 0.25 0.75 –1.0 0.0375 –0.1 j 80–180 f 1.5–2.0 – – – – wild turnip – – – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.7–1.0 0.67 –0.84 wireweed 1.2–1.7 c – – – – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 0.67 –0.84 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 70–450 30–100 50–100 50–150 40–40 40–400 50–150 50–150 50–200 220 min 170 50 min Herbicide group D J A A A A A A C C + I I I a = R efer to label for details. c = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed, see label. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. f = A dd an effective Fop herbicide for control. See label. h = 0.25 L/ha for v olunteer triticale. j = U se 0.0375–0.1 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L./ha in northern NSW. k = Volunteer oats and wheat only. m = Volunteer wheat, barley, oats and triticale. (S) = Suppr ession only. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

136. 23 Managing your legal responsibilities in applying pesticides Pesticides Act The Pesticides Act 1999 is the primary legislative instrument controlling the use of pesticides in NSW and is administered by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA). The underlying principle of the Pesticides Act is that pesticides must only be used for the purpose described on the product label and all the instructions on the label must be followed. Consequently, all label directions must be read by or explained to the user prior to each use of the pesticide. All pesticide users should take reasonable care to protect their own health and the health of others when using a pesticide. They should also make every reasonable attempt to prevent damage occurring from the use of a pesticide, such as off-target drift onto sensitive areas or harm to endangered and protected species. A Regulation was gazetted in 2009 renewing the requirement for all commercial pesticide users, i.e. all farmers and spray contractors, to keep records of their pesticide application. While no set form has to be used, records must include the following: • f ull product name, • des cription of the crop or situation, • ra te of application and quantity applied, • des cription of the equipment used, • addr ess of the property, identification of the area treated and order of paddocks treated, • d ate and time of the application (including start and finish), • n ame, address, and contact details of the applicator and of the employer or owner if an employee or contractor is the applicator, • es timated wind speed and direction (including any significant changes during application), • o ther weather conditions specified on label as being relevant (e.g. temperature, rainfall, relative humidity). A form that captures all the information required by the Regulation, together with notes on how to fill it in, is included in this guide. The form and notes can also be downloaded from the Department’s website. A self-carboning record book is available from Murrumbidgee Rural Studies Centre, Yanco. Records must be made within 24 hours of application, be made in legible English, and kept for 3 years. The 2009 Regulation requires all commercial pesticide users to be trained in pesticide application. The training of aerial applicators, pest control operators and fumigators is recognised as satisfying the requirements of the Regulation. Apart from these groups, all commercial users must have a prescribed qualification. Only domestic use, such as home gardens, is excluded, provided the pesticide is a specific domestic/ home garden product. Covered by the Regulation is pest control by/on: • p ublic authorities, e.g. State Rail, • g olf courses, sporting fields and bowling greens, • a gricultural, horticultural, aquacultural and forestry operations, • b usinesses, educational institutions, and hospitals. The minimum prescribed training qualification is the AQF2 unit of competency, ‘Apply chemicals under supervision’, although owner-applicators are encouraged to train and be assessed in the two higher AQF3 competencies, ‘Prepare and apply chemicals’ and ‘Transport, handle and store chemicals’. Growers are recommended to undertake the SMARTtrain course, Chemical Application, or the standard ChemCert course, both of which cover the higher AQF3 competencies. For growers with literacy and/or numeracy problems, the lower level AQF2 competency will provide a minimum qualification that satisfies the Regulation. Hazardous Chemicals legislation Many registered pesticides are classified as hazardous chemicals even those that are not, pose some risk to the health of those who use them or are exposed to them. The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 ( WHS), and the Hazardous Chemical section of the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 , detail legal requirements of suppliers, workers and persons conducting businesses or undertakings in the workplace for hazardous chemicals management. The Act and accompanying Regulation are intended to protect workers from both the short and long term health effects of exposure to hazardous chemicals and to improve current health and safety practices by: • p rovision of health and safety information to workers (including a list or register of all hazardous chemicals and an SDS (Safety Data Sheet) for each hazardous chemical), • co nsultation with workers, • t raining of workers, • minimi sing the risks arising from hazardous chemicals exposure, and • h ealth surveillance (if warranted by the risk assessment in respect of organophosphates). Both storage and use are covered by the WHS legislation. Storage limits have changed. Premises storing large quantities require placarding of both the storage shed and the entrances to the premises. If very large quantities are stored – which would be rare on-farm, a manifest, site plan and written emergency plan are required. Consult your local WorkCover office for advice. WorkCover NSW’s Code of practice for the safe use and storage of chemicals (including pesticides and herbicides) in agriculture is an approved industry code of practice and provides practical guidance for farm chemical users to comply with the legislation mentioned here.

37. 35 Herbicide options in fallow Parthenium weed – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – Paterson’s curse – 75 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.8–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 peachvine (cowvine) – – – – 0.2–0.4 b – – – – 3.0–4.0 – – peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – pigweed 20 b – – – – – – 0.5 g i – – 0.625–1.3 0.38–1.5 n plantain – – – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.9 – potato weed – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild – – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 rough poppy – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – saffron thistle – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – 1.2–3.2 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – – – 1.2–1.9 – soursob – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.95 1.15 sowthistle 25 – – 0.5 i 0.2–0.4 b – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.425–1.3 0.575–1.5 spear thistle – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.75–1.15 spiny emex – – 15–45 – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 – – spurge – – – – – – – – – – – 0.76–1.15 stagger weed – – – – – – – – – – – – star thistle – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – t t stinking goosefoot – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 sub. clover – – 15–45 0.5 i – 0.2 140 – 1.2–3.2 p – 1.2–1.9 c z – sunflower – – – – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – – – – 0.575–1.5 turnip weed 20 – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n variegated thistle – – – – – 0.28 200 – – 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.575–1.5 vetch – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.2–3.2 – – – wild lettuce 20 b or 30 – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n wild turnip – – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 n wireweed – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n Rec Water Vol L/ha Boom >50 30–200 50–150 60–150 50 min 50 min 50 min 80 min 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 Wheat plant-back 3 days 24 hr 0 hr 1–3 days 2–4 Mths 1–14 days 1–14 days 4 months g 1 hr 0 hr 1 hr 6 hr Herbicide group B G G G + I I I I I L L + Q M M a = A dd 0.8 L/ha 2,4-D amine for control. b = A dd glyphosate as per label for control. c = Tankmix with dicamba for improved control. d = S ee label for rates as they vary from Summit RAZE®. e = C urled dock only. f = H ammer® also available in 240 g/L, see label for rates. g = N orthern NSW only. h = Indian hedge mustar d only. i = A dd glyphosate – see label. j = C henopodium pumilio only. k = A dd Garlon™ 600 at 80–160 mL/ha for prickly/paddy melons or 120–160 mL/ha for Afghan/ camel melons. l = U se glyphosate alone for camel melon only. m = Includes R oundup-Ready® canola. n = P rior to stem elongation. After this add Amicide® Advance 700 for control. See label. p = A dd 5 g/ha Ally® or 0.5 L/ha dicamba for control. q = A minimum of 1.18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo® + 650 mL–1.1 L/ha Amicide® Advance 700. r = A minimum of 1.18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo® + 650 mL–1.1 L/ha Amicide® Advance 700 + followed by 1.6–2.0 L/ha Nuquat®. t = A dd Goal®/Striker®/Spark® at 75 mL/ha for control. u = Small flo wered Mallow. NS = N ot stated. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

64. 62 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 1 (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn 500 g/L Igran® Triticale only Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Picolinafen + MCPA 50g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L + 350 g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen -ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Triticale only Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Triticale only Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50g/L Torpedo ™ Triticale only MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage 2L–5L 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Jo 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ea Till 2 L–F Till 5L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–5 L 3L–Late Till 2L–Mid Till 5L–Ea Till Ea–Fully Till Ea Till–Full Till 3–5 L 3 L–Flag leaf 2L–1st node 3 L–Flag Zadoks code 12–15 12–23 13–35 13–30 13–21 13–29 15–30 13–30 13–15 13–28 12–25 15–22 21–30 22–30 12–29 13–39 12–31 13–39 Weed controlled (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) toad rush – – – – 0.55–0.85 1.0 (S) – – 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – – – turnip weed – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – 0.1 e 0.7 variegated thistle – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 0.44 – – – volunteer fieldpea – – 7 – – 0.75 (S) – – – – – – – – – – 0.075–0.1 – wild lettuce – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d – – – – 0.3 – – wild oats 0.475–0.635 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – – 0.7 wireweed – 20 5 or 7 2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 – – 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 (S) – 0.9 – – Rec water L/ha Boom 50–100 30 min 50 min 50–200 50–100 50 min 50–200 50 min 50 min 50 –150 70 –150 50 min 50 min 50 min 30–120 50 min 50–100 50–100 Herbicide group A B B C C C + F C + I C + I F + I C + F + I G I I I I I I + B I + B a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = Tankmix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L/ha 2,4-D amine 500 g/L for control. c = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine 500 g/L for control. d = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 for control (NOT MCPA LVE). e = S ee label for tankmix options. f = A dd 500 mL MCPA 500 + 5 g/ha Esteem® WDG. g = Tankmix 500 mL/ha Jaguar® with 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. h = N orthern NSW only. i = Sub clo ver only. j = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. j = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

148. 35 Herbicide options in fallow Parthenium weed – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – Paterson’s curse – 75 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.8–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 peachvine (cowvine) – – – – 0.2–0.4 b – – – – 3.0–4.0 – – peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – pigweed 20 b – – – – – – 0.5 g i – – 0.625–1.3 0.38–1.5 n plantain – – – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.9 – potato weed – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild – – 15–45 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 rough poppy – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – saffron thistle – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – 1.2–3.2 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – 0.28 a 200 a – – – 1.2–1.9 – soursob – – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.95 1.15 sowthistle 25 – – 0.5 i 0.2–0.4 b – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.425–1.3 0.575–1.5 spear thistle – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.75–1.15 spiny emex – – 15–45 – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 – – spurge – – – – – – – – – – – 0.76–1.15 stagger weed – – – – – – – – – – – – star thistle – – – – – 0.32–0.56 230–400 – – – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – 1.2–3.2 – t t stinking goosefoot – – – – – – – – – – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 sub. clover – – 15–45 0.5 i – 0.2 140 – 1.2–3.2 p – 1.2–1.9 c z – sunflower – – – – – 0.28–0.56 200–400 – – – – 0.575–1.5 turnip weed 20 – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 – 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n variegated thistle – – – – – 0.28 200 – – 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.575–1.5 vetch – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.2–3.2 – – – wild lettuce 20 b or 30 – – – – – – – – 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n wild turnip – – – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 n wireweed – – – – – 0.28 200 – 1.2–3.2 3.0–4.0 0.625–1.3 0.76–1.15 n Rec Water Vol L/ha Boom >50 30–200 50–150 60–150 50 min 50 min 50 min 80 min 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 Wheat plant-back 3 days 24 hr 0 hr 1–3 days 2–4 Mths 1–14 days 1–14 days 4 months g 1 hr 0 hr 1 hr 6 hr Herbicide group B G G G + I I I I I L L + Q M M a = A dd 0.8 L/ha 2,4-D amine for control. b = A dd glyphosate as per label for control. c = Tankmix with dicamba for improved control. d = S ee label for rates as they vary from Summit RAZE®. e = C urled dock only. f = H ammer® also available in 240 g/L, see label for rates. g = N orthern NSW only. h = Indian hedge mustar d only. i = A dd glyphosate – see label. j = C henopodium pumilio only. k = A dd Garlon™ 600 at 80–160 mL/ha for prickly/paddy melons or 120–160 mL/ha for Afghan/ camel melons. l = U se glyphosate alone for camel melon only. m = Includes R oundup-Ready® canola. n = P rior to stem elongation. After this add Amicide® Advance 700 for control. See label. p = A dd 5 g/ha Ally® or 0.5 L/ha dicamba for control. q = A minimum of 1.18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo® + 650 mL–1.1 L/ha Amicide® Advance 700. r = A minimum of 1.18 L/ha Weedmaster® Argo® + 650 mL–1.1 L/ha Amicide® Advance 700 + followed by 1.6–2.0 L/ha Nuquat®. t = A dd Goal®/Striker®/Spark® at 75 mL/ha for control. u = Small flo wered Mallow. NS = N ot stated. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

14. 12 Table 2. Guidelines for crop rotations – In crop herbicides Ally® A Amicide® Advance (7 00 g/L) B Atlantis® OD D Atrazine Balance® (NNSW) F Baton® Low (800g/kg amine) B Boxer® Gold Broadstrike™ K Cadence® B Eclipse® 100 SC Glean® N Harmony® M OP Hotshot™ Hussar® OD Intervix® Kamba® 500 B Logran® CS Lontrel™ Advanced (600 g/L) LV Ester 680 (680 g/L) B Midas® Monza® C On Duty® Precept® 300 EC Prometryn 900 DF Raptor® Sakura® 850 WG C Simazine Spinnaker® Starane™ Advanced Terbyne® Tordon™ 75-D Velocity® Herbicide group B I B C C I J&K B I B B B I B B I B I I B B B I + H C B K C B I C I H + C Soil pH 1:5 soil:water suspension method pH 5.6–8.5 < pH 6.5 pH 6.6–7.5 pH 7.6–8.5 pH <7.8 pH 7.9–8.2 pH 8.3–8.5 pH <6.5 pH 6.6–7.5 pH 7.6–8.5 pH >8.6 pH <6.5 pH 6.5–8.5 All soils All soils pH < 6.0 pH 7.0–8.4 All soils pH < 7.0 pH < 6.0 pH 7.0–8.4 Specific details (NNSW) (SNSW) 20 g/ha 40 g/ha 0.5 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 500 mm 0.67 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 500 mm Crop Barley 6w See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 9mo To avoid triazine carryover maximum rates are stated (based on soil pH) – see label for further information. 10w G See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) No plantback restrictions except in the case of a failed crop. 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations–Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) Do not plant susceptible crops until 9 months after application of Eclipse®. Susceptible crops include canola or other brassica crops, field peas, beans, medics, lucerne and sub-clover. 9mo 9mo 18mo 9mo 9mo 9mo See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 9mo 10mo R See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 10mo R 12mo 22mo 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w Do not plant crops other than celery, chickpeas, peanuts, sunflowers or carrots in areas within 6 months following application of the product at rates above 1.2 kg/ha. Plantback varies depending on what situation chemical was used in – see label. 9mo To avoid triazine carryover maximum rates are stated (based on soil pH) – see label for further information. Plantback varies depending on what situation chemical was used in – see label. See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) Do not plant crops other than those recommended on this label for at least 6 months following treatments at rates up to 1.4 kg/ha. Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying winter or summer cereal use rates of this product. Cereal crops and grasses can be sown safely after using Tordon 75-D. Minimum recropping period, influenced by several factors – see label. Canola 9mo 9mo 9mo I 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo V 9mo V 9mo V 9mo 34mo 12mo 12mo 12mo 24mo 34mo 10mo 22mo 34mo 34mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Canola (Clearfield) 10d 3mo 3mo 3mo 0d 0d 0d 0d 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo Cereal Rye 6w 0d 0d 3mo 3mo 18mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 34mo 34mo 10mo 34mo 34mo Chickpea 9mo 9mo 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 12mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Cotton 12mo 7mo I 6 L –9 M mo – 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Faba Bean 9mo 11mo 9mo H 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 12mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Field Pea 9mo 9mo 9mo H 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Lentils 9mo 11mo 21mo J 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 21mo 34mo 34mo 10mo 22mo 34mo 34mo 9 mo 9 mo 21 mo 9mo Linseed 9mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 34mo 12mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Lucerne 9mo 9–21mo E 9mo I 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 21mo Lupins 9mo 9mo 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Maize 14mo 12mo 10w G 0d 0d 18mo 26mo 6mo 6mo 14mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 8 w 5mo Medic 9mo 21mo 21mo J 0d 0d 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 21mo 10mo W 12mo 24mo 10mo W 22mo 8mo W 8mo W 9 mo 21 mo 21mo Millet 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (Japanese) 14mo 4mo 6mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (Panorama) 14mo 14mo 14mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (White French) 14mo 14mo 14mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Mungbean 12mo 7mo H 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 5mo Navy Bean 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Oats 9mo 9mo 10w G 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 6mo 9mo 18mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo R 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 21mo Pigeon Pea 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Safflower 9mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 34mo 22mo 22mo 22mo Sorghum 14mo 12mo 7mo H 6 L –9 M mo – 18mo 26mo 4mo 6mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 8 w 5mo Soybean 14mo 12mo 7mo H 0d 0d 18mo 26mo 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Sub Clover 9mo 9–21mo E 21mo J 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo W 12mo 24mo 10mo W 10mo 8mo W 8mo W 9mo Sunflower 14mo 12mo 7mo H 6 L –9 M mo – 18mo 26mo 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 18mo 18mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Triticale 6w 9mo 0d 0d 0mo 0mo 0mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 9mo 10mo R 10mo R 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 0d Vetch 9mo 9mo H 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 9mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Wheat (Clearfield) 0d 0d 0d 0d 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w Wheat 10d 1d 10w G 0d 0d 0mo 0mo 0mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 1d 10mo R 10mo R 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 0–21mo T KEY: d = days, w = weeks, mo = months A F or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown through to maturity) should be determined on a small scale, in the previous season, before sowing into larger areas. B W hen applied to dry soils at least 15 mm of rain must fall prior to the commencement of the plantback period. C A dditional rainfall/soil moisture requirements need to be observed – see label. D R ainfall of less than 250 mm following Atlantis® OD use will result in extended re-cropping intervals for winter crops sown the following season. Patchy rain with extended dry periods may also extend this period. Rainfall of less than 500 mm may result in extended re-cropping periods for summer crops in the following year. R ainfall of less than 500 mm may result in extended re-cropping periods for summer crops in the following year. Use in soil above pH 8.5 is not recommnded. E pH < 8.0 (under c onditions of good seasonal rainfall) = 9 months, pH > 8.0 = 21 months. F P rolonged dry periods or cold conditions may result in extended re-cropping intervals, even if rainfall exceeds the required amount. Use on soils with pH less than 7.0 may result in extend recropping intervals. Cultivation is recommended prior to recropping. G 100 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. H 250 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. I 350 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. J 500 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. K F or SNSW a minimum of 25 mm (preferably 50 mm) and NNSW a minimum of 50 mm (preferably 100 mm) must fall over the warmer months of the year. On shallow, duplex, low O.M. soils of less than 30 cm, do not plant until 2 years after application. L 25 g/ha. M 50 g/ha. N G lean® is not recommended on soils of pH 8.6 and above. O F or soils with less than 1.7% organic matter and/or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown to maturity)should be detrmined on a small scale, in the previous season. P 400 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. Q R ainfall of less than 250 mm or 500 mm may result in extended recropping periods for winter and summer crops respectively. Patchy rain or extended dry periods will also extend the recropping period. Use on soils with pH 8.5 or above is not recommnded. R A dditional requirements need to be met for certain non clearfield cereals – see label. S W here Logran® is applied at lower rates with trifluralin or post-emergent additional requirements need to be considered – see label. T W heat (0 months), durum wheat (21 months). U M inimum of 300 mm for summer crops. Minimum 500 mm for Cotton, Soybean and Sunflower where Precept® 300 rate up to 1.0 L/ha. See Precept® label. V Plan tback refers to rapeseed. W Plan tback refers to pasture legumes.

68. 66 Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-emergence Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Simazine and/or Atrazine Gesatop® and/or Gesaprim® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 440 g/L Stomp® 440 Trifluralin + Oryzalin 125g + 125 g/L Duet® 250 EC Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Dual® Gold Metolachlor 960 g/L Clincher® Plus Incorporation/growth stage application IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI PSI PSI PSI IBS IBS PSPE IBS IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE Weeds controlled (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Use on triazine-tolerant varieties only. Can be applied pre-emergence or post-sowing pre-emergence. Rates depend on soil type. See label for rates and use pattern. – Light soils 1.2 L/ha, medium soils 1.5 L/ha and heavy soils 1.7 L/ha. Apply and incorporate up to just before sowing. For IBS situations incorporate within 24 hrs of application. For best results in PSI and IBS incorporate as soon as practical after application. – Southern NSW only. Apply up to 24 hrs before sowing. Incorporate well.Canola seed can be placed within the treated band. Use lower rate on lighter soils and higher rate on heavier soils. – Use 1.6 L rate for conventional cultivation and incorporate before sowing or at sowing with full disturbance. Use 2.3 L rate for direct drill and incorporate with full disturbance at sowing. Apply up to 5 days before sowing. Canola should be sown at normal depth of 2–4 cm. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Apply at or immediately after planting and before crops and weeds emerge. Apply to moist soil. – Apply at or immediately after planting and before crops and weeds emerge. Apply to moist soil. annual phalaris – 1.0–1.4 (S) – 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – 1.6 or 2.3 a – – annual ryegrass – 1.0–1.4 (S) (S) 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 a c – – barley grass – – (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – – – – brome grass – – (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – capeweed – – ✓ – – – – – – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – charlock – – ✓ – – – – – – common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – 1.0–1.4 ✓ 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – – – – – deadnettle – 1.0–1.4 – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) – 1.6 or 2.3 – – – fababean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – fumitory – – ✓ 1.2–1.7 (S) or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – 1.6 or 2.3 (S) – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – medics – volunteer – 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – mustards – – ✓ – – – – – – Paterson’s curse – – ✓ – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – 1.0–1.4 ✓ – – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – spiny emex 1.0–1.4 (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) ✓ 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – sub. clover – – ✓ – – – – – – toadrush – – – – – – – 0.15–0.25 0.225–0.375 turnips – wild – 1.0–1.4 ✓ – – – – – – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – vulpia – – ✓ 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d 1.5–2.25 (S) 1.6 (S) – – – wild mustard – 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – wild oats – 1.0–1.4 (S) (S) 1.2–1.7 (S) or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 (S) 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.6 a – – wild radish 1.0–1.4 (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) – – – – – – winter grass – – – – – – – – – wireweed – 1.0–1.4 – 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 c – – Rec water L/ha boom 50 min 50–100 70–450 50–200 50–100 30–100 60 min 60 min Herbicide group C C D D D J K K a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats and annual ryegrass or wireweed. See label. c = 1.6–2.0 L/ha A vadex® Xtra + 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X. d = A lternatively apply 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X + 1.6–2.0 L/ha Avadex® Xtra for control using IBS incorporation. When adding Avadex® Xtra incorporate within 6 hrs. (S) = Suppr ession. ✓ = C ontrol, refer label for rate. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence.

175. 62 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 1 (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop- p-ethyl 69 g/L + Cloquintocet- mexyl 34.5 g/L Foxtrot® Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Metsulfuron- methyl 600 g/kg Ally® Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromicide® Terbutryn 500 g/L Igran® Triticale only Bromoxynil + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Jaguar® Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Picolinafen + MCPA 50g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L + 350 g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Pyraflufen -ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Triticale only Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 Triticale only MCPA LVE 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced Triticale only Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50g/L Torpedo ™ Triticale only MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ Triticale only Apply at crop growth stage 2L–5L 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Jo 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ea Till 2 L–F Till 5L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–5 L 3L–Late Till 2L–Mid Till 5L–Ea Till Ea–Fully Till Ea Till–Full Till 3–5 L 3 L–Flag leaf 2L–1st node 3 L–Flag Zadoks code 12–15 12–23 13–35 13–30 13–21 13–29 15–30 13–30 13–15 13–28 12–25 15–22 21–30 22–30 12–29 13–39 12–31 13–39 Weed controlled (litres) (grams) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) toad rush – – – – 0.55–0.85 1.0 (S) – – 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – – – turnip weed – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – 0.1 e 0.7 variegated thistle – – – 1.4–2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – 0.28 1.7 1.0 0.44 – – – volunteer fieldpea – – 7 – – 0.75 (S) – – – – – – – – – – 0.075–0.1 – wild lettuce – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d – – – – 0.3 – – wild oats 0.475–0.635 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – 15 5 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 0.5–0.75 1.4–2.0 – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 0.4 d 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 0.44 – – 0.7 wireweed – 20 5 or 7 2.0 – 1.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.0 – – 0.4 f 0.16 c 1.0–1.7 1.0 (S) – 0.9 – – Rec water L/ha Boom 50–100 30 min 50 min 50–200 50–100 50 min 50–200 50 min 50 min 50 –150 70 –150 50 min 50 min 50 min 30–120 50 min 50–100 50–100 Herbicide group A B B C C C + F C + I C + I F + I C + F + I G I I I I I I + B I + B a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = Tankmix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L/ha 2,4-D amine 500 g/L for control. c = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine 500 g/L for control. d = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 for control (NOT MCPA LVE). e = S ee label for tankmix options. f = A dd 500 mL MCPA 500 + 5 g/ha Esteem® WDG. g = Tankmix 500 mL/ha Jaguar® with 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. h = N orthern NSW only. i = Sub clo ver only. j = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. j = S ee label for tankmix options with Nugrex® for improved control. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

125. 12 Table 2. Guidelines for crop rotations – In crop herbicides Ally® A Amicide® Advance (7 00 g/L) B Atlantis® OD D Atrazine Balance® (NNSW) F Baton® Low (800g/kg amine) B Boxer® Gold Broadstrike™ K Cadence® B Eclipse® 100 SC Glean® N Harmony® M OP Hotshot™ Hussar® OD Intervix® Kamba® 500 B Logran® CS Lontrel™ Advanced (600 g/L) LV Ester 680 (680 g/L) B Midas® Monza® C On Duty® Precept® 300 EC Prometryn 900 DF Raptor® Sakura® 850 WG C Simazine Spinnaker® Starane™ Advanced Terbyne® Tordon™ 75-D Velocity® Herbicide group B I B C C I J&K B I B B B I B B I B I I B B B I + H C B K C B I C I H + C Soil pH 1:5 soil:water suspension method pH 5.6–8.5 < pH 6.5 pH 6.6–7.5 pH 7.6–8.5 pH <7.8 pH 7.9–8.2 pH 8.3–8.5 pH <6.5 pH 6.6–7.5 pH 7.6–8.5 pH >8.6 pH <6.5 pH 6.5–8.5 All soils All soils pH < 6.0 pH 7.0–8.4 All soils pH < 7.0 pH < 6.0 pH 7.0–8.4 Specific details (NNSW) (SNSW) 20 g/ha 40 g/ha 0.5 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 500 mm 0.67 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 250 mm U 1.0 L/ha 500 mm Crop Barley 6w See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 9mo To avoid triazine carryover maximum rates are stated (based on soil pH) – see label for further information. 10w G See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) No plantback restrictions except in the case of a failed crop. 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations–Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) Do not plant susceptible crops until 9 months after application of Eclipse®. Susceptible crops include canola or other brassica crops, field peas, beans, medics, lucerne and sub-clover. 9mo 9mo 18mo 9mo 9mo 9mo See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 9mo 10mo R See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) 10mo R 12mo 22mo 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w Do not plant crops other than celery, chickpeas, peanuts, sunflowers or carrots in areas within 6 months following application of the product at rates above 1.2 kg/ha. Plantback varies depending on what situation chemical was used in – see label. 9mo To avoid triazine carryover maximum rates are stated (based on soil pH) – see label for further information. Plantback varies depending on what situation chemical was used in – see label. See Table 1 (Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow & presowing seedbed weed control) Do not plant crops other than those recommended on this label for at least 6 months following treatments at rates up to 1.4 kg/ha. Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying winter or summer cereal use rates of this product. Cereal crops and grasses can be sown safely after using Tordon 75-D. Minimum recropping period, influenced by several factors – see label. Canola 9mo 9mo 9mo I 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo V 9mo V 9mo V 9mo 34mo 12mo 12mo 12mo 24mo 34mo 10mo 22mo 34mo 34mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Canola (Clearfield) 10d 3mo 3mo 3mo 0d 0d 0d 0d 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo Cereal Rye 6w 0d 0d 3mo 3mo 18mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 34mo 34mo 10mo 34mo 34mo Chickpea 9mo 9mo 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 12mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Cotton 12mo 7mo I 6 L –9 M mo – 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Faba Bean 9mo 11mo 9mo H 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 12mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Field Pea 9mo 9mo 9mo H 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Lentils 9mo 11mo 21mo J 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 21mo 34mo 34mo 10mo 22mo 34mo 34mo 9 mo 9 mo 21 mo 9mo Linseed 9mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 34mo 12mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Lucerne 9mo 9–21mo E 9mo I 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 21mo Lupins 9mo 9mo 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo 12mo 24mo 10mo 10mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Maize 14mo 12mo 10w G 0d 0d 18mo 26mo 6mo 6mo 14mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 8 w 5mo Medic 9mo 21mo 21mo J 0d 0d 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 21mo 10mo W 12mo 24mo 10mo W 22mo 8mo W 8mo W 9 mo 21 mo 21mo Millet 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (Japanese) 14mo 4mo 6mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (Panorama) 14mo 14mo 14mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Millet (White French) 14mo 14mo 14mo 14mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Mungbean 12mo 7mo H 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 5mo Navy Bean 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Oats 9mo 9mo 10w G 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 6mo 9mo 18mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo R 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 21mo Pigeon Pea 34mo 34mo 34mo 34mo Safflower 9mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 34mo 22mo 22mo 22mo Sorghum 14mo 12mo 7mo H 6 L –9 M mo – 18mo 26mo 4mo 6mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 8 w 5mo Soybean 14mo 12mo 7mo H 0d 0d 18mo 26mo 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 15mo 15mo 18mo 24mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Sub Clover 9mo 9–21mo E 21mo J 3 L –6 M mo 3 L –9 M mo 12mo 22mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 9mo 10mo W 12mo 24mo 10mo W 10mo 8mo W 8mo W 9mo Sunflower 14mo 12mo 7mo H 6 L –9 M mo – 18mo 26mo 4mo 14mo 14mo 12mo 34mo 18mo 18mo 34mo 34mo 34mo 14 mo 14 mo 5mo Triticale 6w 9mo 0d 0d 0mo 0mo 0mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 9mo 10mo R 10mo R 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 0d Vetch 9mo 9mo H 6 L –9 M mo 9 L –12 M mo 9mo 10mo 10mo 22mo 8mo 8mo 9 mo 9 mo 9 mo 9mo Wheat (Clearfield) 0d 0d 0d 0d 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w Wheat 10d 1d 10w G 0d 0d 0mo 0mo 0mo 3mo 3mo 3mo 1d 10mo R 10mo R 8mo R 8mo R 3 w 3 w 3 w 3 w 0–21mo T KEY: d = days, w = weeks, mo = months A F or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown through to maturity) should be determined on a small scale, in the previous season, before sowing into larger areas. B W hen applied to dry soils at least 15 mm of rain must fall prior to the commencement of the plantback period. C A dditional rainfall/soil moisture requirements need to be observed – see label. D R ainfall of less than 250 mm following Atlantis® OD use will result in extended re-cropping intervals for winter crops sown the following season. Patchy rain with extended dry periods may also extend this period. Rainfall of less than 500 mm may result in extended re-cropping periods for summer crops in the following year. R ainfall of less than 500 mm may result in extended re-cropping periods for summer crops in the following year. Use in soil above pH 8.5 is not recommnded. E pH < 8.0 (under c onditions of good seasonal rainfall) = 9 months, pH > 8.0 = 21 months. F P rolonged dry periods or cold conditions may result in extended re-cropping intervals, even if rainfall exceeds the required amount. Use on soils with pH less than 7.0 may result in extend recropping intervals. Cultivation is recommended prior to recropping. G 100 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. H 250 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. I 350 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. J 500 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. K F or SNSW a minimum of 25 mm (preferably 50 mm) and NNSW a minimum of 50 mm (preferably 100 mm) must fall over the warmer months of the year. On shallow, duplex, low O.M. soils of less than 30 cm, do not plant until 2 years after application. L 25 g/ha. M 50 g/ha. N G lean® is not recommended on soils of pH 8.6 and above. O F or soils with less than 1.7% organic matter and/or pH 8.6 and above tolerance of crops (grown to maturity)should be detrmined on a small scale, in the previous season. P 400 mm minimum r ainfall total between herbicide application and planting of subsequent crop. Q R ainfall of less than 250 mm or 500 mm may result in extended recropping periods for winter and summer crops respectively. Patchy rain or extended dry periods will also extend the recropping period. Use on soils with pH 8.5 or above is not recommnded. R A dditional requirements need to be met for certain non clearfield cereals – see label. S W here Logran® is applied at lower rates with trifluralin or post-emergent additional requirements need to be considered – see label. T W heat (0 months), durum wheat (21 months). U M inimum of 300 mm for summer crops. Minimum 500 mm for Cotton, Soybean and Sunflower where Precept® 300 rate up to 1.0 L/ha. See Precept® label. V Plan tback refers to rapeseed. W Plan tback refers to pasture legumes.

179. 66 Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-emergence Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Simazine and/or Atrazine Gesatop® and/or Gesaprim® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 440 g/L Stomp® 440 Trifluralin + Oryzalin 125g + 125 g/L Duet® 250 EC Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra S-Metolachlor 960 g/L Dual® Gold Metolachlor 960 g/L Clincher® Plus Incorporation/growth stage application IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI PSI PSI PSI IBS IBS PSPE IBS IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE Weeds controlled (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Use on triazine-tolerant varieties only. Can be applied pre-emergence or post-sowing pre-emergence. Rates depend on soil type. See label for rates and use pattern. – Light soils 1.2 L/ha, medium soils 1.5 L/ha and heavy soils 1.7 L/ha. Apply and incorporate up to just before sowing. For IBS situations incorporate within 24 hrs of application. For best results in PSI and IBS incorporate as soon as practical after application. – Southern NSW only. Apply up to 24 hrs before sowing. Incorporate well.Canola seed can be placed within the treated band. Use lower rate on lighter soils and higher rate on heavier soils. – Use 1.6 L rate for conventional cultivation and incorporate before sowing or at sowing with full disturbance. Use 2.3 L rate for direct drill and incorporate with full disturbance at sowing. Apply up to 5 days before sowing. Canola should be sown at normal depth of 2–4 cm. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. – Apply at or immediately after planting and before crops and weeds emerge. Apply to moist soil. – Apply at or immediately after planting and before crops and weeds emerge. Apply to moist soil. annual phalaris – 1.0–1.4 (S) – 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – 1.6 or 2.3 a – – annual ryegrass – 1.0–1.4 (S) (S) 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 a c – – barley grass – – (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – bedstraw – – – – – – – – – brome grass – – (S) 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – capeweed – – ✓ – – – – – – cereals – volunteer – – – – – – – – – charlock – – ✓ – – – – – – common barbgrass – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – 1.0–1.4 ✓ 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – – – – – deadnettle – 1.0–1.4 – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) – 1.6 or 2.3 – – – fababean – volunteer – – – – – – – – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – fumitory – – ✓ 1.2–1.7 (S) or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d – 1.6 or 2.3 (S) – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – – – – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – medics – volunteer – 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – mustards – – ✓ – – – – – – Paterson’s curse – – ✓ – – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse – 1.0–1.4 ✓ – – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – spiny emex 1.0–1.4 (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) ✓ 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d – – – – – sub. clover – – ✓ – – – – – – toadrush – – – – – – – 0.15–0.25 0.225–0.375 turnips – wild – 1.0–1.4 ✓ – – – – – – variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – vulpia – – ✓ 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) d 1.5–2.25 (S) 1.6 (S) – – – wild mustard – 1.0–1.4 – – – – – – – wild oats – 1.0–1.4 (S) (S) 1.2–1.7 (S) or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 (S) 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.6 a – – wild radish 1.0–1.4 (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) – – – – – – winter grass – – – – – – – – – wireweed – 1.0–1.4 – 1.2–1.7 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) d 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 c – – Rec water L/ha boom 50 min 50–100 70–450 50–200 50–100 30–100 60 min 60 min Herbicide group C C D D D J K K a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats and annual ryegrass or wireweed. See label. c = 1.6–2.0 L/ha A vadex® Xtra + 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X. d = A lternatively apply 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X + 1.6–2.0 L/ha Avadex® Xtra for control using IBS incorporation. When adding Avadex® Xtra incorporate within 6 hrs. (S) = Suppr ession. ✓ = C ontrol, refer label for rate. Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence.

83. 81 Herbicide options in pulses Table 22. Herbicides for weed control for faba bean and lentil – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker® 700 WDG Faba bean only Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Simazine 600 g/L Gesatop® 600 SC Faba bean only Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 c Faba bean only Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 d Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Lentil only Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC e Faba bean only Triallate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Faba bean only Incorporation PSPE IBS PSPE PSI, IBS, PSPE PSI, IBS PSPE IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS Weeds controlled (grams) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 70–100 Apply post-sowing pre-emergence to weed-free seedbed. Note recropping intervals on Table 2. Check label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Apply either pre-seeding or immediately post-sowing. Sow crop at least 5 cm deep. Use lower rates on light textured soils. – Use higher rates on heavier soil types. Post-emergent application will cause crop damage. 0.28–0.58 Spray post-sowing pre-emergence. Rate depends on soil type – – – Light soils 0.8 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.2 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate 1–4 weeks before sowing. – In Northern NSW double incorporate at 2.5–3.0 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing (IBS) at 2.0–3.0 L/ha. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of ryegrass, wild phalaris and wireweed. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7–2.1 – – – – 0.8–1.2 – b annual ryegrass 70 h – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.83–1.25 m 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 0.8–1.2 2.0–3.0 b barley grass 70 h – – 1.7–2.1 (S) – – – – – – brome grass – – – 1.7–2.1 (S) f – – – – – – capeweed 70–100 – – 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – canola – volunteer – – – 1.7–2.1 g – – – – – – – cereals – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – crassula – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – deadnettle 70 – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – fumitory – – – 1.7–2.1 (S) – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – – – – – lettuce – prickly 70–100 – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – medics – – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – mustards 70 t – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – Paterson’s curse 70 – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild 70 i (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – (S) 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – rough poppy – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – saffron thistle – – – 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – shepherds purse 70 – 0.7–1.0 – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – soursob – – – 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – spiny emex 70 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – toad rush 70 – 0.7–1.0 – – 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – turnip weed 70 – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – – 2.0–3.0 (S) – wild oats 70 h – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.83–1.25 m (S) – – – – 0.8–1.2 b 2.0–3.0 (S) 1.6 wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – winter grass – – – – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – wireweed 70 – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 (S) 0.28–0.58 – – 0.8–1.2 2.0–3.0 b Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50 min 50–100 80–200 50–100 – – 70–450 50–200 30–100 Herbicide group/mode B C C C C C C D D J b = R efer to label for details. c = Metr ibuzin also available as 750 g/kg formulation, see label for rates. d = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. e = 440 g/L pendimethalin also a vailable. f = G reat brome only. g = N ot TT canola volunteers. h = E ight weeks suppression of grass weeds. For full control a specific grass herbicide may be required. i = A dequate control may not be obtained under high weed pressure or high rainfall. m = W here ryegrass, wild phalaris,wireweed or wild oats are the major problem use tankmix   of 1–1.5 L Gesatop® + 0.8 L trifluralin 480/ha and incorporate prior to sowing. t = Indian hedge mustar d (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

194. 81 Herbicide options in pulses Table 22. Herbicides for weed control for faba bean and lentil – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker® 700 WDG Faba bean only Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Simazine 600 g/L Gesatop® 600 SC Faba bean only Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 c Faba bean only Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 d Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Lentil only Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC e Faba bean only Triallate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Faba bean only Incorporation PSPE IBS PSPE PSI, IBS, PSPE PSI, IBS PSPE IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS Weeds controlled (grams) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 70–100 Apply post-sowing pre-emergence to weed-free seedbed. Note recropping intervals on Table 2. Check label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Apply either pre-seeding or immediately post-sowing. Sow crop at least 5 cm deep. Use lower rates on light textured soils. – Use higher rates on heavier soil types. Post-emergent application will cause crop damage. 0.28–0.58 Spray post-sowing pre-emergence. Rate depends on soil type – – – Light soils 0.8 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.2 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate 1–4 weeks before sowing. – In Northern NSW double incorporate at 2.5–3.0 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing (IBS) at 2.0–3.0 L/ha. See label. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of ryegrass, wild phalaris and wireweed. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7–2.1 – – – – 0.8–1.2 – b annual ryegrass 70 h – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.83–1.25 m 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 0.8–1.2 2.0–3.0 b barley grass 70 h – – 1.7–2.1 (S) – – – – – – brome grass – – – 1.7–2.1 (S) f – – – – – – capeweed 70–100 – – 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – canola – volunteer – – – 1.7–2.1 g – – – – – – – cereals – – – – – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – crassula – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – deadnettle 70 – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – fumitory – – – 1.7–2.1 (S) – – – – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – – – – – – – – lettuce – prickly 70–100 – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – medics – – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – mustards 70 t – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – Paterson’s curse 70 – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild 70 i (S) 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – (S) 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – rough poppy – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – saffron thistle – – – 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – shepherds purse 70 – 0.7–1.0 – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – soursob – – – 1.7–2.1 – – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 – – – – – spiny emex 70 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – toad rush 70 – 0.7–1.0 – – 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – turnip weed 70 – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – – 2.0–3.0 (S) – wild oats 70 h – 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.83–1.25 m (S) – – – – 0.8–1.2 b 2.0–3.0 (S) 1.6 wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 – 1.7 or 2.2 0.28–0.58 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – winter grass – – – – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – wireweed 70 – 0.7–1.0 1.7–2.1 (S) 0.28–0.58 – – 0.8–1.2 2.0–3.0 b Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50 min 50–100 80–200 50–100 – – 70–450 50–200 30–100 Herbicide group/mode B C C C C C C D D J b = R efer to label for details. c = Metr ibuzin also available as 750 g/kg formulation, see label for rates. d = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. e = 440 g/L pendimethalin also a vailable. f = G reat brome only. g = N ot TT canola volunteers. h = E ight weeks suppression of grass weeds. For full control a specific grass herbicide may be required. i = A dequate control may not be obtained under high weed pressure or high rainfall. m = W here ryegrass, wild phalaris,wireweed or wild oats are the major problem use tankmix   of 1–1.5 L Gesatop® + 0.8 L trifluralin 480/ha and incorporate prior to sowing. t = Indian hedge mustar d (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

45. 43 Pre-emergent herbicide options scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – 50(S) – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse 15 or 20 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob 15 – 50 – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – 30 50 u – – – – – – – – – – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex 20 35 50 u – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) – – – – – – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – – – – sub. clover – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) toad rush – – – – – – – 1.5–2.5 118 – 0.15–0.25 0.225–0.375 – turnip weed – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – variegated thistle – 30 (S) 50 (S) – – – – – – – – – – vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – – vulpia – – – – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) 1.5–2.25 (S) 1.6 (S) 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 118 – – – – wild lettuce – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – wild oats – – u a 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) a (S) 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.5–2.5 c d 118 (S) 1.6 f e – – – wild turnip 15 30 50 25 – – – – – – – – – winter grass – – – – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) – – – – – – – – wireweed 15 or 20 35 50 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c – b – – – Water vol L/ha boom 30 min 50–100 50–100 40–100 70–450 50–200 50–100 50 min 50–100 30–100 60 min – 50 min Wheat plant-back 0 day 0 day 0 day 1 day durum 0 day 0 day (IBS) or 1–4 wks 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day NA Herbicide group Group B products. All will severely damage undersown or volunteer legumes D D D J, K K J K K I a = A dd Avadex® Xtra for control. b = A dd trifluralin for control. c = A dd 0.8–1.5 L/ha Triflur® 480 for control. d = Sur face germinating only. e = A dd Glean®, Lusta®, or Logran® for improved control in wheat and triticale. f = P referred option for Northern NSW. j = P endimethalin also available in 330 g/L. See label for rates. h = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). u = Logran® B-power gives knock-down control of small (up to 2-leaf ) emerged weeds. Add Hasten™ or non-ionic wetter for knockdown. v = B arley and oats only. z = A lternatively apply 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X + 1.6–2.0 L/ha Avadex® Xtra for control. When adding Avadex® Xtra incorporate within 6 hours. (S) = Suppr ession only. Crop usage AC = All Crops W = W heat CH = C hickpea C = C anola T = T riticale O = O ats B = B arley WC = W inter cereals FP = F ield pea Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

78. 76 Table 18. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-sowing Post-sowing–pre-emergence Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC g Triallate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker® 700 WDG Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 SC Metribuzin 750 g/kg Sencor® 750 WG Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 e Incorporation IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE IBS PSPE Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Use higher rate on heavier soil types. Pre-sowing application: apply between 14 days before and up to sowing. – Spray and incorporate 0 – 4 weeks before sowing. See label. Apply 1.2 L/ha on light soils and 1.5–1.7 L/ha on medium to heavy soils. – Sow seed under chemical band. See label. Lower rates where fully incorporated and/or northern NSW. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of ryegrass, wild phalaris and wireweed. 70–100 Apply immediately post-sowing. Note recropping intervals Table 2. Refer label. 0.28–0.58 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate. Rate depends on soil type. Best results with moist soil surface. Use higher rate on heavier soil types. See label. 0.18–0.38 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate. Best results with moist soil surface. Use higher rate on heavier soil types. See label. – Use higher rate on heavier soil types. Post-sowing pre-emergence application: apply 1.1 or 1.7 kg/ha from immediately after until 1 week after sowing. – – annual phalaris – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.2–1.7 b – a – – – – – annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7 or 2.2 k 1.2–1.7 b 1.2–3.0 a 70 f 0.28–0.58 (S) 1.1 or 1.7 – – barley grass – – – (S) – – – 70 f – (S) – – capeweed – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 charlock – – – – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – chickweed – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – cotula – common – – – – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – crassula – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – fumitory – – – (S) 1.2–1.7 b – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) – – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 m 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 70 – – – – prickly lettuce – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – radish – wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) (S) – – – 70 h (S) 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 rough poppy – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 stinging nettle – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – toad rush – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – vulpia – – – – – 2–3 (S) – – – – – – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.2–1.7 c b (S) 1.6 d 70 f (S) – – – – wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 winter grass – – – – 1.2–1.7 b – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 (S) k 1.2–1.7 b 1.2–3.0 a 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) – – Rec water L/ha Boom 70–120 50 min 80–200 70–450 50–200 30–100 50–100 50–100 50–100 80–200 – – Herbicide group K C C D D J B C C C C C a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed – see label. c = R efer to label for details. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. f = E ight weeks suppression of grass weeds. For full control of grass weeds a follow up spray with a grass herbicide may be required. g = P endimethalin also available as a 440 g/L formulation. See label. h = A follo w up treatment with another product may be needed for control of wild radish under high weed pressure or rainfall conditions. k = A dd trifluralin or Stomp® 330 EC. m = Indian hedge mustar d. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

76. 74 Table 17. Herbicides for weed control for chickpea Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 e Prometryn 900 g/kg Prometryn 900 DF Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Simazine 500 g /L Simazine 500 n Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 f Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC g Isoxaflutole 750 g/kg Balance® 750 WG Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Incorporation/growth stage application IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS IBS PSPE PSI PSI PSPE PSI PSPE PSPE IBS IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) amsinckia – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. 0.28–0.58 Only spray post-sowing pre-emergence. Chickpea southern NSW only. Chickpea sown at least 5 cm deep. Rate depends on soil type – lower rate on light soils, higher rate on heavy soils. – Apply immediately post-planting with simazine. For reliable results significant rain 20–30 mm is necessary within 2–3 weeks of sowing. – Use higher rate on heavier soils. Where ryegrass or wireweed are a problem add Stomp® 330 EC or trifluralin for control. – Apply immediately post-sowing. 20–30 mm rainfall is required within 2–3 weeks for incorporation. Lower rates on alkaline soils, higher rates on red soils. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin (pre-sow), Balance® or prometryn(Gesagard®) to broaden weed control. Simazine also available as 600 g/L formulation in Gesatop® 600 applied at slightly lower rates – see label. – – – Light soils 1.2–1.5 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.5–1.7 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate from 4 weeks up to just before sowing. – In Northern NSW incorporate twice at rate of 2.5–3 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing process (IBS) at rate of 2–3 L/ha. See label. – Apply immediately post-sowing. Not on sandy soils with less than 10% clay. Use only where following crops in rotation are cereals or maize. Can be tankmixed with simazine to broaden weed control. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See Label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – 1.2–1.7 h – – a annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h 2.0–3.0 – a barley grass – – – – – (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – – – – – brome grass – – – – – (S) k 1–2 t (S) – – – – – – capeweed – – – 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – cereals – – – – – – – – – – – – – cockspur – Maltese – – – – – – 1.5–2.0 – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 – – – 1.0–2.0 t – – – – – – crassula – – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – 100 w – fumitory – – – – – (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h (S) – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – 0.83 j – 1.5 –2.0 – – – – – – lettuce – wild – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 (S) – – – – 100 – medic – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – – 100 – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 t – – – – 100 – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.28–0.58 – – – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – rough poppy – – – 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 100 w (S) – shepherds purse – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j – 1.5– 2.0 S) – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – 100 – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 100 w – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 w (S) – toad rush – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – – – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – – turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – 100 – vulpia – – – – – – – – – – (S) 100 w – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – 1–2 t (S) – – 1.2–1.7 b h (S) – 1.6 c wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – – winter grass – – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – 1.2–1.7 h – – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h 2.0–3.0 100 w (S) a Rec water L/ha boom 70–120 50 min 50 min 50–100 50–100 80–200 50–100 50–100 50–100 70–450 50–200 50 min 30–100 Herbicide group/mode K C C C C C C C C D D H J a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats. b = R efer to label. c = P referred option northern NSW only. e = Metr ibuzin also available as 750 g/kg formulation, see label for rates. f = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. g = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. h = U se low rate when applying immediately prior to sowing, and higher rate when applying to dry soil before the planting rain. j = Tank mix with 830 g/ha simazine 900 DF for control. k = G reat brome only. n = B oth simazine and prometryn are available in other formulations (WG and DF). t = Tankmix with 0.8 L/ha 480 g/L trifluralin for control and apply and incorporate presowing. w = Tankmix with 1.5 L simazine (500 g/L) per ha. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

189. 76 Table 18. Herbicides for weed control for field pea – Pre-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Pre-sowing Post-sowing–pre-emergence Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC g Triallate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Imazethapyr 700 g/kg Spinnaker® 700 WDG Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 SC Metribuzin 750 g/kg Sencor® 750 WG Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 e Incorporation IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSI, IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSPE IBS PSPE Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) amsinckia – – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. – Use higher rate on heavier soil types. Pre-sowing application: apply between 14 days before and up to sowing. – Spray and incorporate 0 – 4 weeks before sowing. See label. Apply 1.2 L/ha on light soils and 1.5–1.7 L/ha on medium to heavy soils. – Sow seed under chemical band. See label. Lower rates where fully incorporated and/or northern NSW. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin for control of mixed infestations of ryegrass, wild phalaris and wireweed. 70–100 Apply immediately post-sowing. Note recropping intervals Table 2. Refer label. 0.28–0.58 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate. Rate depends on soil type. Best results with moist soil surface. Use higher rate on heavier soil types. See label. 0.18–0.38 Do not tank mix with other herbicides for field pea. Check label for suitable rate. Best results with moist soil surface. Use higher rate on heavier soil types. See label. – Use higher rate on heavier soil types. Post-sowing pre-emergence application: apply 1.1 or 1.7 kg/ha from immediately after until 1 week after sowing. – – annual phalaris – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.2–1.7 b – a – – – – – annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7 or 2.2 k 1.2–1.7 b 1.2–3.0 a 70 f 0.28–0.58 (S) 1.1 or 1.7 – – barley grass – – – (S) – – – 70 f – (S) – – capeweed – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 charlock – – – – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – chickweed – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – cotula – common – – – – – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – crassula – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – – 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – fumitory – – – (S) 1.2–1.7 b – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) – – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 m 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – 70 – – – – prickly lettuce – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70–100 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – radish – wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) (S) – – – 70 h (S) 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 rough poppy – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – shepherd’s purse – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 – – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 stinging nettle – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – toad rush – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – 70 – 1.1 or 1.7 – – vulpia – – – – – 2–3 (S) – – – – – – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – 1.2–1.7 c b (S) 1.6 d 70 f (S) – – – – wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 1.1 or 1.7 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 winter grass – – – – 1.2–1.7 b – – – 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 – – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 (S) k 1.2–1.7 b 1.2–3.0 a 70 0.28–0.58 0.18–0.38 (S) – – Rec water L/ha Boom 70–120 50 min 80–200 70–450 50–200 30–100 50–100 50–100 50–100 80–200 – – Herbicide group K C C D D J B C C C C C a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats, annual ryegrass or wireweed – see label. c = R efer to label for details. d = P referred option for northern NSW only. e = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. f = E ight weeks suppression of grass weeds. For full control of grass weeds a follow up spray with a grass herbicide may be required. g = P endimethalin also available as a 440 g/L formulation. See label. h = A follo w up treatment with another product may be needed for control of wild radish under high weed pressure or rainfall conditions. k = A dd trifluralin or Stomp® 330 EC. m = Indian hedge mustar d. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergence. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

156. 43 Pre-emergent herbicide options scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – 50(S) – – – – – – – – – – shepherd’s purse 15 or 20 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob 15 – 50 – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – 30 50 u – – – – – – – – – – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex 20 35 50 u – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) – – – – – – – – stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – – – – sub. clover – – 50 u – – – – – – – – – 0.15–0.3 (S) toad rush – – – – – – – 1.5–2.5 118 – 0.15–0.25 0.225–0.375 – turnip weed – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – variegated thistle – 30 (S) 50 (S) – – – – – – – – – – vetch – – – – – – – – – – – – – vulpia – – – – 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) 1.5–2.25 (S) 1.6 (S) 1.5–2.5 c or 2.5 118 – – – – wild lettuce – 30 50 – – – – – – – – – – wild oats – – u a 1.5–3.0 (S) (IBS) a (S) 1.6 or 2.3 (S) 1.5–2.5 c d 118 (S) 1.6 f e – – – wild turnip 15 30 50 25 – – – – – – – – – winter grass – – – – 1.5–3.0 (IBS) – – – – – – – – wireweed 15 or 20 35 50 b 0.8 or 1.5–3.0 (IBS) 1.35–2.25 1.6 or 2.3 1.5–2.5 c – b – – – Water vol L/ha boom 30 min 50–100 50–100 40–100 70–450 50–200 50–100 50 min 50–100 30–100 60 min – 50 min Wheat plant-back 0 day 0 day 0 day 1 day durum 0 day 0 day (IBS) or 1–4 wks 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day 0 day NA Herbicide group Group B products. All will severely damage undersown or volunteer legumes D D D J, K K J K K I a = A dd Avadex® Xtra for control. b = A dd trifluralin for control. c = A dd 0.8–1.5 L/ha Triflur® 480 for control. d = Sur face germinating only. e = A dd Glean®, Lusta®, or Logran® for improved control in wheat and triticale. f = P referred option for Northern NSW. j = P endimethalin also available in 330 g/L. See label for rates. h = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). u = Logran® B-power gives knock-down control of small (up to 2-leaf ) emerged weeds. Add Hasten™ or non-ionic wetter for knockdown. v = B arley and oats only. z = A lternatively apply 1.5–2.0 L/ha Triflur® X + 1.6–2.0 L/ha Avadex® Xtra for control. When adding Avadex® Xtra incorporate within 6 hours. (S) = Suppr ession only. Crop usage AC = All Crops W = W heat CH = C hickpea C = C anola T = T riticale O = O ats B = B arley WC = W inter cereals FP = F ield pea Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

12. 10 Unscheduled: Very low toxicity (No heading) e.g. Ally®‚ Brodal®, Diuron, Flame®, Logran®, Simazine, Broadstrike™. Schedule 5: Slightly toxic Caution e.g. Achieve®‚ Agtryne® MA, Atlantis® OD, Avadex® Xtra, Balance®, Kamba® M, Correct®‚ Dicamba, Dual Gold®, Glean®‚ Glyphosate, Goal®, Harmony® M, Hotshot™, Hussar® OD, Igran®‚ Lontrel™ Advanced‚ Mataven® 90, MCPA, Precept®, Prometryn 900 DF, Raptor®, Weedmaster® DST®, Select®‚ Sertin®‚ Sharpen® WG, Sickle®, Spinnaker®, Starane™ Advanced, Stomp® 330 EC‚ Striker®, Elantra® Xtreme®‚ Tigrex®‚ Tordon™ 242, FallowBoss™ Tordon™, Torpedo™, Touchdown® HiTech‚ Trifluralin, 2,4-DB, Wildcat®. Schedule 6: Moderately toxic Poison e.g. Bladex®, Broadside®, Bromoxynil, Bromoxynil + MCPA, Buctril® MA, Cheetah® Gold, Conclude™, Crusader™, Decision®, Eclipse® 100 SC , Flight® EC, Fusilade® Forte‚ Garlon™ FallowMaster™, Grazon™, Hoegrass®‚ Jaguar®, Midas®, Paragon®, Reglone®‚ Sakura®, Sencor®, Sniper®, Terbyne®, Topik®, Tordon™, Tristar® Advance, Valor®, Velocity®, Verdict™ , 2,4-D amine and LV Ester (Note 2,4-D Amine and Ester formulations have now changed to S6 from S5 when active ingredient>200 g/L. Older labels may not reflect this). Schedule 7: Highly toxic Dangerous Poison e.g. Gramoxone® 250, Nuquat®‚ Shirquat®‚ Spray . Seed® 250. Successful results from herbicide application depend heavily on numerous interacting factors. Many of the biological factors involved are not fully understood, and are out of your control so give careful attention to the factors that you can control. Annual weeds compete with cereals and broadleaf crops mainly when the crops are in their earlier stages of growth e.g. tillering in cereals. Weeds should be removed no later than 6 weeks after sowing to minimise losses. However, only rarely are selective herbicides completely non-toxic to the crop. See the ‘Winter Crop Variety Sensitivity to Herbicides’ section of this guide. Early post-emergence control nearly always results in higher yields than treatments applied after tillering of cereals, or branching in broadleaf crops. Points to remember for the successful use of herbicides: • P lan the operation. Check paddock sizes, tank capacities, water availability and supply. • C arefully check crop and weed growth stages before deciding upon a specific post-emergent herbicide. Use the diagrams in Growth stages of cereal crops page 8 and Pulse crop growth stages on page 70 . • R ead the label. Check to make sure the chemical will do the job. Note any mixing instructions, especially when tank mixing two chemicals. This booklet is a guide only; it cannot tell you all the information you need to know. • F ollow the recommendations on the label. • C onditions inhibiting plant cell growth, like stress from drought, waterlogging, poor nutrition, high or low temperatures, low light intensity and disease or insect attack are not conducive to good herbicide uptake and movement. • U se good quality water, preferably from a rainwater tank. Water quality is very important. Bore, hard, dirty or muddy water needs special additives or conditioners to improve results with certain herbicides. See Water quality for herbicide application , page 16 . • U se good equipment checked frequently for performance and output – see Boomspray calibration on page 21 . • C heck boom height with spray pattern operation for full coverage of the target. • C heck accuracy of boom width marking equipment. • C heck wind speed. A light breeze helps herbicide penetration into crops. Do not spray when wind is strong. • D o not spray if rain is imminent or when heavy dew or frost is present. See Table 3 for ‘Rainfast Periods’, page 14 . • C alculate the amount of herbicide required for each paddock and tank load. Add surfactant where recommended. See Boomspray calibration on page 21 . • S elect the appropriate nozzle type for the application, see ‘Nozzle selection’ on page 27 . Beware of compromising nozzle-types when tank mixing herbicides with fungicides or insecticides. • B e aware of spraying conditions to avoid potential spray drift onto sensitive crops and pastures, roadways, dams, trees, watercourses or public places. Note: All chemicals can drift – See Reducing herbicide spray drift , page 26 . • K eep a record of each spray operation page 25 . Using herbicides successfully Poison warnings on herbicide labels The poison schedule Herbicides are classified into four categories in the Poison Schedule based on the acute health hazard to the user of the herbicide. Each schedule has a corresponding signal heading which appears in large contrasting lettering on the label of the herbicide product. The Safety Directions specify what personal protective equipment should be worn, and what safety precautions should be taken, e.g. do not inhale spray mist. The First Aid instructions specify what action should be taken in the event of a poisoning. Safety Directions and First Aid Instructions may be different for different formulations of the same pesticide. Before opening and using any farm chemical, consult the label and Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for specific Safety Directions. The hazardous chemicals section of the Work Health and Safety Regulation requires resellers to provide end users with an SDS. If you suspect a poisoning, contact the Poisons Information Centre emergency phone (24 hour) 131 126.

47. 45 Herbicide options in wheat and barley mintweed – – 20 – – – – – – 1.4 –2.0 1.7 1.35 v – – – Application prior to the 3 trifoliate leaf stage may result in damage to clover. – For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1hr of daylight left after application. – For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1hr of daylight left after application. mustards 25 5 15 25 6.5–10 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 0.5 j New Zealand spinach 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – 1.7 – – 1.0 (S) – – – Paterson’s curse 25 (S) m 5 or 7 15 – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 – 1.4 –2.0 – 0.66–0.96 v 0.44–1.84 v – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 peppercress 25 – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – radish – wild 25 (S) m – 15 or 20 20 10–13 p – 2.0 p 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.175–0.35 + 0.35–0.5 Nugrex® y 1.0 0.5–1.0 q 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 i rough poppy – 5 20 – – – – – – 1.4 –2.0 – – – – 1.0 (S) – – saffron thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – 1.4 –2.0 1.7 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 0.67–1.0 – shepherd’s purse 25 5 20 – 10 p – 1.4–2.0 p – 1.4–2.0 – – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – skeleton weed – 7 (S) – – – – – – – – – 0.96–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 (S) – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v – – – – sorrel – 5 – – – – – – – – 1.0–1.7 – – – – – – soursob – 5 20 – – – – – 1.1 – – – – – – – – sowthistle – 5 – – – – – – – 1.4–2.1 r – – – 1.0 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 0.96–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v – – – – spiny emex 25 (S) m 5 or 7 – – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 – – 1.0 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.75–1.0 (S) St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – 7 – – 13 p – – p – – – 0.69–1.0 v – – – – – toad rush – e e – – 110 t u – 0.55–0.85 – – – – 0.44–1.84 v – 1.0 – – turnip weed 15–25 5 15 – 6.5 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 1.7 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 (S) – – vetch – – – – 13 p – – 0.6 p – – 1.0 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 f vulpia – – – 25 – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 wild oats – – – 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 5 15 20 6.5–10 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 0.5–1.0 wireweed – 5 or 7 20 – – – 2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 – – 1.0(S) 0.75 (S) 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5–1.0 Recom water L/ha 50–150 50 min 30 min 40–100 30–100 – 50–200 50–100 20–100 50–200 50 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min 70–150 50–100 Herbicide group B B B B B C C C C + I C + I I I I I I + F H + C H + I a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = T ank mix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L/ha 2,4-D (as amine) 500 g/L for control. c = A lternatively Diuron Flowable 500 g/L. d = Metr ibuzin also available as 480 g/L. e = C an be tankmixed with Sencor® 480 for toad rush control (See label). f = A dd Lontrel™ Advanced for control. See label for rates. g = C an be mixed with MCPA amine or terbutryn. h = L ong storksbill only (Erodium botrys). i = DO NOT use the 0.5 L/ha rate where excellent coverage is not possible. j = Indian hedge mustar d only. k = Sub clo ver only. m = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. n = S ee label for rates for controlling RR Canola. o = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. p = Tankmix of Igran® and Logran® can be used for control. See label. q = T ankmix 350–500 mL/ha Tigrex® plus 175–350 mL/ha MCPA LVE (570 g/L) for control. r = N orthern NSW only. t = Application of Sencor® to barley on soils with pH > 7.0 will result in severe crop damage. u = T oad rush should be sprayed at the 2–4 leaf stage. Spray after rain when soil moisture is plentiful and soil is moist to the surface. Take advantage of dew on soil surface. v = S ee critical comments on label in ‘Directions for Use’, showing varying rate according to weed size. w = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. y = S ee label for crop and weed stage and appropriate rate. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

187. 74 Table 17. Herbicides for weed control for chickpea Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Dimethenamid-P 720 g/L Outlook® Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Metribuzin 480 g/L Sencor® 480 e Prometryn 900 g/kg Prometryn 900 DF Cyanazine 900 g/kg Bladex® Simazine 500 g /L Simazine 500 n Diuron 500 g/L ◆ Diuron 500 f Trifluralin 480 g/L Triflur® X Pendimethalin 330 g/L Stomp® 330 EC g Isoxaflutole 750 g/kg Balance® 750 WG Tri-allate 500 g/L Avadex® Xtra Incorporation/growth stage application IBS Knifepoint and Presswheel only IBS PSPE PSPE PSPE PSI, IBS PSI, IBS IBS PSPE PSI PSI PSPE PSI PSPE PSPE IBS IBS IBS Weeds controlled (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) (kilograms) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) amsinckia – Outlook® has demonstrated annual ryegrass control in low weed populations only (<100 plant/m 2 ). Use in higher weed populations will only yield suppression. Apply as late as possible before sowing and sow with a knifepoint and presswheel seeder before weeds germinate. Do not use with disc openers/planting equipment. See label. – – Terbyne® can be used IBS or PSPE. Use the lower rate on light soils and the high rate on heavier rate on heavier soils. Sufficient rain is necessary within 2–3 weeks after application. 0.28–0.58 Only spray post-sowing pre-emergence. Chickpea southern NSW only. Chickpea sown at least 5 cm deep. Rate depends on soil type – lower rate on light soils, higher rate on heavy soils. – Apply immediately post-planting with simazine. For reliable results significant rain 20–30 mm is necessary within 2–3 weeks of sowing. – Use higher rate on heavier soils. Where ryegrass or wireweed are a problem add Stomp® 330 EC or trifluralin for control. – Apply immediately post-sowing. 20–30 mm rainfall is required within 2–3 weeks for incorporation. Lower rates on alkaline soils, higher rates on red soils. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin (pre-sow), Balance® or prometryn(Gesagard®) to broaden weed control. Simazine also available as 600 g/L formulation in Gesatop® 600 applied at slightly lower rates – see label. – – – Light soils 1.2–1.5 L/ha. Medium-heavy soils 1.5–1.7 L/ha. Can sow in band. Apply and incorporate from 4 weeks up to just before sowing. – In Northern NSW incorporate twice at rate of 2.5–3 L/ha. In Southern NSW incorporate by sowing process (IBS) at rate of 2–3 L/ha. See label. – Apply immediately post-sowing. Not on sandy soils with less than 10% clay. Use only where following crops in rotation are cereals or maize. Can be tankmixed with simazine to broaden weed control. – Apply and incorporate immediately prior to sowing or up to 3 weeks before sowing. See Label. Can be tankmixed with trifluralin. annual phalaris – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – – – – 1.2–1.7 h – – a annual ryegrass 0.75–1.0 – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h 2.0–3.0 – a barley grass – – – – – (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – – – – – brome grass – – – – – (S) k 1–2 t (S) – – – – – – capeweed – – – 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – cereals – – – – – – – – – – – – – cockspur – Maltese – – – – – – 1.5–2.0 – – – – – – corn gromwell – – 0.7–1.0 – – – 1.0–2.0 t – – – – – – crassula – – – – – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – deadnettle – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 – – – – – 100 w – fumitory – – – – – (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h (S) – – – goosefoot – purple – – – – 0.83 j – 1.5 –2.0 – – – – – – lettuce – wild – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 (S) – – – – 100 – medic – – 0.7–1.0 – – – – – – – – 100 – mustards – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 t – – – – 100 – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.28–0.58 – – – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 – rough poppy – – – 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – – saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 100 w (S) – shepherds purse – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 0.83 j – 1.5– 2.0 S) – – – – – – sowthistle – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – 100 – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 100 w – spiny emex – 1.0–1.4 (S) 0.7–1.0 (S) 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – 100 w (S) – toad rush – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – – – 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – – turnip weed – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j 1.7 or 2.2 1.5–2.0 – – – – 100 – vulpia – – – – – – – – – – (S) 100 w – wild oats – – 0.7–1.0 (S) – – – 1–2 t (S) – – 1.2–1.7 b h (S) – 1.6 c wild turnip – – 0.7–1.0 0.28–0.58 – 1.7 or 2.2 1.0–2.0 t 1.5–2.0 1.0–1.5 – – – – winter grass – – – 0.28–0.58 – – – – – 1.2–1.7 h – – – wireweed – – 0.7–1.0 – 0.83 j (S) 1.0–2.0 t – – 1.2–1.7 h 2.0–3.0 100 w (S) a Rec water L/ha boom 70–120 50 min 50 min 50–100 50–100 80–200 50–100 50–100 50–100 70–450 50–200 50 min 30–100 Herbicide group/mode K C C C C C C C C D D H J a = A dd 0.7 L/ha trifluralin for mixed infestations of wild oats. b = R efer to label. c = P referred option northern NSW only. e = Metr ibuzin also available as 750 g/kg formulation, see label for rates. f = D iuron 900 DF is also registered. See label for rates. g = P endimethalin also available in 440 g/L. See label for rates. h = U se low rate when applying immediately prior to sowing, and higher rate when applying to dry soil before the planting rain. j = Tank mix with 830 g/ha simazine 900 DF for control. k = G reat brome only. n = B oth simazine and prometryn are available in other formulations (WG and DF). t = Tankmix with 0.8 L/ha 480 g/L trifluralin for control and apply and incorporate presowing. w = Tankmix with 1.5 L simazine (500 g/L) per ha. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . Incorporation PSI = P re-sowing incorporated. IBS = Inc orporated by sowing. PSPE = P ost-sowing pre-emergent. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

123. 10 Unscheduled: Very low toxicity (No heading) e.g. Ally®‚ Brodal®, Diuron, Flame®, Logran®, Simazine, Broadstrike™. Schedule 5: Slightly toxic Caution e.g. Achieve®‚ Agtryne® MA, Atlantis® OD, Avadex® Xtra, Balance®, Kamba® M, Correct®‚ Dicamba, Dual Gold®, Glean®‚ Glyphosate, Goal®, Harmony® M, Hotshot™, Hussar® OD, Igran®‚ Lontrel™ Advanced‚ Mataven® 90, MCPA, Precept®, Prometryn 900 DF, Raptor®, Weedmaster® DST®, Select®‚ Sertin®‚ Sharpen® WG, Sickle®, Spinnaker®, Starane™ Advanced, Stomp® 330 EC‚ Striker®, Elantra® Xtreme®‚ Tigrex®‚ Tordon™ 242, FallowBoss™ Tordon™, Torpedo™, Touchdown® HiTech‚ Trifluralin, 2,4-DB, Wildcat®. Schedule 6: Moderately toxic Poison e.g. Bladex®, Broadside®, Bromoxynil, Bromoxynil + MCPA, Buctril® MA, Cheetah® Gold, Conclude™, Crusader™, Decision®, Eclipse® 100 SC , Flight® EC, Fusilade® Forte‚ Garlon™ FallowMaster™, Grazon™, Hoegrass®‚ Jaguar®, Midas®, Paragon®, Reglone®‚ Sakura®, Sencor®, Sniper®, Terbyne®, Topik®, Tordon™, Tristar® Advance, Valor®, Velocity®, Verdict™ , 2,4-D amine and LV Ester (Note 2,4-D Amine and Ester formulations have now changed to S6 from S5 when active ingredient>200 g/L. Older labels may not reflect this). Schedule 7: Highly toxic Dangerous Poison e.g. Gramoxone® 250, Nuquat®‚ Shirquat®‚ Spray . Seed® 250. Successful results from herbicide application depend heavily on numerous interacting factors. Many of the biological factors involved are not fully understood, and are out of your control so give careful attention to the factors that you can control. Annual weeds compete with cereals and broadleaf crops mainly when the crops are in their earlier stages of growth e.g. tillering in cereals. Weeds should be removed no later than 6 weeks after sowing to minimise losses. However, only rarely are selective herbicides completely non-toxic to the crop. See the ‘Winter Crop Variety Sensitivity to Herbicides’ section of this guide. Early post-emergence control nearly always results in higher yields than treatments applied after tillering of cereals, or branching in broadleaf crops. Points to remember for the successful use of herbicides: • P lan the operation. Check paddock sizes, tank capacities, water availability and supply. • C arefully check crop and weed growth stages before deciding upon a specific post-emergent herbicide. Use the diagrams in Growth stages of cereal crops page 8 and Pulse crop growth stages on page 70 . • R ead the label. Check to make sure the chemical will do the job. Note any mixing instructions, especially when tank mixing two chemicals. This booklet is a guide only; it cannot tell you all the information you need to know. • F ollow the recommendations on the label. • C onditions inhibiting plant cell growth, like stress from drought, waterlogging, poor nutrition, high or low temperatures, low light intensity and disease or insect attack are not conducive to good herbicide uptake and movement. • U se good quality water, preferably from a rainwater tank. Water quality is very important. Bore, hard, dirty or muddy water needs special additives or conditioners to improve results with certain herbicides. See Water quality for herbicide application , page 16 . • U se good equipment checked frequently for performance and output – see Boomspray calibration on page 21 . • C heck boom height with spray pattern operation for full coverage of the target. • C heck accuracy of boom width marking equipment. • C heck wind speed. A light breeze helps herbicide penetration into crops. Do not spray when wind is strong. • D o not spray if rain is imminent or when heavy dew or frost is present. See Table 3 for ‘Rainfast Periods’, page 14 . • C alculate the amount of herbicide required for each paddock and tank load. Add surfactant where recommended. See Boomspray calibration on page 21 . • S elect the appropriate nozzle type for the application, see ‘Nozzle selection’ on page 27 . Beware of compromising nozzle-types when tank mixing herbicides with fungicides or insecticides. • B e aware of spraying conditions to avoid potential spray drift onto sensitive crops and pastures, roadways, dams, trees, watercourses or public places. Note: All chemicals can drift – See Reducing herbicide spray drift , page 26 . • K eep a record of each spray operation page 25 . Using herbicides successfully Poison warnings on herbicide labels The poison schedule Herbicides are classified into four categories in the Poison Schedule based on the acute health hazard to the user of the herbicide. Each schedule has a corresponding signal heading which appears in large contrasting lettering on the label of the herbicide product. The Safety Directions specify what personal protective equipment should be worn, and what safety precautions should be taken, e.g. do not inhale spray mist. The First Aid instructions specify what action should be taken in the event of a poisoning. Safety Directions and First Aid Instructions may be different for different formulations of the same pesticide. Before opening and using any farm chemical, consult the label and Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for specific Safety Directions. The hazardous chemicals section of the Work Health and Safety Regulation requires resellers to provide end users with an SDS. If you suspect a poisoning, contact the Poisons Information Centre emergency phone (24 hour) 131 126.

158. 45 Herbicide options in wheat and barley mintweed – – 20 – – – – – – 1.4 –2.0 1.7 1.35 v – – – Application prior to the 3 trifoliate leaf stage may result in damage to clover. – For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1hr of daylight left after application. – For best results apply in warmer temperature and high light intensity and > 1hr of daylight left after application. mustards 25 5 15 25 6.5–10 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 0.5 j New Zealand spinach 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – 1.7 – – 1.0 (S) – – – Paterson’s curse 25 (S) m 5 or 7 15 – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 – 1.4 –2.0 – 0.66–0.96 v 0.44–1.84 v – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 peppercress 25 – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – radish – wild 25 (S) m – 15 or 20 20 10–13 p – 2.0 p 280 + 0.5 1.4 –2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.175–0.35 + 0.35–0.5 Nugrex® y 1.0 0.5–1.0 q 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 i rough poppy – 5 20 – – – – – – 1.4 –2.0 – – – – 1.0 (S) – – saffron thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – 1.4 –2.0 1.7 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 0.67–1.0 – shepherd’s purse 25 5 20 – 10 p – 1.4–2.0 p – 1.4–2.0 – – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 – skeleton weed – 7 (S) – – – – – – – – – 0.96–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 (S) – – slender thistle – – – – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v – – – – sorrel – 5 – – – – – – – – 1.0–1.7 – – – – – – soursob – 5 20 – – – – – 1.1 – – – – – – – – sowthistle – 5 – – – – – – – 1.4–2.1 r – – – 1.0 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – 0.96–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v – – – – spiny emex 25 (S) m 5 or 7 – – – – 2.0 0.55–0.85 b 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 – – 1.0 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 0.75–1.0 (S) St Barnaby thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – 7 – – 13 p – – p – – – 0.69–1.0 v – – – – – toad rush – e e – – 110 t u – 0.55–0.85 – – – – 0.44–1.84 v – 1.0 – – turnip weed 15–25 5 15 – 6.5 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle – – – – – – 1.4–2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 1.7 0.66–1.35 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 1.0 (S) – – vetch – – – – 13 p – – 0.6 p – – 1.0 – – – 1.0 (S) 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 f vulpia – – – 25 – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild lettuce – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 wild oats – – – 25 (S) – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 5 15 20 6.5–10 p – 2.0 0.55–0.85 bp 280 + 0.5 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 0.66 v 0.44–1.84 v 1.0 0.5–1.0 0.5 0.5–1.0 wireweed – 5 or 7 20 – – – 2.0 – – 1.4–2.0 1.0–1.7 – – 1.0(S) 0.75 (S) 0.5 (S)–1.0 0.5–1.0 Recom water L/ha 50–150 50 min 30 min 40–100 30–100 – 50–200 50–100 20–100 50–200 50 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min 70–150 50–100 Herbicide group B B B B B C C C C + I C + I I I I I I + F H + C H + I a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = T ank mix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L/ha 2,4-D (as amine) 500 g/L for control. c = A lternatively Diuron Flowable 500 g/L. d = Metr ibuzin also available as 480 g/L. e = C an be tankmixed with Sencor® 480 for toad rush control (See label). f = A dd Lontrel™ Advanced for control. See label for rates. g = C an be mixed with MCPA amine or terbutryn. h = L ong storksbill only (Erodium botrys). i = DO NOT use the 0.5 L/ha rate where excellent coverage is not possible. j = Indian hedge mustar d only. k = Sub clo ver only. m = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. n = S ee label for rates for controlling RR Canola. o = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. p = Tankmix of Igran® and Logran® can be used for control. See label. q = T ankmix 350–500 mL/ha Tigrex® plus 175–350 mL/ha MCPA LVE (570 g/L) for control. r = N orthern NSW only. t = Application of Sencor® to barley on soils with pH > 7.0 will result in severe crop damage. u = T oad rush should be sprayed at the 2–4 leaf stage. Spray after rain when soil moisture is plentiful and soil is moist to the surface. Take advantage of dew on soil surface. v = S ee critical comments on label in ‘Directions for Use’, showing varying rate according to weed size. w = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. y = S ee label for crop and weed stage and appropriate rate. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

69. 67 Herbicide options in canola Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Early post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Early post-emergence Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® a Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Intervix® Clearfield canola only Atrazine 600 g/L Gesaprim® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced c Glyphosate 690 g/kg Roundup Ready® Herbicide Roundup Ready® Canola only Apply at crop growth stage Any time until 16 weeks before harvest Before budding Not before 4 Leaf Not after 6 Leaf 2 Leaf and prior to bud formation Not before 5 Leaf 2–6 Leaf only Early post-emergent 2–8 Leaf Cotyledon to 6 leaf (prior to bud formation) Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) amsinckia – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Correct® can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. Grass weeds 3-leaf to early tillering. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil /100 L spray. – Add Supercharge® at 1 L/100 L, or aerial application 1 L/ha. Canola may be sensitive to Factor®. See label. – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™. Use wetter only when tank mixing with broadleaf herbicides except Lontrel™ Advanced. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add Supercharge® at 0.5 L/100 L spray solution. Tank mixes of Intervix®and Transit® are possible. See label. – Use on triazine-tolerant varieties only. Can be used prior to crop 3-leaf stage and small weeds. Add surfactant. See label for use pattern. DO NOT apply this product on raised beds or where furrows have been created in soil for the purposes of holding or channelling water. – Always add Hasten™ at 1% v/v. Do not add any other herbicide or adjuvant. – – No additional surfactant required. Sequential application must be at least 14 days apart. See label. No tank mixtures recommended. Be familiar with the Roundup Ready® canola resistance management plan before using. annual phalaris – 0.15–0.5 m 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 – – – 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 w annual ryegrass 0.45 0.15–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 0.3–0.75 b ✓ 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 barley grass 0.2 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 0.3–0.75 b – – – 0.9 bedstraw – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – – – – brome grass 0.3 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.5 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 0.3–0.75 b – – – 0.9 capeweed – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.15 0.9 cereals – volunteer 0.2 i 0.2–0.5 n 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 – – – – 0.9 charlock – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 b – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – 0.125 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – 0.7–1.4 – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – fumitory – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 b x – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.125 – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – medics – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – mustards – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b h ✓ – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – 0.15 0.9 scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – 0.15 – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 spiny emex – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – 0.7–1.4 (S) – – sub. clover – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – toadrush – – – – – – – – – – – turnips – wild – – – – – – 0.3–0.5 ✓ – – 0.9 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 vulpia – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – – – 0.9 wild mustard – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 wild oats 0.25 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 0.065 or 0.125 0.3–0.75 b – 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 wild radish – – – – – – 0.3–0.575 b ✓ 0.7–1.4 – 0.9 winter grass – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 wireweed – – – – – – – – – – – Rec water L/ha boom 30–150 50 min 50–150 50–100 50–150 50–150 70 min 50–100 50 min 50 min < 80 Herbicide group A A A A A A B C C I M a = S tatus® is registered to a higher maximum rate of 500 mL/ha, however under certain scenarios significant crop damage may occur at this maximum rate. See label. b = S ee label for tankmix options. c = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). f = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. h = Indian hedge mustar d only. i = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. m = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa. n = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. u = A dd an effective rate of Fop herbicide for control. See label. w = C anary grass only. x = D enseflower fumitory only. (S) = Suppr ession. ✓ = C ontrol, refer label for rate. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

49. 47 Herbicide options in wheat and barley Paterson’s curse – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – 0.1 h – – 0.4 l peppercress – 30–40 1.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild 50 – 0.5–1.0 y – 0.75–1.4 0.3–0.9 h – – – 115 p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.075–0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.3–0.4 i rough poppy – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – – – 115 m – – – – – – saffron thistle 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.025 k h 2.1–3.2 – 200 t 0.28 t – – 0.5 720 – shepherd’s purse – – 1.0 – – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m – – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 – skeleton weed – – 1.0(S) – – – 0.25 a – – – – – – – – – slender thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 – – – – – – – – sorrel – – 1.0(S) – – – – – – 115 m 0.28 t – – – – 0.4 l soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.4 l sowthistle 35–50 u 30–40 1.0 (S) – – 0.6 0.05 q 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 cde 115 m – – – 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l spear/black thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 – 200 – – – – – – spiny emex – 40–45 0.5–0.75 1.5 0.75–1.4 0.9 – 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 de 200 m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.1 h 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l St Barnaby thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.15 h – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – 40 – – – – – – – – 0.28 – – – – – toad rush – – 1.0 (S) 1.5 – – – – – – – – 0.1 h 0.5 720 – turnip weed 35–50 30 0.5–0.75 1.0 – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 l variegated thistle 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 de 200 0.28 – – – – – vetch 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.05 h – 0.5–0.75 f 115–200 0.16–0.28 w 0.7 0.1 h – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild lettuce 35–50 u 40 1.0 (S) – – 0.6 0.075 h 2.1–3.2 0.75 e 115 m – – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 50 – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 – 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i wireweed – 40 1.0 1.5 0.75–1.0 0.9 – 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 ce 200 m or r 0.16 or 0.28 v – – – – 0.4 l Recom water L/ha 50–100 50 min 50 min 50–100 50 min 50 min 50 min 110 min 80 min 50 min 50 min 50–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 70–150 Herbicide group B B C + F C + I C + I I I I I I I I +B I + B F + I C + F + I G a = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. b = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). c = A dd 5 g of metsulfuron-methyl (600 g/kg) and non-ionic wetter at 100 mL/100 L of water. See label. d = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. e = N orthern NSW only. f = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). g = S outhern NSW only. h = S ee label for tankmix options. i = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 for control (NOT MCPA LVE). j = Snail medic onl y. k = M ix with 1 L/ha MCPA amine or 0.7 L/ha LVE MCPA for control. l = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 + 5 g/ha Esteem® WDG. m = T ankmix 115 g /ha Cadence® with 5 g/ha Ally® for control with surfactant such as BS1000® at 100 mL/100 L spray. n = Subclo ver only. o = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. p = T ankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control apply with Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or D-C-Trate® oil at 1 L/100 L water. q = A dd 800 mL Tordon™ 242 or 5 g Ally® + 700 mL MCPA LVE. r = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 0.7 L/ha MCPA (500 g/L) for control. t = Tankmix Cadence® with 1.2 L/ha MCPA (500 g/L) for control. u = A dd partner herbicide for control, see label. v = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine 500 g/L for control. w = A dd 700 mL/ha MCPA LVE when using lower rate. x = S eedlings only. y = Tankmix 500 mL/ha Jaguar® with 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. z = Angustifolius (narrow-leaf ) lupin. * = S ee label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

85. 83 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Sensitivity to herbicides in winter crop varieties Within AE trials; • T reatments are evaluated within replicated, large plot, split strip plot designed experiments, • On ly those herbicide/cultivar combinations which were found damaging within PE trials are evaluated, • H erbicides are applied at the recommended rate and higher to obtain data on both tolerance at label rates, and safety margin, • A ll treatments (cultivar and herbicide) are evaluated across a minimum of two seasons to account for seasonal variation in cultivar response. Note: Within the pulse, oat and triticale species only AE trials are implemented. Within these trials cultivar selection is based on collaboration with breeders, and herbicide selection is based on discussions with regional agronomists, farmers and herbicide manufacturers. Herbicide selection protocol In making the choice of herbicides used in trials, consideration is given to; 1. E xisting and widely used herbicides/tank mixtures with known variation in crop/cultivar safety 2. N ew or previously untested herbicides, New Chemistry trials allow for evaluation of a group of commonly grown varieties, to be tested against new or upcoming herbicides. If a new herbicide is found to be damaging AND there is expected to be significant farmer use, the herbicide is progressed to preliminary evaluation trials. Results tables The sensitivity of the variety compared to unsprayed controls of the same variety is summarised in results tables, using the following symbols based on the yield responses across all trials: – n ot tested or insufficient data. √ n o significant yield reductions at higher than recommended rates in (z) trials. N (w/z) narrow margin, significant yield reductions at higher than recommended rate, but not at recommended rate. Significant event occurring w years out of z years tested. Eg. (2/5) = tested for 5 years, 2 returning a significant yield loss. x % (1/z) yield reduction (warning) significant yield reduction at recommended rate in 1 trial only in z years of testing. x-y% (w/z) yield reductions (warning) significant yield reductions at recommended rate in w years out of z years tested. Research site manager: Peter Lockley, NSW DPI Research site location: Wagga Wagga, New South Wales Site soil type : Red Brown earth Site pH : 4.3–4.5 Site annual average rainfall: 523 mm Acknowledgements Some winter crop varieties are more susceptible than others to damage from certain herbicides. Small yield reductions to sensitive varieties caused by herbicide damage may not be easily detected but over large areas can be costly. Symptoms of crop damage from herbicides do not always lead to lost yield but it is still important to recognise these signs to try and prevent future problems occurring. For descriptions and pictures of herbicide injury see Field crop herbicide injury: the Ute Guide available form the GRDC Bookshop at www.grdc.com.au/Resources/Bookshop/2002/01/ Field-Crop-Herbicide-Injury-The-Ute-Guide In NSW, winter crop varieties are tested for herbicide tolerance at the Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute. The testing is supported by the Grains Research and Development Corporation and is part of a National Herbicide Tolerance Program. Results from the NSW program and other States are available from the National Variety Trials website. www.nvtonline.com.au Tolerance testing methodology Trial sites are chosen and managed to ensure: • M inimal weed competition so that herbicide responses are due to varietal sensitivity rather than competitiveness with weeds. • R epresentative and uniform soil types within each Australian region. Trial assessments include: • V isual observations 2 to 3 weeks after herbicide application and again (2–3 weeks later) or as appropriate. • N ormalised Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) measurements using a Greenseeker™ approximately 21–30 days after treatment. • G rain Yield and Climatic data. Preliminary Evaluation (PE) trials Wheat and barley lines continuing beyond the first year of National Variety Trials (NVT) are automatically eligible for inclusion in the first stage of cultivar tolerance evaluation, namely Preliminary Evaluation (PE) Trials. Within these trials, commonly used and often damaging herbicides/ tank mixes are applied at high rates in order to highlight cultivar sensitivities. Within PE trials; • T reatments are evaluated within very small plot or single row experiments, • H erbicides/ tank mixes are selected according to the Herbicide Selection Protocol, • E ach cultivar X herbicide combination is evaluated across two seasons, unless the cultivar is discarded by the breeder after year one. • A ny herbicide/cultivar combination that incurs a significant yield penalty in at least one year of trial is progressed to Advanced Evaluation (AE) trials, • I f a herbicide/cultivar combination does not incur yield loss in either of the two seasons of PE testing it is given a safe rating. Advanced Evaluation (AE) trials This second stage of evaluation aims to validate and supplement results from PE trials with data on tolerance and safety margins gathered from more detailed experiments.

180. 67 Herbicide options in canola Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Early post-emergence Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Early post-emergence Propaquizafop 100 g/L Shogun® Clethodim 240 g/L Status® a Butroxydim 250 g/kg Factor® WG Fluazifop-P 128 g/L Fusilade® Forte Haloxyfop-R 520 g/L Verdict ™ 520 Quizalofop-p-ethyl 200 g/L Elantra® Xtreme® Imazamox 33 g/L + Imazapyr 15 g/L Intervix® Clearfield canola only Atrazine 600 g/L Gesaprim® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Terbuthylazine 750 g/kg Terbyne® Triazine Tolerant (TT) canola only Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced c Glyphosate 690 g/kg Roundup Ready® Herbicide Roundup Ready® Canola only Apply at crop growth stage Any time until 16 weeks before harvest Before budding Not before 4 Leaf Not after 6 Leaf 2 Leaf and prior to bud formation Not before 5 Leaf 2–6 Leaf only Early post-emergent 2–8 Leaf Cotyledon to 6 leaf (prior to bud formation) Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (kilograms) (litres) (kilograms) amsinckia – Always add either BS1000® at 200 mL/100 L spray or Hasten™ or Kwickin™ at 500 mL/100 L spray. Correct® can be tankmixed with Sertin® to broaden grass spectrum and improve control. See label. Grass weeds 3-leaf to early tillering. – Add 2 L D-C-Trate® or 1 L Hasten™ or Kwickin™ or 0.5 L Uptake™ oil /100 L spray. – Add Supercharge® at 1 L/100 L, or aerial application 1 L/ha. Canola may be sensitive to Factor®. See label. – – Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water. Use a minimum of 250 mL/ha Uptake™. Use wetter only when tank mixing with broadleaf herbicides except Lontrel™ Advanced. – Add non-ionic surfactant at 200 mL/100 L or non-ionic surfactant at 100 mL/100 L + mineral spray oil at 1 L/100 L or Hasten™ at 1 L/100 L. See label. – Add Supercharge® at 0.5 L/100 L spray solution. Tank mixes of Intervix®and Transit® are possible. See label. – Use on triazine-tolerant varieties only. Can be used prior to crop 3-leaf stage and small weeds. Add surfactant. See label for use pattern. DO NOT apply this product on raised beds or where furrows have been created in soil for the purposes of holding or channelling water. – Always add Hasten™ at 1% v/v. Do not add any other herbicide or adjuvant. – – No additional surfactant required. Sequential application must be at least 14 days apart. See label. No tank mixtures recommended. Be familiar with the Roundup Ready® canola resistance management plan before using. annual phalaris – 0.15–0.5 m 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 – – – 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 w annual ryegrass 0.45 0.15–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.075–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 0.3–0.75 b ✓ 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 barley grass 0.2 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 0.3–0.75 b – – – 0.9 bedstraw – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – – – – brome grass 0.3 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.5 0.05–0.1 0.15 or 0.19 0.3–0.75 b – – – 0.9 capeweed – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.15 0.9 cereals – volunteer 0.2 i 0.2–0.5 n 80 u 0.41 0.05–0.1 0.125 – – – – 0.9 charlock – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 b – – chickpea – volunteer – – – – – – – – – 0.125 – corn gromwell – – – – – – – – – – – deadnettle – – – – – – – – 0.7–1.4 – – field pea – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – fumitory – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 b x – – – – lupin – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.125 – Mexican poppy – – – – – – – – – – – medics – volunteer – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – mustards – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b h ✓ – – – Paterson’s curse – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 saffron thistle – – – – – – – – – 0.15 0.9 scotch thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 shepherd’s purse – – – – – – – – – – – skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – 0.15 – spear thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 spiny emex – – – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – 0.7–1.4 (S) – – sub. clover – – – – – – 0.3–0.75 b – – 0.075 – toadrush – – – – – – – – – – – turnips – wild – – – – – – 0.3–0.5 ✓ – – 0.9 variegated thistle – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 vulpia – 0.25–0.5 (S) – – – – 0.6–0.75 (S) b – – – 0.9 wild mustard – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 wild oats 0.25 0.175–0.5 80 u 0.41 0.0375–0.1 f 0.065 or 0.125 0.3–0.75 b – 0.7–1.4 (S) – 0.9 wild radish – – – – – – 0.3–0.575 b ✓ 0.7–1.4 – 0.9 winter grass – – – – – – – – – – 0.9 wireweed – – – – – – – – – – – Rec water L/ha boom 30–150 50 min 50–150 50–100 50–150 50–150 70 min 50–100 50 min 50 min < 80 Herbicide group A A A A A A B C C I M a = S tatus® is registered to a higher maximum rate of 500 mL/ha, however under certain scenarios significant crop damage may occur at this maximum rate. See label. b = S ee label for tankmix options. c = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). f = U se 0.0375–0.075 L/ha in southern and central NSW and 0.05–0.1 L/ha in northern NSW. h = Indian hedge mustar d only. i = Volunteer triticale 0.25 L/ha. m = U se higher rate on Phalaris paradoxa. n = U se higher rate on volunteer barley. u = A dd an effective rate of Fop herbicide for control. See label. w = C anary grass only. x = D enseflower fumitory only. (S) = Suppr ession. ✓ = C ontrol, refer label for rate. is a preferred option. READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

196. 83 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Sensitivity to herbicides in winter crop varieties Within AE trials; • T reatments are evaluated within replicated, large plot, split strip plot designed experiments, • On ly those herbicide/cultivar combinations which were found damaging within PE trials are evaluated, • H erbicides are applied at the recommended rate and higher to obtain data on both tolerance at label rates, and safety margin, • A ll treatments (cultivar and herbicide) are evaluated across a minimum of two seasons to account for seasonal variation in cultivar response. Note: Within the pulse, oat and triticale species only AE trials are implemented. Within these trials cultivar selection is based on collaboration with breeders, and herbicide selection is based on discussions with regional agronomists, farmers and herbicide manufacturers. Herbicide selection protocol In making the choice of herbicides used in trials, consideration is given to; 1. E xisting and widely used herbicides/tank mixtures with known variation in crop/cultivar safety 2. N ew or previously untested herbicides, New Chemistry trials allow for evaluation of a group of commonly grown varieties, to be tested against new or upcoming herbicides. If a new herbicide is found to be damaging AND there is expected to be significant farmer use, the herbicide is progressed to preliminary evaluation trials. Results tables The sensitivity of the variety compared to unsprayed controls of the same variety is summarised in results tables, using the following symbols based on the yield responses across all trials: – n ot tested or insufficient data. √ n o significant yield reductions at higher than recommended rates in (z) trials. N (w/z) narrow margin, significant yield reductions at higher than recommended rate, but not at recommended rate. Significant event occurring w years out of z years tested. Eg. (2/5) = tested for 5 years, 2 returning a significant yield loss. x % (1/z) yield reduction (warning) significant yield reduction at recommended rate in 1 trial only in z years of testing. x-y% (w/z) yield reductions (warning) significant yield reductions at recommended rate in w years out of z years tested. Research site manager: Peter Lockley, NSW DPI Research site location: Wagga Wagga, New South Wales Site soil type : Red Brown earth Site pH : 4.3–4.5 Site annual average rainfall: 523 mm Acknowledgements Some winter crop varieties are more susceptible than others to damage from certain herbicides. Small yield reductions to sensitive varieties caused by herbicide damage may not be easily detected but over large areas can be costly. Symptoms of crop damage from herbicides do not always lead to lost yield but it is still important to recognise these signs to try and prevent future problems occurring. For descriptions and pictures of herbicide injury see Field crop herbicide injury: the Ute Guide available form the GRDC Bookshop at www.grdc.com.au/Resources/Bookshop/2002/01/ Field-Crop-Herbicide-Injury-The-Ute-Guide In NSW, winter crop varieties are tested for herbicide tolerance at the Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute. The testing is supported by the Grains Research and Development Corporation and is part of a National Herbicide Tolerance Program. Results from the NSW program and other States are available from the National Variety Trials website. www.nvtonline.com.au Tolerance testing methodology Trial sites are chosen and managed to ensure: • M inimal weed competition so that herbicide responses are due to varietal sensitivity rather than competitiveness with weeds. • R epresentative and uniform soil types within each Australian region. Trial assessments include: • V isual observations 2 to 3 weeks after herbicide application and again (2–3 weeks later) or as appropriate. • N ormalised Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) measurements using a Greenseeker™ approximately 21–30 days after treatment. • G rain Yield and Climatic data. Preliminary Evaluation (PE) trials Wheat and barley lines continuing beyond the first year of National Variety Trials (NVT) are automatically eligible for inclusion in the first stage of cultivar tolerance evaluation, namely Preliminary Evaluation (PE) Trials. Within these trials, commonly used and often damaging herbicides/ tank mixes are applied at high rates in order to highlight cultivar sensitivities. Within PE trials; • T reatments are evaluated within very small plot or single row experiments, • H erbicides/ tank mixes are selected according to the Herbicide Selection Protocol, • E ach cultivar X herbicide combination is evaluated across two seasons, unless the cultivar is discarded by the breeder after year one. • A ny herbicide/cultivar combination that incurs a significant yield penalty in at least one year of trial is progressed to Advanced Evaluation (AE) trials, • I f a herbicide/cultivar combination does not incur yield loss in either of the two seasons of PE testing it is given a safe rating. Advanced Evaluation (AE) trials This second stage of evaluation aims to validate and supplement results from PE trials with data on tolerance and safety margins gathered from more detailed experiments.

160. 47 Herbicide options in wheat and barley Paterson’s curse – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – 2.1–3.2 – – – – 0.1 h – – 0.4 l peppercress – 30–40 1.1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – radish – wild 50 – 0.5–1.0 y – 0.75–1.4 0.3–0.9 h – – – 115 p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.075–0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.3–0.4 i rough poppy – – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – – – – – 115 m – – – – – – saffron thistle 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.025 k h 2.1–3.2 – 200 t 0.28 t – – 0.5 720 – shepherd’s purse – – 1.0 – – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – 115 m – – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 – skeleton weed – – 1.0(S) – – – 0.25 a – – – – – – – – – slender thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 – – – – – – – – sorrel – – 1.0(S) – – – – – – 115 m 0.28 t – – – – 0.4 l soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.4 l sowthistle 35–50 u 30–40 1.0 (S) – – 0.6 0.05 q 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 cde 115 m – – – 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l spear/black thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 – 200 – – – – – – spiny emex – 40–45 0.5–0.75 1.5 0.75–1.4 0.9 – 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 de 200 m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.1 h 0.5 (S) 720 (S) 0.4 l St Barnaby thistle 35–50 u – – – – – 0.15 h – – – – – – – – – sunflower – volunteer – 40 – – – – – – – – 0.28 – – – – – toad rush – – 1.0 (S) 1.5 – – – – – – – – 0.1 h 0.5 720 – turnip weed 35–50 30 0.5–0.75 1.0 – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 0.1 h 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 l variegated thistle 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 de 200 0.28 – – – – – vetch 35–50 u – 1.0 – – – 0.05 h – 0.5–0.75 f 115–200 0.16–0.28 w 0.7 0.1 h – – – vulpia – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild lettuce 35–50 u 40 1.0 (S) – – 0.6 0.075 h 2.1–3.2 0.75 e 115 m – – – 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 50 – 0.5–0.75 1.0 – 0.3–0.9 h – 2.1–3.2 – m or p or r 0.16 v 0.7 – 0.25–0.5 360–720 0.4 i wireweed – 40 1.0 1.5 0.75–1.0 0.9 – 2.1–3.2 0.5–0.75 ce 200 m or r 0.16 or 0.28 v – – – – 0.4 l Recom water L/ha 50–100 50 min 50 min 50–100 50 min 50 min 50 min 110 min 80 min 50 min 50 min 50–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 70–150 Herbicide group B B C + F C + I C + I I I I I I I I +B I + B F + I C + F + I G a = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. b = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). c = A dd 5 g of metsulfuron-methyl (600 g/kg) and non-ionic wetter at 100 mL/100 L of water. See label. d = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. e = N orthern NSW only. f = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). g = S outhern NSW only. h = S ee label for tankmix options. i = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 for control (NOT MCPA LVE). j = Snail medic onl y. k = M ix with 1 L/ha MCPA amine or 0.7 L/ha LVE MCPA for control. l = A dd 500 mL/ha MCPA 500 + 5 g/ha Esteem® WDG. m = T ankmix 115 g /ha Cadence® with 5 g/ha Ally® for control with surfactant such as BS1000® at 100 mL/100 L spray. n = Subclo ver only. o = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. p = T ankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control apply with Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or D-C-Trate® oil at 1 L/100 L water. q = A dd 800 mL Tordon™ 242 or 5 g Ally® + 700 mL MCPA LVE. r = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 0.7 L/ha MCPA (500 g/L) for control. t = Tankmix Cadence® with 1.2 L/ha MCPA (500 g/L) for control. u = A dd partner herbicide for control, see label. v = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine 500 g/L for control. w = A dd 700 mL/ha MCPA LVE when using lower rate. x = S eedlings only. y = Tankmix 500 mL/ha Jaguar® with 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. z = Angustifolius (narrow-leaf ) lupin. * = S ee label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

28. 26 Reducing herbicide spray drift When applying pesticides the aim is to maximise the amount reaching the target and to minimise the amount reaching off- target areas. This results in: 1. M aximum pesticide effectiveness 2. R educed damage and/or contamination of off-target crops and areas In areas where a range of agricultural enterprises co-exist, conflicts can arise, particularly from the use of pesticides. All pesticides are capable of drift. People have a moral and legal responsibility to prevent pesticides from drifting and contaminating or damaging neighbours’ crops and sensitive areas. Some labels now carry spray drift management instructions including buffer zones. Read and follow all label instructions. How to minimise spray drift problems Before spraying • A lways check for susceptible crops in the area, e.g. broad leaf crops such as grape vines, cotton, pulse crops, if using a broadleaf herbicide, and sensitive areas such as houses, schools, riparian areas • N otify neighbours of your spraying intentions Under the Records Regulation of the Pesticides Act it is essential that weather and relevant spray details are recorded. Forms are available from www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/ farm/chemicals/general/records During spraying • Always monitor meteorological conditions carefully and understand their effect on ‘drift hazard’. • D o not spray if conditions are not suitable, and stop spraying if conditions change and become unsuitable. • R ecord weather conditions (especially temperature and relative humidity), wind speed and direction, herbicide and water rates, and operating details for each paddock. • S upervise all spraying, even when a contractor is employed. Provide a map marking the areas to be sprayed, buffers to be observed, sensitive crops and areas. • S pray when temperatures are less than 28°C. • M inimise spray release height. (Lowest possible boom height). • U se the largest droplets which will give adequate spray coverage. Where droplet size is mentioned on the label, follow the label instructions. • A lways use the least-volatile formulation of herbicide available. • M aintain a down-wind buffer which may be in-crop e.g. keep a boom width from the downwind edge of the field. Where buffer zones are mentioned on the label, follow label instructions. • I f sensitive crops are in the area, use a herbicide which is the least damaging. How many types of drift are there? Sprayed herbicides can drift as droplets , as vapours or as particles . Droplet drift is the easiest to control because under good spraying conditions, droplets are carried down by air turbulence and gravity, to collect on plant surfaces. Droplet drift is the most common cause of off-target damage caused by herbicide application. For example, spraying fallows with glyphosate under the wrong conditions often leads to severe damage to near-by establishing crops. Particle drift occurs when water and other herbicide carriers evaporate quickly from the droplet leaving tiny particles of concentrated herbicide. This can occur with herbicide formulations other than esters. Instances of this form of drift have damaged susceptible crops up to 30 km from the source. Vapour drift is confined to volatile herbicides such as 2,4-D ester. Vapours may arise directly from the spray or evaporation of herbicide from sprayed surfaces. Use of 2,4-D ester in summer can lead to vapour drift damage of highly susceptible crops such as tomatoes, sunflowers, soybeans, cotton and grapes. This may occur hours after the herbicide has been applied. Vapours and minute particles float in the airstream and are poorly collected on catching surfaces. They may be carried for many kilometres in thermal updraughts before being deposited. Sensitive crops may be up to 10,000 times more sensitive than the crop being sprayed. Even small quantities of drifting herbicide can cause severe damage to highly sensitive plants. What factors affect the risk of herbicide spray drift? Any herbicide can drift. The drift hazard, or off-target potential of a herbicide in a particular situation depends on the following factors: • V olatility of the formulation applied. Volatility refers to the likelihood that the herbicide will evaporate and become a gas. Esters volatilise (evaporate) more readily than amine formulations. • C loseness of crops susceptible to the particular herbicide being applied, and their growth stage. For example cotton is most sensitive to Group I herbicides in the seedling stage. • M ethod of application and equipment used. Aerial application releases spray at ~3 m above the target and uses relatively low application volumes, while ground rigs have lower release heights and generally higher application volumes, and a range of nozzle types. Misters produce large numbers of very fine droplets that use wind to carry them to their target. • A mount of active ingredient (herbicide) applied – the more herbicide applied per hectare the greater amount available to drift or volatilise. • Efficien cy of droplet capture – bare soil does not have anything to catch drifting droplets compared with crops, erect pasture species and standing stubbles. • W eather conditions during and shortly after application. Use a low volatile formulation Many ester formulations are highly volatile when compared with the non-volatile amine, sodium salt and acid formulations. Some low volatile ester formulations may have a proportion

139. 26 Reducing herbicide spray drift When applying pesticides the aim is to maximise the amount reaching the target and to minimise the amount reaching off- target areas. This results in: 1. M aximum pesticide effectiveness 2. R educed damage and/or contamination of off-target crops and areas In areas where a range of agricultural enterprises co-exist, conflicts can arise, particularly from the use of pesticides. All pesticides are capable of drift. People have a moral and legal responsibility to prevent pesticides from drifting and contaminating or damaging neighbours’ crops and sensitive areas. Some labels now carry spray drift management instructions including buffer zones. Read and follow all label instructions. How to minimise spray drift problems Before spraying • A lways check for susceptible crops in the area, e.g. broad leaf crops such as grape vines, cotton, pulse crops, if using a broadleaf herbicide, and sensitive areas such as houses, schools, riparian areas • N otify neighbours of your spraying intentions Under the Records Regulation of the Pesticides Act it is essential that weather and relevant spray details are recorded. Forms are available from www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/ farm/chemicals/general/records During spraying • Always monitor meteorological conditions carefully and understand their effect on ‘drift hazard’. • D o not spray if conditions are not suitable, and stop spraying if conditions change and become unsuitable. • R ecord weather conditions (especially temperature and relative humidity), wind speed and direction, herbicide and water rates, and operating details for each paddock. • S upervise all spraying, even when a contractor is employed. Provide a map marking the areas to be sprayed, buffers to be observed, sensitive crops and areas. • S pray when temperatures are less than 28°C. • M inimise spray release height. (Lowest possible boom height). • U se the largest droplets which will give adequate spray coverage. Where droplet size is mentioned on the label, follow the label instructions. • A lways use the least-volatile formulation of herbicide available. • M aintain a down-wind buffer which may be in-crop e.g. keep a boom width from the downwind edge of the field. Where buffer zones are mentioned on the label, follow label instructions. • I f sensitive crops are in the area, use a herbicide which is the least damaging. How many types of drift are there? Sprayed herbicides can drift as droplets , as vapours or as particles . Droplet drift is the easiest to control because under good spraying conditions, droplets are carried down by air turbulence and gravity, to collect on plant surfaces. Droplet drift is the most common cause of off-target damage caused by herbicide application. For example, spraying fallows with glyphosate under the wrong conditions often leads to severe damage to near-by establishing crops. Particle drift occurs when water and other herbicide carriers evaporate quickly from the droplet leaving tiny particles of concentrated herbicide. This can occur with herbicide formulations other than esters. Instances of this form of drift have damaged susceptible crops up to 30 km from the source. Vapour drift is confined to volatile herbicides such as 2,4-D ester. Vapours may arise directly from the spray or evaporation of herbicide from sprayed surfaces. Use of 2,4-D ester in summer can lead to vapour drift damage of highly susceptible crops such as tomatoes, sunflowers, soybeans, cotton and grapes. This may occur hours after the herbicide has been applied. Vapours and minute particles float in the airstream and are poorly collected on catching surfaces. They may be carried for many kilometres in thermal updraughts before being deposited. Sensitive crops may be up to 10,000 times more sensitive than the crop being sprayed. Even small quantities of drifting herbicide can cause severe damage to highly sensitive plants. What factors affect the risk of herbicide spray drift? Any herbicide can drift. The drift hazard, or off-target potential of a herbicide in a particular situation depends on the following factors: • V olatility of the formulation applied. Volatility refers to the likelihood that the herbicide will evaporate and become a gas. Esters volatilise (evaporate) more readily than amine formulations. • C loseness of crops susceptible to the particular herbicide being applied, and their growth stage. For example cotton is most sensitive to Group I herbicides in the seedling stage. • M ethod of application and equipment used. Aerial application releases spray at ~3 m above the target and uses relatively low application volumes, while ground rigs have lower release heights and generally higher application volumes, and a range of nozzle types. Misters produce large numbers of very fine droplets that use wind to carry them to their target. • A mount of active ingredient (herbicide) applied – the more herbicide applied per hectare the greater amount available to drift or volatilise. • Efficien cy of droplet capture – bare soil does not have anything to catch drifting droplets compared with crops, erect pasture species and standing stubbles. • W eather conditions during and shortly after application. Use a low volatile formulation Many ester formulations are highly volatile when compared with the non-volatile amine, sodium salt and acid formulations. Some low volatile ester formulations may have a proportion

53. 51 Herbicide options in oats Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Torpedo™ Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromoxynil Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Pyraflufen-ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC s Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced t Aminopyralid 10 g/L + Fluroxypyr 140 g/L Hotshot ™ MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ MCPA + Diflufenican 250 g + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–1st Node 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–1st Node 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 2 L–Mid Till 3 L–1st node 5L–Ea Till Ea–Ful Till 3-leaf–Flag leaf 3 L–1st node 3 L–Flag 3/5 L–L Till Zadoks code 12–31 12–23 13–31 13–30 13–30 13–30 12–25 13–31 15–22 21–30 13–39 13–31 13–39 13–30 Weeds controlled (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35–0.5 L LVE MCPA /ha for improved control. See label. 15 Not before 2-leaf stage of oats. Moist soils or rain within 7 days enhances results. Add wetter. – Always add 500 mL/100 L Uptake™ spraying oil. See label when mixing Torpedo™ with grass weed herbicides. 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics. Avoid spraying when temperatures are above 20 ̊C. Aerial application can be unsatisfactory. 1.4–2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. 0.75–1.4 – Always tankmix with MCPA Amine (500 mL of a 500 g/L Amine formulation of MCPA). 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate, Hasten™ (1% v/v), Supercharge® (0.75% v/v) or Uptake™ (0.5% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Do not use non-ionic surfactants. Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperatures and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or at right stage. Small weeds. – – Can be tankmixed with Eclipse ®, MCPA LVE or MCPA amine to broaden weed spectrum. Do not use metsulfuron-methyl mixes in Oats. – – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and some other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. annual ryegrass – 20 or 25 a – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw 50 (S) r – 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 – – 400 0.75–1.0 – – 0.3 – 0.7 – black bindweed – 20 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – – 0.28 1.7 0.3–0.45 0.5–0.75 f – – canola – volunteer 50 h – – – – 1.4 400 0.5–1.0 u – – – – – 0.5 u capeweed 35–50 r – 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 400 0.5 n 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – 0.7 (S) 0.5–1.0 charlock – 15 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 0.5–1.0 cleavers – – – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – clover 50 (S) m – – – – – – 0.5 n q 0.28 1.7 – – – – corn gromwell – 20 – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 1.0 deadnettle – 15 or 20 – – – – – 0.5–1.0 – – 0.9 0.5–0.75 f g – 1.0 dock – seedlings – – – – – 0.75–1.4 – – 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 1.0 (S) faba bean – volunteer 35–50 r – 0.075–0.1 – – – – 0.5 n – – – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 – field pea – volunteer 50 (S) – 0.075–0.1 – 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 n – – – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 – fumitory – 20 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 0.75 lupin – volunteer 35–50 r – 0.075–0.1 – – – 400 0.5–1.0 – – 0.9 0.5–0.75 k 0.7 1.0 (S) Mexican poppy – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – mintweed – 20 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.28 g 1.7 – – – – mustards 50 15 0.075–0.1 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 400 0.5 o 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 o 0.5–1.0 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – 0.28 1.7 – – – – Paterson’s curse – 15 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 1.0 (S) radish – wild 50 15 or 20 0.075–0.1 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 300–400 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 i rough poppy – 20 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) saffron thistle 35–50 r – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – 1.7 – – – 1.0 shepherd’s purse – 20 – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – – 0.3–0.9 p – – 0.5–1.0 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) slender thistle 35–50 r – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – 1.0 – – – – soursob – 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle 35–50 r – – – 1.4–2.1 j – – 0.5–1.0 – – 0.6 0.5–0.75 f p – 1.0 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – 2.0 – 0.75–1.4 – 0.75–1.0 (S) 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.9 0.5–0.75 f p 0.7 1.0 (S) toad rush – – – – 1.4–2.1 – – – – – – – – 1.0 turnip weed 35–50 15 0.1 h 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle 35–50 r – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.28 1.7 – 0.5–0.75 f p – 1.0 (S) vetch 35–50 r – – – – – – 0.5 n 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 1.0 (S) wild lettuce 35–50 r – 0.1 h – – – 400 0.5–1.0 – – 0.3–0.6 0.75 f – 0.5–1.0 wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 50 15 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 400 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 wireweed – 20 – 2.0 – 0.75–1.4 – 0.55–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 0.75 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 30 min 50–100 50–200 50–200 50 min 50 min 50–100 50 min 50 min 50 min 80 min 50–100 50 min Herbicide group B B B + I C C + I C + I G H + I I I I I I + B I + F a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine (500 g/L) for control. d = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). e = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. f = N orthern NSW only. g = Tankmix with 1.2 L/ha MCPA 500. h = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. i = T ankmix 350–500 mL/ha Tigrex® plus 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. j = N orthern NSW only. k = S outhern NSW only. m = Subclo ver only. n = A dd Lontrel™ Advanced for control. See label for rates. o = Indian hedge mustar d only. p = S ee label for tankmix options. q = Subclo ver only. r = A dd partner herbicide for control. See label. s = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. t = F luroxypyr also available in 200 g/L and 400 g/L. See label for rates. u = S ee label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

18. 16 Water quality for herbicide application Good quality water is important when mixing and spraying herbicides. It should be clean and of good irrigation quality. Poor quality water can reduce the effectiveness of some herbicides and damage spray equipment. Some poor results with herbicides could possibly be due to water quality problems. Effects of water quality Water quality depends on the source of the water (rain-fed tank, dam, river, bore or aquifer) and the season (e.g. heavy rain, drought). There are several characteristics of water quality which affect chemical performance. Dirt: Dirty water has very small soil particles (clay and silt) suspended in it. These soil particles can absorb and bind the chemical’s active ingredient and reduce its effectiveness. This applies especially to glyphosate, paraquat and diquat. Dirt can also block nozzles, lines and filters and reduce the sprayer’s overall performance and life. As a guide, water is considered dirty when it is difficult to see a 10¢ coin in the bottom of a household bucket of water. Water hardness: Water is termed hard when it has a high percentage of calcium and magnesium. Hard water won’t lather with soap and can cause some chemicals to precipitate. Susceptible chemicals often have agents added to overcome this problem. Formulations of 2,4-DB are particularly sensitive to hard water (> 400 ppm CaCO 3 equivalent). Other herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D amine and MCPA amine, Lontrel™ Advanced and Tigrex® can also be affected. Hard water can also affect the balance of the surfactant system and affect properties such as wetting, emulsification and dispersion. Very hard water can also reduce the efficiency of agents used to clear dirty water. Water pH: pH is a measure of acidity and alkalinity scaled on a range between 1 and 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 acid and more than 7 alkaline. Most natural waters have a pH between 6.5 and 8. In highly alkaline water (pH>8) many chemicals undergo a process called alkaline hydrolysis. This process causes the breakdown of the active ingredient into other compounds which can reduce the effectiveness of the pesticide over time. This is one reason why spray mixes should not be left in spray tanks overnight. Very acid water can also affect the stability and physical properties of some chemical formulations. Dissolved salts: The total amount of mineral salts dissolved in water is usually measured by the electrical conductivity (EC) of the water. The EC of bores and dams depends largely on the salt levels in the rock and soil that surrounds them. During a drought the salinity of water increases. Very salty water can cause blockages in equipment and is more resistant to pH changes. Organic matter: Water containing a lot of organic matter, such as leaves or algae can block nozzles, lines and filters. Algae can also react with some chemicals, reducing their effectiveness. Temperature: Very hot or cold water can affect the performance of some chemicals. Improving water quality Water needs to be tested to see whether it will affect chemical performance. There are commercial products available to reduce pH (e.g. Primabuff® BB5 and LI 700 and Hotup®), soften hard water and clear dirty water. To reduce the effects of very salty water, you may need to mix water from several sources. Acknowledgement: Extracts from SPRAY SENSE Bulletin No.12 T. Burfitt, S. Hardy and T. Somers (1996). The following table summarises the effect of water quality on some herbicides:– Herbicide tolerances to water qualities: Herbicide Water Quality Muddy Saline Hard Alkaline (> pH 8) Acidic (< pH 5) 2,4-DB X NR 2,4-D or MCPA amine ✓ ✓ X NR 2,4-D or MCPA ester ✓ Test Test ✓ ✓ Ally® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Brodal® ✓ ✓ X Dicamba ✓ ✓ NR NR Diuron ◆ ✓ Test ✓ ✓ Diuron ◆ + 2,4-D amine ✓ Test X NR Diuron ◆ + MCPA amine ✓ Test X NR Fusilade® Forte ✓ ✓ ✓ NR X Glean® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Glyphosate X ✓ X ✓ Gramoxone® X ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Hoegrass® ✓ ✓ ✓ NR ✓ Logran® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Lontrel™ Advanced ✓ ✓ X X Simazine ✓ X ✓ NR Spray . Seed® X ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Elantra® Xtreme® ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Tigrex® ✓ X X NR Trifluralin ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Verdict™ ✓ ✓ ✓ NR ✓ Key: ✓ = OK. X = D o not use. NR = N ot recommended but use quickly if there is no alternative. Test = M ix herbicides and water in proportion and observe any instability. Marginal = N ot ideal, but acceptible. ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 .

91. 89 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Table 28. Triticale variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2011 (continued) Herbicide     Jaguar® Diflufenican + Bromoxynil Lontrel® Clopyralid Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA Cadence® Dicamba Avadex Xtra® IBS Trialliate Glean® IBS Chlorsulfuron Boxer Gold® IBS Prosulfocarb + S-Metolachlor Diuron + MCPA Diuron + MCPA Sakura IBS Pyroxasulfone Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D Amine Wildcat ® Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl Agtryne MA® Terbutryn + MCPA Dual Gold®) PSPE S-Metolachlor Variety Years tested 1996 1996–1998 2001 1998–2000 2002–2009 2002–2004 2009 2009 2011 2011 2003–2004 2000–2004 2004 ABACUS 1996–2005 P (1) P (3) P (1) 11(1/4) P (2) 7(1/2) – – – – 10(1/1) N(1/2) – BERKSHIRE 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – BREAKWELL 2003–2010 – – – – P (2) – P (1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) – – – CHOPPER 2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – CRACKERJACK 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – CREDIT 1998–2005 – P (1) P (1) P (4) N(1/3) 7(1/3) – – – – N(1/2) N(1/3) P (1) CURRENCY 1996–1998 P (1) P (3) – P (1) – – – – – – – – – DUVAL 2003–2005 – – – – – – – – – – – – – ELEANOR 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – ENDEAVOUR 2004–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – EVEREST 2000–2005 – – P (1) P (2) P (3) 7(1/3) – – – – 6(1/2) 10(1/3) P (1) FALCON 2005 – – – – – – – – – – – – – FUSION 2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – GOANNA 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – HAWKEYE 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – HILLARY 2001 – – – – – – – – – – – – – JACKIE 2001–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – JAYWICK 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – KOSCIUSZKO 2003–2011 – – – – N(1/3) P (1) P (1) 8(1/1) P (1) 7(1/1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) MAIDEN 1996–1999 P (1) 11(1/3) – P (2) – – – – – – – – – MUIR 1996–1999 P (1) P (3) – P (2) – – – – – – – – – PRIME322 2001–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – RYESUN 1996–1997 – – – – – – – – – – – – – SPEEDEE 2002–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – TAHARA 1996–1998 P (1) P (3) – P (1) – – – – – – – – – TICKIT 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – TOBRUK 2004–2011 – – – – P (2) – P (1) P (1) 6(1/1) 6(1/1) – – – TREAT 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – YOWIE 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – Rates (product/ha)  1.0 L 300 ml 375 ml 200 g 1.6 L 20 g 2.5 L 500 ml+350 ml 118 g 1.5 L 500 ml 1.0 L 500 ml Crop stage at spraying 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf IBS IBS IBS 3-leaf IBS Z31 4-leaf 3-5 leaf PSPE

164. 51 Herbicide options in oats Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 1 Rate per hectare Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Chlorsulfuron 750 g/kg Glean® Clopyralid 300 g/L + Florasulam 50 g/L Torpedo™ Bromoxynil 200 g/L Bromoxynil Bromoxynil + MCPA 200 + 200 g/L Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA + Dicamba 140 + 280 + 40 g/L Broadside® Pyraflufen-ethyl 20 g/L Ecopar® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC s Dicamba 500 g/L Kamba® 500 MCPA + Dicamba 340 + 80 g/L Kamba® M Fluroxypyr 333 g/L Starane ™ Advanced t Aminopyralid 10 g/L + Fluroxypyr 140 g/L Hotshot ™ MCPA 375 g/L + Florasulam 7 g/L Conclude™ MCPA + Diflufenican 250 g + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–1st Node 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–1st Node 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 3 L–Ful Till 2 L–Mid Till 3 L–1st node 5L–Ea Till Ea–Ful Till 3-leaf–Flag leaf 3 L–1st node 3 L–Flag 3/5 L–L Till Zadoks code 12–31 12–23 13–31 13–30 13–30 13–30 12–25 13–31 15–22 21–30 13–39 13–31 13–39 13–30 Weeds controlled (millilitres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (millilitres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 50 Apply with 0.5 L Uptake™ spraying oil or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. Can be tankmixed with 0.35–0.5 L LVE MCPA /ha for improved control. See label. 15 Not before 2-leaf stage of oats. Moist soils or rain within 7 days enhances results. Add wetter. – Always add 500 mL/100 L Uptake™ spraying oil. See label when mixing Torpedo™ with grass weed herbicides. 1.4–2.0 Not on undersown medics. Avoid spraying when temperatures are above 20 ̊C. Aerial application can be unsatisfactory. 1.4–2.0 1.4 L/ha can be used at 3-leaf stage. 0.75–1.4 – Always tankmix with MCPA Amine (500 mL of a 500 g/L Amine formulation of MCPA). 0.75–1.0 Spray grade liquid ammonium sulfate, Hasten™ (1% v/v), Supercharge® (0.75% v/v) or Uptake™ (0.5% v/v) must be used with Precept®. Do not use non-ionic surfactants. Note recropping intervals on label. For best results apply in warmer temperatures and high light intensity and > 1 hr of daylight left after application. – Damage can occur if crop not actively growing or at right stage. Small weeds. – – Can be tankmixed with Eclipse ®, MCPA LVE or MCPA amine to broaden weed spectrum. Do not use metsulfuron-methyl mixes in Oats. – – Always add Uptake™ spraying oil at 500 mL/100 L water, unless tankmixing with Ally®. When tankmixing with Ally® add a non-ionic wetter at 200 mL/200 L. – Can be used on undersown sub-clover and some other clovers. See label. Not on lucerne or annual medics. Application should be made from the third to the eighth trifoliate leaf stage. annual ryegrass – 20 or 25 a – – – – – – – – – – – – bedstraw 50 (S) r – 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 – – 400 0.75–1.0 – – 0.3 – 0.7 – black bindweed – 20 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – – 0.28 1.7 0.3–0.45 0.5–0.75 f – – canola – volunteer 50 h – – – – 1.4 400 0.5–1.0 u – – – – – 0.5 u capeweed 35–50 r – 0.1 h 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 400 0.5 n 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – 0.7 (S) 0.5–1.0 charlock – 15 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 0.5–1.0 cleavers – – – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – clover 50 (S) m – – – – – – 0.5 n q 0.28 1.7 – – – – corn gromwell – 20 – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 1.0 deadnettle – 15 or 20 – – – – – 0.5–1.0 – – 0.9 0.5–0.75 f g – 1.0 dock – seedlings – – – – – 0.75–1.4 – – 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 1.0 (S) faba bean – volunteer 35–50 r – 0.075–0.1 – – – – 0.5 n – – – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 – field pea – volunteer 50 (S) – 0.075–0.1 – 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 n – – – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 – fumitory – 20 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 1.0 – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 0.75 lupin – volunteer 35–50 r – 0.075–0.1 – – – 400 0.5–1.0 – – 0.9 0.5–0.75 k 0.7 1.0 (S) Mexican poppy – – – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – mintweed – 20 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.28 g 1.7 – – – – mustards 50 15 0.075–0.1 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 400 0.5 o 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 o 0.5–1.0 New Zealand spinach – – – – – – – – 0.28 1.7 – – – – Paterson’s curse – 15 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 – – – – – 1.0 (S) radish – wild 50 15 or 20 0.075–0.1 2.0 1.4–2.0 0.75–1.4 300–400 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 i rough poppy – 20 – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) saffron thistle 35–50 r – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – 1.7 – – – 1.0 shepherd’s purse – 20 – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – – – 0.3–0.9 p – – 0.5–1.0 skeleton weed – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 (S) slender thistle 35–50 r – – – 1.4–2.0 – – – – – – – – – sorrel – – – – – – – – – 1.0 – – – – soursob – 20 – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle 35–50 r – – – 1.4–2.1 j – – 0.5–1.0 – – 0.6 0.5–0.75 f p – 1.0 (S) spear/black thistle – – – – – – – – – – – – – – spiny emex – – – 2.0 – 0.75–1.4 – 0.75–1.0 (S) 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.9 0.5–0.75 f p 0.7 1.0 (S) toad rush – – – – 1.4–2.1 – – – – – – – – 1.0 turnip weed 35–50 15 0.1 h 2.0 1.4–2.0 – – 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle 35–50 r – – 1.4–2.0 1.4–2.0 – – – 0.28 1.7 – 0.5–0.75 f p – 1.0 (S) vetch 35–50 r – – – – – – 0.5 n 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – 0.5–0.75 d 0.7 1.0 (S) wild lettuce 35–50 r – 0.1 h – – – 400 0.5–1.0 – – 0.3–0.6 0.75 f – 0.5–1.0 wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 50 15 – 2.0 1.4–2.0 – 400 0.5–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 0.3–0.9 p – 0.7 0.5–1.0 wireweed – 20 – 2.0 – 0.75–1.4 – 0.55–1.0 0.16 b 1.0–1.7 – – – 0.75 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 30 min 50–100 50–200 50–200 50 min 50 min 50–100 50 min 50 min 50 min 80 min 50–100 50 min Herbicide group B B B + I C C + I C + I G H + I I I I I I + B I + F a = N o more than 3 leaves of annual ryegrass. Use more than 50 L/ha water. b = Tankmix with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine (500 g/L) for control. d = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). e = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. f = N orthern NSW only. g = Tankmix with 1.2 L/ha MCPA 500. h = N ot Clearfield canola volunteers. i = T ankmix 350–500 mL/ha Tigrex® plus 200–400 mL/ha MCPA LVE (500 g/L) for control. j = N orthern NSW only. k = S outhern NSW only. m = Subclo ver only. n = A dd Lontrel™ Advanced for control. See label for rates. o = Indian hedge mustar d only. p = S ee label for tankmix options. q = Subclo ver only. r = A dd partner herbicide for control. See label. s = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. t = F luroxypyr also available in 200 g/L and 400 g/L. See label for rates. u = S ee label for controlling RR Canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

54. 52 Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Diuron flowable ◆ 500 g/L Diuron 500 g Terbutryn flowable 500 g/L Igran® e Terbutryn + MCPA 275g + 160 g/L Agtryne® MA Picolinafen + MCPA 50 g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L+ 350g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced h 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® Apply at crop growth stage Mid Till–E Jo 3–5 L Till 3 L–E Till 3 L–5L 3 L to 5 L 3 L to Late tiller E Till–Full Till 5L–E Ti 3 L–E Flag 3 L–M Till 2 L–1st node 5L–F Till Zadoks code 23–31 13–23 13–21 13–15 13–15 13–28 22–30 15–37 13–37 13–25 12–31 15–37 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics and sub-clovers after the 2 – 3 trifoliate leaf stage. Use only wetting agent such as BS1000® with oats. 0.9 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown medics, lucerne or white clover. See variety safety caution on label. 1.0 See oat variety sensitivities on label and Table 28. – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – Slight transient yellowing may occur in oats. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – – Max rate between 3 L – 5-leaf stage 0.44 L/ha m Add wetting agent. Do not apply after mid-tillering as crop damage may result. – – Boomspray only. Good quality water essential. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – p – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a – 200 – – canola – volunteer 25 f – – – 0.25 n 0.36 – – – – – – capeweed 25 r 0.9 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 t 0.15 b 2.1–3.2 charlock 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 t – 2.1–3.2 clover – – – – – – – – – 115–200 0.075–0.1 x – corn gromwell – – 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – deadnettle 25 (S) r – 0.55–0.85 1.5 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) – – – – – – dock – – – – – – – – – 200 t – – field pea – volunteer – – p – – – – – – 115–200 0.075 d – fumitory 25 r – 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.5 (S) 0.54 a–0.72 (S) – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – – 2.1–3.2 lupin – volunteer 25 – – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) u – – – 115 0.125 d – Mexican poppy – – p – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 a – – – – mustards 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 bp 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 m t – 2.1–3.2 New Zealand spinach 25 (S) – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – 200 – – Paterson’s curse 25 (S) r – 0.55–0.85 1.0 – – – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – – 2.1–3.2 radish – wild 25 (S) r – p – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – – rough poppy – 0.9 – 1.0 – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – 0.9 – – 0.5 0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 shepherd’s purse 25 – p – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – – 2.1–3.2 skeleton weed – – – – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – 0.25 c – slender thistle – – – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 a – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 1.0 – – – 0.05 d 2.1–3.2 spear thistle – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 200 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 spiny emex 25 (S) r 0.9 0.55–0.85 b 1.5 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 1.0 – – 200 m or t – 2.1–3.2 toad rush – – 0.55–0.85 1.5 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – turnip weed 15–25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b p 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – 2.1–3.2 variegated thistle – – – – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 200 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 wild lettuce – – – – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – 0.075 d 2.1–3.2 wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b p 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – 2.1–3.2 wireweed – – – 1.5 – – 1.0 (S) – – 200 – 2.1–3.2 Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–100 50–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 50 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min 110–220 Herbicide group B C C C + I F + I C+ I + F I I I I I I a = R efer to weed table on label. Weed size will dictate rate. b = T ank mix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L 2,4-D amine 500 g/L for control. c = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. d = S ee label for tankmix options. e = D o not apply to Avon, Saia, Cassia or Barmah varieties of oats. Consult agronomist before using on other varieties. f = Not Clearfield canola volunteers. g = A lternatively Diurex® 900 WG 900 g/kg. h = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). k = T ankmix with 1 L/ha MCPA Amine or 0.7 L LVE MCPA/ha for control. m = T ankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control. Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. n = See label for comntrolling RR canola volunteers. p = Tankmix of Igran® and Logran® can be used for control. See label. r = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. See label. t = Tankmix 115 g Cadence®/ha with 0.7 L MCPA (500 g/L) per ha for control. u = A ngustifolius (narrow leaf ) lupins only. x = Subclo ver only. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

165. 52 Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 2 Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike™ Diuron flowable ◆ 500 g/L Diuron 500 g Terbutryn flowable 500 g/L Igran® e Terbutryn + MCPA 275g + 160 g/L Agtryne® MA Picolinafen + MCPA 50 g + 500 g/L Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA + Bromoxynil 35 g/L+ 350g/L + 210 g/L Flight® EC Picloram + MCPA 26 + 420 g/L Tordon ™ 242 MCPA 750 g/L Thistle-Killem® 750 MCPA 570 g/L LVE Agritone® Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel ™ Advanced h 2,4-DB 500 g/L Buttress® Apply at crop growth stage Mid Till–E Jo 3–5 L Till 3 L–E Till 3 L–5L 3 L to 5 L 3 L to Late tiller E Till–Full Till 5L–E Ti 3 L–E Flag 3 L–M Till 2 L–1st node 5L–F Till Zadoks code 23–31 13–23 13–21 13–15 13–15 13–28 22–30 15–37 13–37 13–25 12–31 15–37 Weeds controlled (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) amsinckia 25 Safe on undersown lucerne, medics and sub-clovers after the 2 – 3 trifoliate leaf stage. Use only wetting agent such as BS1000® with oats. 0.9 0.55–0.85 Avoid spraying when temperatures exceed 18°C. Do not use on undersown medics, lucerne or white clover. See variety safety caution on label. 1.0 See oat variety sensitivities on label and Table 28. – Do not use 0.5 L/ha rate on crops younger than 5 leaf. Do not apply rates higher than 0.25 L/ha to crops in the 3 leaf stage. – Slight transient yellowing may occur in oats. – Do not plant susceptible crops within 12 months of applying the product. – – Max rate between 3 L – 5-leaf stage 0.44 L/ha m Add wetting agent. Do not apply after mid-tillering as crop damage may result. – – Boomspray only. Good quality water essential. annual ryegrass – – – – – – – – – – – – black bindweed – – p – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a – 200 – – canola – volunteer 25 f – – – 0.25 n 0.36 – – – – – – capeweed 25 r 0.9 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 t 0.15 b 2.1–3.2 charlock 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 t – 2.1–3.2 clover – – – – – – – – – 115–200 0.075–0.1 x – corn gromwell – – 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – deadnettle 25 (S) r – 0.55–0.85 1.5 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) – – – – – – dock – – – – – – – – – 200 t – – field pea – volunteer – – p – – – – – – 115–200 0.075 d – fumitory 25 r – 0.55–0.85 1.0 0.5 (S) 0.54 a–0.72 (S) – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – – 2.1–3.2 lupin – volunteer 25 – – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) u – – – 115 0.125 d – Mexican poppy – – p – – – – – – – – – mintweed – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 a – – – – mustards 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 bp 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 115 m t – 2.1–3.2 New Zealand spinach 25 (S) – – – – – 1.0 (S) – – 200 – – Paterson’s curse 25 (S) r – 0.55–0.85 1.0 – – – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – – 2.1–3.2 radish – wild 25 (S) r – p – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – – rough poppy – 0.9 – 1.0 – – – – – – – – saffron thistle – 0.9 – – 0.5 0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 shepherd’s purse 25 – p – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – – 2.1–3.2 skeleton weed – – – – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a – 0.25 c – slender thistle – – – – – – – – 0.44–1.4 a – 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 sorrel – – – – – – – – – – – – soursob – – – – – – – – – – – – sowthistle – – – – 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 1.0 – – – 0.05 d 2.1–3.2 spear thistle – – – – – – – 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 200 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 spiny emex 25 (S) r 0.9 0.55–0.85 b 1.5 0.5 (S) 0.72 (S) 1.0 – – 200 m or t – 2.1–3.2 toad rush – – 0.55–0.85 1.5 0.5 0.72 – – – – – – turnip weed 15–25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b p 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – 2.1–3.2 variegated thistle – – – – – – 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a 200 0.025 k 2.1–3.2 wild lettuce – – – – 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 – – – – 0.075 d 2.1–3.2 wild oats – – – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip 25 0.9 0.55–0.85 b p 1.0 0.25–0.5 0.36–0.72 1.0 0.46–1.45 a 0.44–1.4 a m or t – 2.1–3.2 wireweed – – – 1.5 – – 1.0 (S) – – 200 – 2.1–3.2 Rec water L/ha boom 50–150 50–100 50–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 50 min 30–120 30–120 50 min 50 min 110–220 Herbicide group B C C C + I F + I C+ I + F I I I I I I a = R efer to weed table on label. Weed size will dictate rate. b = T ank mix with 0.3 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L or 0.3 L 2,4-D amine 500 g/L for control. c = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. d = S ee label for tankmix options. e = D o not apply to Avon, Saia, Cassia or Barmah varieties of oats. Consult agronomist before using on other varieties. f = Not Clearfield canola volunteers. g = A lternatively Diurex® 900 WG 900 g/kg. h = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). k = T ankmix with 1 L/ha MCPA Amine or 0.7 L LVE MCPA/ha for control. m = T ankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control. Add Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or 1 L D-C-Trate® oil/100 L water. n = See label for comntrolling RR canola volunteers. p = Tankmix of Igran® and Logran® can be used for control. See label. r = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. See label. t = Tankmix 115 g Cadence®/ha with 0.7 L MCPA (500 g/L) per ha for control. u = A ngustifolius (narrow leaf ) lupins only. x = Subclo ver only. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014

129. 16 Water quality for herbicide application Good quality water is important when mixing and spraying herbicides. It should be clean and of good irrigation quality. Poor quality water can reduce the effectiveness of some herbicides and damage spray equipment. Some poor results with herbicides could possibly be due to water quality problems. Effects of water quality Water quality depends on the source of the water (rain-fed tank, dam, river, bore or aquifer) and the season (e.g. heavy rain, drought). There are several characteristics of water quality which affect chemical performance. Dirt: Dirty water has very small soil particles (clay and silt) suspended in it. These soil particles can absorb and bind the chemical’s active ingredient and reduce its effectiveness. This applies especially to glyphosate, paraquat and diquat. Dirt can also block nozzles, lines and filters and reduce the sprayer’s overall performance and life. As a guide, water is considered dirty when it is difficult to see a 10¢ coin in the bottom of a household bucket of water. Water hardness: Water is termed hard when it has a high percentage of calcium and magnesium. Hard water won’t lather with soap and can cause some chemicals to precipitate. Susceptible chemicals often have agents added to overcome this problem. Formulations of 2,4-DB are particularly sensitive to hard water (> 400 ppm CaCO 3 equivalent). Other herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D amine and MCPA amine, Lontrel™ Advanced and Tigrex® can also be affected. Hard water can also affect the balance of the surfactant system and affect properties such as wetting, emulsification and dispersion. Very hard water can also reduce the efficiency of agents used to clear dirty water. Water pH: pH is a measure of acidity and alkalinity scaled on a range between 1 and 14. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 acid and more than 7 alkaline. Most natural waters have a pH between 6.5 and 8. In highly alkaline water (pH>8) many chemicals undergo a process called alkaline hydrolysis. This process causes the breakdown of the active ingredient into other compounds which can reduce the effectiveness of the pesticide over time. This is one reason why spray mixes should not be left in spray tanks overnight. Very acid water can also affect the stability and physical properties of some chemical formulations. Dissolved salts: The total amount of mineral salts dissolved in water is usually measured by the electrical conductivity (EC) of the water. The EC of bores and dams depends largely on the salt levels in the rock and soil that surrounds them. During a drought the salinity of water increases. Very salty water can cause blockages in equipment and is more resistant to pH changes. Organic matter: Water containing a lot of organic matter, such as leaves or algae can block nozzles, lines and filters. Algae can also react with some chemicals, reducing their effectiveness. Temperature: Very hot or cold water can affect the performance of some chemicals. Improving water quality Water needs to be tested to see whether it will affect chemical performance. There are commercial products available to reduce pH (e.g. Primabuff® BB5 and LI 700 and Hotup®), soften hard water and clear dirty water. To reduce the effects of very salty water, you may need to mix water from several sources. Acknowledgement: Extracts from SPRAY SENSE Bulletin No.12 T. Burfitt, S. Hardy and T. Somers (1996). The following table summarises the effect of water quality on some herbicides:– Herbicide tolerances to water qualities: Herbicide Water Quality Muddy Saline Hard Alkaline (> pH 8) Acidic (< pH 5) 2,4-DB X NR 2,4-D or MCPA amine ✓ ✓ X NR 2,4-D or MCPA ester ✓ Test Test ✓ ✓ Ally® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Brodal® ✓ ✓ X Dicamba ✓ ✓ NR NR Diuron ◆ ✓ Test ✓ ✓ Diuron ◆ + 2,4-D amine ✓ Test X NR Diuron ◆ + MCPA amine ✓ Test X NR Fusilade® Forte ✓ ✓ ✓ NR X Glean® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Glyphosate X ✓ X ✓ Gramoxone® X ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Hoegrass® ✓ ✓ ✓ NR ✓ Logran® ✓ ✓ ✓ Marginal X Lontrel™ Advanced ✓ ✓ X X Simazine ✓ X ✓ NR Spray . Seed® X ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Elantra® Xtreme® ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Tigrex® ✓ X X NR Trifluralin ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Verdict™ ✓ ✓ ✓ NR ✓ Key: ✓ = OK. X = D o not use. NR = N ot recommended but use quickly if there is no alternative. Test = M ix herbicides and water in proportion and observe any instability. Marginal = N ot ideal, but acceptible. ◆ See What’s new in 2014 on page 3 .

202. 89 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Table 28. Triticale variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2011 (continued) Herbicide     Jaguar® Diflufenican + Bromoxynil Lontrel® Clopyralid Paragon® Picolinafen + MCPA Cadence® Dicamba Avadex Xtra® IBS Trialliate Glean® IBS Chlorsulfuron Boxer Gold® IBS Prosulfocarb + S-Metolachlor Diuron + MCPA Diuron + MCPA Sakura IBS Pyroxasulfone Amicide® Advance 700 2,4-D Amine Wildcat ® Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl Agtryne MA® Terbutryn + MCPA Dual Gold®) PSPE S-Metolachlor Variety Years tested 1996 1996–1998 2001 1998–2000 2002–2009 2002–2004 2009 2009 2011 2011 2003–2004 2000–2004 2004 ABACUS 1996–2005 P (1) P (3) P (1) 11(1/4) P (2) 7(1/2) – – – – 10(1/1) N(1/2) – BERKSHIRE 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – BREAKWELL 2003–2010 – – – – P (2) – P (1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) – – – CHOPPER 2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – CRACKERJACK 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – CREDIT 1998–2005 – P (1) P (1) P (4) N(1/3) 7(1/3) – – – – N(1/2) N(1/3) P (1) CURRENCY 1996–1998 P (1) P (3) – P (1) – – – – – – – – – DUVAL 2003–2005 – – – – – – – – – – – – – ELEANOR 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – ENDEAVOUR 2004–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – EVEREST 2000–2005 – – P (1) P (2) P (3) 7(1/3) – – – – 6(1/2) 10(1/3) P (1) FALCON 2005 – – – – – – – – – – – – – FUSION 2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – GOANNA 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – HAWKEYE 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – HILLARY 2001 – – – – – – – – – – – – – JACKIE 2001–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – JAYWICK 2008–2010 – – – – – – – – – – – – – KOSCIUSZKO 2003–2011 – – – – N(1/3) P (1) P (1) 8(1/1) P (1) 7(1/1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) MAIDEN 1996–1999 P (1) 11(1/3) – P (2) – – – – – – – – – MUIR 1996–1999 P (1) P (3) – P (2) – – – – – – – – – PRIME322 2001–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – RYESUN 1996–1997 – – – – – – – – – – – – – SPEEDEE 2002–2004 – – – – – – – – – – – – – TAHARA 1996–1998 P (1) P (3) – P (1) – – – – – – – – – TICKIT 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – TOBRUK 2004–2011 – – – – P (2) – P (1) P (1) 6(1/1) 6(1/1) – – – TREAT 2001–2003 – – – – – – – – – – – – – YOWIE 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – – – – – Rates (product/ha)  1.0 L 300 ml 375 ml 200 g 1.6 L 20 g 2.5 L 500 ml+350 ml 118 g 1.5 L 500 ml 1.0 L 500 ml Crop stage at spraying 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf IBS IBS IBS 3-leaf IBS Z31 4-leaf 3-5 leaf PSPE

19. 17 Using adjuvants, surfactants and oils with herbicides He rbicides often need help to spread across the leaf and penetrate the leaf surface of weed targets to give best results. Some herbicides have sufficient adjuvant and require no additional surfactants to perform well. However some do and this is usually detailed on the herbicide label. Always read the herbicide label before opening the container and heed the information printed there. An adjuvant is any additive to a herbicide which is intended to improve the effectiveness of the herbicide. There are many products which have been developed to assist herbicides to contact the weed target, then remain and penetrate the weed leaf. The APVMA classes adjuvants into two categories: • ad juvants which enhance product efficacy; and • ad juvants which improve the ease of application. Adjuvants which enhance product efficacy Wett ers/Spreaders (enhance adhesion to and spreading of spray droplets on target surfaces by reducing the surface tension of the pesticide formulation and improving coverage) such as; • N on-ionic surfactants – non-reactive, i.e. they do not have a negative charge or a positive charge; they remain on the leaf once dry and allow rewetting after rain, permitting additional pesticide uptake. • A nionic surfactants – negative charge • C ationic surfactants – positive charge • A mphoteric surfactants • Or gano-silicate surfactants • A cidified surfactants Stickers (increase adhesion of pesticides to target surfaces) such as; • Latex-based • Terpene/pinolene • Pyrrolidone-based Penetrants (improve the transfer of active ingredients from the target surface to interior tissues) which may include: • M ineral oil • V egetable oil • E sterified vegetable oil • Or gano-silicate surfactants • A cidified surfactants Extenders (enhance the amount of time the active ingredient remains toxic by increasing resistance to environmental degradation) which may include; • A mmonium sulphate • Menthene-based Humectants (increases the density/drying time of an aqueous spray deposit) • Glycerol • P ropylene glycol • Diet hyl glycol Adjuvants which improve ease of application A cidifying/Buffering agents (adjusts the pH of alkaline or acidic water and minimizes decomposition of the pesticide through alkaline hydrolysis). Anti-foaming/De-foaming agents (reduces or suppresses the formation of foam in the spray tank preventing foam overflow): • Dimethopolysiloxane Compatibility agents (permit the mixing of different agrochemicals by preventing antagonism between different ingredients in the spray solution) such as: • A mmonium sulphate Drift control agents (alter the viscoelastic properties of the spray solution yielding a coarser spray with greater mean droplet sizes): • Polyacrylamides • Polysaccharides Dyes (commonly used for spot or boom spraying herbicides to detect missed spots or avoid spraying a plant or area twice). Water conditioners (prevents reaction between hard water ions in spray solutions and suppresses formation of precipitates or salts) • A mmonium sulphate Factors affecting adjuvant use include: 1. Crop safety – addition of an adjuvant can reduce herbicide selectivity and thereby increase crop damage. This is not an issue for fallow and pre-emergent herbicides. 2. Effectiveness or activity – adjuvants are usually added to increase the effectiveness of herbicides. However, use of the wrong type or rate can reduce effectiveness, such as decreasing herbicide retention on leaves. 3. Water hardness – hard water can lead to poor mixing of the chemical with water. This particularly occurs with emulsifiable concentrates. High levels of calcium and magnesium ions bind with amine formulations causing them to be less soluble and therefore less effective. 4. Water temperature – low water temperature can lead to gelling in the tank. High concentration herbicides might not mix and surfactants may perform poorly. The table on page 18 lists some o f the available adjuvants. A good reference for further information is a book called Adjuvants (Oils, Surfactants and Other Additives for Farm Chemicals), (Revised 2012 edition) available from GRDC, www.grdc.com.au/bookshop . Phone 1800 110 044.

130. 17 Using adjuvants, surfactants and oils with herbicides He rbicides often need help to spread across the leaf and penetrate the leaf surface of weed targets to give best results. Some herbicides have sufficient adjuvant and require no additional surfactants to perform well. However some do and this is usually detailed on the herbicide label. Always read the herbicide label before opening the container and heed the information printed there. An adjuvant is any additive to a herbicide which is intended to improve the effectiveness of the herbicide. There are many products which have been developed to assist herbicides to contact the weed target, then remain and penetrate the weed leaf. The APVMA classes adjuvants into two categories: • ad juvants which enhance product efficacy; and • ad juvants which improve the ease of application. Adjuvants which enhance product efficacy Wett ers/Spreaders (enhance adhesion to and spreading of spray droplets on target surfaces by reducing the surface tension of the pesticide formulation and improving coverage) such as; • N on-ionic surfactants – non-reactive, i.e. they do not have a negative charge or a positive charge; they remain on the leaf once dry and allow rewetting after rain, permitting additional pesticide uptake. • A nionic surfactants – negative charge • C ationic surfactants – positive charge • A mphoteric surfactants • Or gano-silicate surfactants • A cidified surfactants Stickers (increase adhesion of pesticides to target surfaces) such as; • Latex-based • Terpene/pinolene • Pyrrolidone-based Penetrants (improve the transfer of active ingredients from the target surface to interior tissues) which may include: • M ineral oil • V egetable oil • E sterified vegetable oil • Or gano-silicate surfactants • A cidified surfactants Extenders (enhance the amount of time the active ingredient remains toxic by increasing resistance to environmental degradation) which may include; • A mmonium sulphate • Menthene-based Humectants (increases the density/drying time of an aqueous spray deposit) • Glycerol • P ropylene glycol • Diet hyl glycol Adjuvants which improve ease of application A cidifying/Buffering agents (adjusts the pH of alkaline or acidic water and minimizes decomposition of the pesticide through alkaline hydrolysis). Anti-foaming/De-foaming agents (reduces or suppresses the formation of foam in the spray tank preventing foam overflow): • Dimethopolysiloxane Compatibility agents (permit the mixing of different agrochemicals by preventing antagonism between different ingredients in the spray solution) such as: • A mmonium sulphate Drift control agents (alter the viscoelastic properties of the spray solution yielding a coarser spray with greater mean droplet sizes): • Polyacrylamides • Polysaccharides Dyes (commonly used for spot or boom spraying herbicides to detect missed spots or avoid spraying a plant or area twice). Water conditioners (prevents reaction between hard water ions in spray solutions and suppresses formation of precipitates or salts) • A mmonium sulphate Factors affecting adjuvant use include: 1. Crop safety – addition of an adjuvant can reduce herbicide selectivity and thereby increase crop damage. This is not an issue for fallow and pre-emergent herbicides. 2. Effectiveness or activity – adjuvants are usually added to increase the effectiveness of herbicides. However, use of the wrong type or rate can reduce effectiveness, such as decreasing herbicide retention on leaves. 3. Water hardness – hard water can lead to poor mixing of the chemical with water. This particularly occurs with emulsifiable concentrates. High levels of calcium and magnesium ions bind with amine formulations causing them to be less soluble and therefore less effective. 4. Water temperature – low water temperature can lead to gelling in the tank. High concentration herbicides might not mix and surfactants may perform poorly. The table on page 18 lists some o f the available adjuvants. A good reference for further information is a book called Adjuvants (Oils, Surfactants and Other Additives for Farm Chemicals), (Revised 2012 edition) available from GRDC, www.grdc.com.au/bookshop . Phone 1800 110 044.

43. 41 Herbicide options for presowing peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 – – – – – phalaris–perennial – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – – – 0.7–1.0 radish – wild – 35 a 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † – – – – 0.8–3.2 – 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 – saffron thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 scotch thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.28 – – – 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 0.7–1.3 skeleton weed – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – – 0.95–1.9* 1.15* 1.0 shepherd’s purse – – – – – 30 i – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – sorrel – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.16–0.24 d 115–170 d – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 soursob – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 0.95 1.15* 1.0 sowthistle 25 – – 9–26 75 30 i 0.5 i – 0.6 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.425–1.3 – 0.7–1.3 spear thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 spiny emex – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – – 0.9 r – 0.28 200–400 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 – 0.38–1.5 0.35–0.9 stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – – sub. clover – 35 u 25–75 9–26 75 30 (S) i 0.5 i – – 75 y z 0.2 t 140 t 0.8–3.2 m – 2.0–2.8 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – turnip weed 20 35 u – 9–26 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.3 variegated thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.4 vetch – – – – – – – – – 75 y 0.28 200 1.8–3.2 – – – – – vulpia – – – – 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 wild lettuce 30 or 20 i – – – 75 – – 0.1–0.2 † 0.6 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.625–1.3 – – wild oats – – – 9–26 75 – – – – – – – 0.6–2.4 0.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.35–1.0 wild turnip – 35 u – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 winter grass – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.4 wireweed – – – – 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † 0.8 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.0 Water vol L/ha boom 50 min 50–100 50–150 80–250 30–200 50 min 60–150 70–150 50 min 50 min 50 min 50 min 50–200 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 25–100 Wheat plant-back 3 days u u 1 hr 1 day 1 hr 1–3 days h 1 hr 7 days 7 days 1–14 days 1–14 days 1 hr 1 hr 0 hr q 1 hr 24 hr 1 hr Herbicide group B B G G G G G + I G I I I I L L L + Q M M M a = A dd 400–800 mL glyphosate 450 for control. b = F luroxypyr is also available in 200 g/L and 400 g/L. See label for rates. c = A dd 0.4– 0.6 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. d = A dd 0.65– 0.8 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. e = C urled dock only. f = Indian hedge mustar d only. g = C ompatable with Amicide® Advance 700 (700 g/L 2,4-D amine). h = S ee Table 1 for other crops. Note rainfall required. i = A dd glyphosate for control, see label. j = L ong storksbill only. k = A dd dicamba for improved control. l = S ee label for controlling RR canola. m = For control add 5 g/ha Ally® or 0.5 L/ha dicamba. n = A dd 1.0 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. o = Wheat and barley only. See label. p = A dd 0.6 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. q = S ee label for other crops. r = A dd 5 g/ha Ally® for control. s = Hammer® also available in 400 g/L. See label for rates. t = Tankmix with glyphosate for best results. u = S ee appropriate glyphosate label. v = S ee label for tankmix options in minimum till situations. w = A dd Hammer® for improved control. x = A dd Reglone® at 0.75–1.5 L/ha. y = A dd paraquat/diquat or glyphosate for control. z = C an also be used PSPE at 120–240 g/ha (S). See label. * = O nly registered in conjunction with a full soil disturbance cultivation. # = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). † = White clover, French serradella and snail medic may be damaged. (S) = Suppr ession only. Crop usage AC = A ll Crops W = W heat CH = C hickpea C = C anola FB = F aba beans L = L upins LE = L entils T = T riticale O = O ats B = B arley WC = Winter Cereals FP = F ield Pea is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

66. 64 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 2 (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop-p -ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl 250 g + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 (Rhino® 375) i Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon®) e Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Triticale only Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Triticale only Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG g + MCPA Amine 500 Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 10 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC b Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel™ Advanced s Triticale only Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Triticale only MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Early Till 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Full Till 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot Mid Till–Ea Jo 3–5 L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Boot 3 L–1st node 3–5 L to L Till Zadoks code 12–24 12–22 13–21 12–22 13–30 12–31 13–30 23–31 13–23 12–30 13–31 13–25 12–35/45 13–31 13–30 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (grams) (kg + L) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 turnip weed – – – – – 35–50 30 15–25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – 200 w Tankmix M 0.5–0.75 q v 1.0 (S) vetch – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 u 115 t 0.05 0.5–0.75 d – wild lettuce – – – – – 35–50 y 40 – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.75 v 0.5–1.0 wild oats 0.3–0.4 k 1.5 1.1–1.5 300–500 2.5 c – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – – – – 50 – 25 0.28–0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 wireweed – – – – – – 40 – – 0.5 (S) 0.67–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – 0.5–0.75 f v 0.75 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–100 50–150 50–150 30–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 20–100 50–150 50–100 50 min 50 min 80 min 50 min Herbicide group A A A A Z B B B C + I H + C H + I I I I I + F Note: Monza® (sulfosulfron 750 g/kg) is registered for post-emergent use on triticale for control of amsinckia, field pea – volunteer, wild radish, vulpia, and wild turnip (herbicide group B). Tigrex® and Bromoxynil damage medics. a = C an be tankmixed with Hoegrass® b = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. c = C ontains 75 g/L flamprop-M-methyl. Use 3 L/ha rate. d = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). e = Tralkoxydim also available in 600 g/L formulation, see label for rates. f = A dd 5 g metsulfuron-methyl (600 g/kg) and non-ionic wetter at 100 mL/100 L of water. g = A lternatively Diuron Flowable® 500, 500 g/L. h = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. i = R hino® contains 375 g/L diclofop – methyl. See label for rates. j = R hino® and Hostage® registered for control. k = M ixtures with broadleaf herbicides may result in reduced grass weed control – see label. Use alone for phalaris control. l = Indian hedge mustar d only. m = S outhern NSW only. n = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. o = N ot Clearfield Canola volunteers. p = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 5 g/ha Ally® for control. Add surfactant such as 100 mL BS1000®/100 L spray. q = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. r = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control. Apply with Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or D-C-Trate® oil at 1 L/100 L water. s = C lopyralid also available in 750 SG. See label for rates. t = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine (500 g/L)/ha for control. u = A dd Lontrel™ 750 SG for control. See label for rates. v = N orthern NSW only. w = T riticale only. x = Subclo ver only. y = A dd partner herbicide for control. See label. z = Angustifolius (narrow-leaf ) lupin. M = M ix 25 mL/ha Lontrel™ Advanced with 1 L/ha MCPA Amine (500 g/L) or 0.7 L/ha LVE MCPA (500 g/L) for control. A = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

24. 22 Calculating Actual Ground Speed* Distance covered (m) × 3.6 Time taken (seconds) ( ) × 3.6 ( ) = ............... km/hr  ‘3.6’ in the calculation is a conversion factor to convert metres to kilometres (metres ÷ 1000) and seconds to hours (seconds ÷ 3600): D/1000 ÷ S/3600 = D/1000 × 3600/S = D/S × 3600/100 = D/S × 3.6. * To calculate your actual ground speed: • M easure a set distance, for example 100 metres. • M ake sure that the spraying conditions are like those in the area that you will be spraying. • R ecord how long it takes using the appropriate gears and revs. Now you can calculate the water application rate, how much chemical you will need to mix in each tank and how many tank loads you will need to do the whole job. Follow the steps below: 1. C opy the answers you worked out on the previous page into the boxes below. You will need these numbers to do the calculations on this page. (The numbers in black circles (e.g.  ) tell you the step where the answer is on the previous page. Total Spray Output ..................... litres/minute  Effective Spray Width ....................... metres  Actual Ground Speed ........................... km/hr  2. W ork out the water application rate by using the numbers you have recorded above. Put these numbers in the correct place in the calculation below. Water Application  × 600 ( ) × 600 ( )  Rate  ×  ( ) × ( ) = ( ) .................... litres/ha ‘600’ in the calculation is a conversion factor to convert litres per minute to litres per hour (minutes × 60), and kilometres to metres (km × 1000), then square metres (m × km × 1000 = m 2 ) to hectares (m 2 ÷ 10000): 60 ÷ 1000/10000 = 60 ÷ 1/10 = 60 × 10 = 600. Does this water application rate meet the chemical label requirements? (See Part B above) Y es No If not, how could you change this rate to meet this requirement? ............................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ 3. N ow that you know the water application rate you can calculate how much chemical you need to mix in each tank. Chemical Application Rate ................................................. litres/ha  Spray Tank Capacity ................................................. litres  How much chemical to mix in each tank?  (L/ha) ×  (L)  (L/ha) ( ) × ( ) ( ) = ........................ litres 4. Fin ally, you can now work out how many tank loads you will need to do the job. Spray mix needed for the job  (ha) ×  (L/ha) ( ) × ( ) = ........................ litres ❽ Number of tanks needed ❽ (L) ( )  (L) ( ) = ........................ tanks (To crosscheck your calculations: Number of tanks × Volume of chemical per tank = Area to be sprayed × Chemical rate) Source: SMARTtrain Calibration and Records Supplement 2010.

30. 28 Turbo TwinJet (TTJ60) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 30° from vertical • M edium – Coarse • 1.5–6 b ar • I deal pressure 2-4 bar • 02 t o 04 capacities • Dr ift control – Good Air Induction Turbo TwinJet (AITTJ60) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 30° from vertical • C oarse –Very Coarse • 2–6 b ar • I deal pressure 3–4 bar • 02 t o 04 capacities • Dr ift control – Excellent Air Induction Dual Flat Spray (AI3070) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 70° from vertical • M edium –Very Coarse • 1.5–6 b ar • I deal Pressure 2–4 bar • 015 t o 05 capacities • Dr ift control – Excellent Double outlet nozzle body or cap • I f using Turbo TeeJets (TT), 60°, 90° or 120° included angle • Dr ift Control, drop size, pressure range – varies The final choice will depend on the product being applied, travel speeds (or application volume), crop density and the applicators pre-spray drift risk assessment (weather conditions, location of susceptible crops etc). Conclusions • U se high application volumes unless the label specifically recommends against it. Higher volumes improve both coverage and penetration of the spray, and this is the single most important variable for post-emergent herbicides and fungicides. • A void very fine sprays as they can lead to excessive spray drift and evaporation. • U se TwinJets that produce coarser droplets that maintain their original direction of travel for a longer period of time, and therefore cover the leading and trailing sides of the target more effectively. • A lways try to select and operate a nozzle around its mid pressure range (e.g. AITTJ60 at 3–4 bar) As always, any application requirements on the product label must be adhered to. Source: Peter Alexander, TeeJet Australasia Pty Ltd. Weather conditions to watch out for Midday turbulence • U pdraughts during the heat of the day cause rapidly shifting wind directions. Spraying should usually stop by 11.00 am during the summer months. High temperatures • A void spraying when temperatures exceed 28°C. Humidity • Avoid spraying under low relative humidity conditions i.e. when Delta T (the difference between wet and dry thermometers) exceeds 10°C. Spraying when Delta T is between 8–10° is considered high risk. • H igh humidity extends droplet life and can greatly increase the drift hazard of fine droplets under inversion conditions. This results from the increased life of droplets smaller than 100 microns. Wind • A void spraying under calm conditions. • I deal safe wind speed is 7–10 km an hour. Leaves and twigs are in constant motion – a light breeze. • 11–14 k ph (moderate breeze) is suitable for spraying if using low drift nozzles or higher volumes application (80–120 L/ha). Small branches move, dust is raised and loose paper moving – a moderate breeze. Surface inversions What are surface inversions? Surface inversions are layers of the atmosphere at the earth’s surface in which temperature increases with height. This is the inverse of the normal temperature decrease with height. Hazards of surface inversions Surface inversions strongly suppress the dispersion of airborne pesticides and the like. Surface inversions can cause airborne pesticides to: • r emain at high concentrations for long periods over and close to the target, • t ravel close to the surface for many kilometres in light breezes, • m ove downslope and concentrate into low lying regions, and • b e transported often in unpredictable directions. Radiation inversions – the most hazardous Surface inversions usually begin to occur near sunset after the ground cools rapidly by losing heat energy through infrared radiation upward into space. That radiation passes through clear air with little effect. As the ground cools, the air in contact with the ground begins to cool directly by conduction leading to the lowest layer of air being cooler than higher layers. This is referred to as radiation cooling. Inversions caused by radiation cooling – called radiation inversions – are the most hazardous to pesticide applications because they are the most likely to severely restrict dispersion and promote transport at high concentrations of the airborne pesticides.

141. 28 Turbo TwinJet (TTJ60) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 30° from vertical • M edium – Coarse • 1.5–6 b ar • I deal pressure 2-4 bar • 02 t o 04 capacities • Dr ift control – Good Air Induction Turbo TwinJet (AITTJ60) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 30° from vertical • C oarse –Very Coarse • 2–6 b ar • I deal pressure 3–4 bar • 02 t o 04 capacities • Dr ift control – Excellent Air Induction Dual Flat Spray (AI3070) • F ront flat spray 30° from vertical • R ear flat spray 70° from vertical • M edium –Very Coarse • 1.5–6 b ar • I deal Pressure 2–4 bar • 015 t o 05 capacities • Dr ift control – Excellent Double outlet nozzle body or cap • I f using Turbo TeeJets (TT), 60°, 90° or 120° included angle • Dr ift Control, drop size, pressure range – varies The final choice will depend on the product being applied, travel speeds (or application volume), crop density and the applicators pre-spray drift risk assessment (weather conditions, location of susceptible crops etc). Conclusions • U se high application volumes unless the label specifically recommends against it. Higher volumes improve both coverage and penetration of the spray, and this is the single most important variable for post-emergent herbicides and fungicides. • A void very fine sprays as they can lead to excessive spray drift and evaporation. • U se TwinJets that produce coarser droplets that maintain their original direction of travel for a longer period of time, and therefore cover the leading and trailing sides of the target more effectively. • A lways try to select and operate a nozzle around its mid pressure range (e.g. AITTJ60 at 3–4 bar) As always, any application requirements on the product label must be adhered to. Source: Peter Alexander, TeeJet Australasia Pty Ltd. Weather conditions to watch out for Midday turbulence • U pdraughts during the heat of the day cause rapidly shifting wind directions. Spraying should usually stop by 11.00 am during the summer months. High temperatures • A void spraying when temperatures exceed 28°C. Humidity • Avoid spraying under low relative humidity conditions i.e. when Delta T (the difference between wet and dry thermometers) exceeds 10°C. Spraying when Delta T is between 8–10° is considered high risk. • H igh humidity extends droplet life and can greatly increase the drift hazard of fine droplets under inversion conditions. This results from the increased life of droplets smaller than 100 microns. Wind • A void spraying under calm conditions. • I deal safe wind speed is 7–10 km an hour. Leaves and twigs are in constant motion – a light breeze. • 11–14 k ph (moderate breeze) is suitable for spraying if using low drift nozzles or higher volumes application (80–120 L/ha). Small branches move, dust is raised and loose paper moving – a moderate breeze. Surface inversions What are surface inversions? Surface inversions are layers of the atmosphere at the earth’s surface in which temperature increases with height. This is the inverse of the normal temperature decrease with height. Hazards of surface inversions Surface inversions strongly suppress the dispersion of airborne pesticides and the like. Surface inversions can cause airborne pesticides to: • r emain at high concentrations for long periods over and close to the target, • t ravel close to the surface for many kilometres in light breezes, • m ove downslope and concentrate into low lying regions, and • b e transported often in unpredictable directions. Radiation inversions – the most hazardous Surface inversions usually begin to occur near sunset after the ground cools rapidly by losing heat energy through infrared radiation upward into space. That radiation passes through clear air with little effect. As the ground cools, the air in contact with the ground begins to cool directly by conduction leading to the lowest layer of air being cooler than higher layers. This is referred to as radiation cooling. Inversions caused by radiation cooling – called radiation inversions – are the most hazardous to pesticide applications because they are the most likely to severely restrict dispersion and promote transport at high concentrations of the airborne pesticides.

154. 41 Herbicide options for presowing peppercress – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–2.4 – – – – – phalaris–perennial – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 rough poppy – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – – – 0.7–1.0 radish – wild – 35 a 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † – – – – 0.8–3.2 – 1.5–2.8 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 – saffron thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 scotch thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.28 – – – 0.95–1.25 1.15–1.5 0.7–1.3 skeleton weed – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – – 0.95–1.9* 1.15* 1.0 shepherd’s purse – – – – – 30 i – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – sorrel – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.16–0.24 d 115–170 d – – – 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 soursob – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 0.95 1.15* 1.0 sowthistle 25 – – 9–26 75 30 i 0.5 i – 0.6 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.425–1.3 – 0.7–1.3 spear thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – – 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 spiny emex – – 25–75 9–26 75 30 i – – 0.9 r – 0.28 200–400 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 – 0.38–1.5 0.35–0.9 stinging nettle – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.8–3.2 – – – – – sub. clover – 35 u 25–75 9–26 75 30 (S) i 0.5 i – – 75 y z 0.2 t 140 t 0.8–3.2 m – 2.0–2.8 1.2–1.9 1.15–1.5 1.0–1.8 toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – turnip weed 20 35 u – 9–26 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.3 variegated thistle – – – – 75 – – – – – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.4 vetch – – – – – – – – – 75 y 0.28 200 1.8–3.2 – – – – – vulpia – – – – 75 – 0.5 i – – – – – 0.6–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 wild lettuce 30 or 20 i – – – 75 – – 0.1–0.2 † 0.6 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–2.4 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.625–1.3 – – wild oats – – – 9–26 75 – – – – – – – 0.6–2.4 0.6 1.5–2.8 0.625–0.95 0.38–1.15 0.35–1.0 wild turnip – 35 u – – 75 – 0.25–0.5 i – – – – – 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.3 winter grass – – – – 75 – – – – – – – – 1.2–1.6 – 0.95–1.25 0.76–1.5 0.7–1.4 wireweed – – – – 75 30 i – 0.1–0.2 † 0.8 p – 0.16–0.24 c 115–170 c 0.8–3.2 1.2–1.6 2.0–2.8 0.625–1.3 – 0.7–1.0 Water vol L/ha boom 50 min 50–100 50–150 80–250 30–200 50 min 60–150 70–150 50 min 50 min 50 min 50 min 50–200 50–200 50–200 80 max 25–100 25–100 Wheat plant-back 3 days u u 1 hr 1 day 1 hr 1–3 days h 1 hr 7 days 7 days 1–14 days 1–14 days 1 hr 1 hr 0 hr q 1 hr 24 hr 1 hr Herbicide group B B G G G G G + I G I I I I L L L + Q M M M a = A dd 400–800 mL glyphosate 450 for control. b = F luroxypyr is also available in 200 g/L and 400 g/L. See label for rates. c = A dd 0.4– 0.6 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. d = A dd 0.65– 0.8 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. e = C urled dock only. f = Indian hedge mustar d only. g = C ompatable with Amicide® Advance 700 (700 g/L 2,4-D amine). h = S ee Table 1 for other crops. Note rainfall required. i = A dd glyphosate for control, see label. j = L ong storksbill only. k = A dd dicamba for improved control. l = S ee label for controlling RR canola. m = For control add 5 g/ha Ally® or 0.5 L/ha dicamba. n = A dd 1.0 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. o = Wheat and barley only. See label. p = A dd 0.6 L/ha glyphosate 450 for control. q = S ee label for other crops. r = A dd 5 g/ha Ally® for control. s = Hammer® also available in 400 g/L. See label for rates. t = Tankmix with glyphosate for best results. u = S ee appropriate glyphosate label. v = S ee label for tankmix options in minimum till situations. w = A dd Hammer® for improved control. x = A dd Reglone® at 0.75–1.5 L/ha. y = A dd paraquat/diquat or glyphosate for control. z = C an also be used PSPE at 120–240 g/ha (S). See label. * = O nly registered in conjunction with a full soil disturbance cultivation. # = A lso available as Lontrel™ 750 SG (750 g/kg). † = White clover, French serradella and snail medic may be damaged. (S) = Suppr ession only. Crop usage AC = A ll Crops W = W heat CH = C hickpea C = C anola FB = F aba beans L = L upins LE = L entils T = T riticale O = O ats B = B arley WC = Winter Cereals FP = F ield Pea is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

177. 64 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 2 (continued) Rate per hectare Various trade names sometimes available under these concentrations. See specific labels for details. Fenoxaprop-p -ethyl 110 g/L Wildcat® Diclofop-methyl + Fenoxaprop -p-ethyl 250 g + 13 g/L Tristar® Advance Diclofop- methyl 500 g/L Hoegrass® 500 (Rhino® 375) i Tralkoxydim 400 g/kg Achieve® WG (Pentagon®) e Flamprop- m-methyl 90 g/L Mataven® 90 (Judgement®) c Triticale only Metosulam 100 g/L Eclipse® 100 SC Thifensulfuron + Metsulfuron- methyl 682 + 68 g/kg Harmony® M Triticale only Flumetsulam 800 g/kg Broadstrike ™ Diuron WG ◆ + MCPA 900 g/kg + 500 g/L Diurex® WG g + MCPA Amine 500 Pyrasulfotole 37.5 g/L + Bromoxynil 10 g/L Velocity® Pyrasulfotole 50 g/L + MCPA 250 g/L Precept® 300 EC b Dicamba 700 g/kg Cadence® Clopyralid 600 g/L Lontrel™ Advanced s Triticale only Fluroxypyr 140 g/L + Aminopyralid 10 g/L Hotshot ™ Triticale only MCPA + Diflufenican 250 + 25 g/L Tigrex® Apply at crop growth stage 2 L–Mid Till 2 L–Ea Till 2 L–Early Till 2 L–Ea Till 3 L–Full Till 2 L–1st node 3 L–Boot Mid Till–Ea Jo 3–5 L Till 2 L–Full Till 3 L–1st node 3 L–Mid Till 2 L–Boot 3 L–1st node 3–5 L to L Till Zadoks code 12–24 12–22 13–21 12–22 13–30 12–31 13–30 23–31 13–23 12–30 13–31 13–25 12–35/45 13–31 13–30 Weeds controlled (litres) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (millilitres) (grams) (grams) (kg + L) (litres) (litres) (grams) (litres) (litres) (litres) toad rush – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.0 turnip weed – – – – – 35–50 30 15–25 0.28 + 0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 variegated thistle – – – – – 35–50 y – – – – – 200 w Tankmix M 0.5–0.75 q v 1.0 (S) vetch – – – – – 35–50 y – – – 0.5–1.0 (S) 0.5 u 115 t 0.05 0.5–0.75 d – wild lettuce – – – – – 35–50 y 40 – – 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 p w – 0.75 v 0.5–1.0 wild oats 0.3–0.4 k 1.5 1.1–1.5 300–500 2.5 c – – – – – – – – – – wild turnip – – – – – 50 – 25 0.28–0.5 0.5–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – – 0.5–1.0 wireweed – – – – – – 40 – – 0.5 (S) 0.67–1.0 0.5–1.0 115 t – 0.5–0.75 f v 0.75 (S) Rec water L/ha boom 50–100 50–100 50–150 50–150 30–100 50–100 50 min 50–150 20–100 50–150 50–100 50 min 50 min 80 min 50 min Herbicide group A A A A Z B B B C + I H + C H + I I I I I + F Note: Monza® (sulfosulfron 750 g/kg) is registered for post-emergent use on triticale for control of amsinckia, field pea – volunteer, wild radish, vulpia, and wild turnip (herbicide group B). Tigrex® and Bromoxynil damage medics. a = C an be tankmixed with Hoegrass® b = A lso available as Precept® 150. See label for rates. c = C ontains 75 g/L flamprop-M-methyl. Use 3 L/ha rate. d = 500 mL (souther n NSW), 750 mL (northern NSW). e = Tralkoxydim also available in 600 g/L formulation, see label for rates. f = A dd 5 g metsulfuron-methyl (600 g/kg) and non-ionic wetter at 100 mL/100 L of water. g = A lternatively Diuron Flowable® 500, 500 g/L. h = A dd 1.0 L/ha MCPA 500 g/L for control. i = R hino® contains 375 g/L diclofop – methyl. See label for rates. j = R hino® and Hostage® registered for control. k = M ixtures with broadleaf herbicides may result in reduced grass weed control – see label. Use alone for phalaris control. l = Indian hedge mustar d only. m = S outhern NSW only. n = S ee label for tankmix of Broadstrike™ and other herbicides for control. o = N ot Clearfield Canola volunteers. p = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 5 g/ha Ally® for control. Add surfactant such as 100 mL BS1000®/100 L spray. q = A dd 500–700 mL MCPA LVE. See label. r = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 50 mL/ha Eclipse® 100 SC for control. Apply with Uptake™ spraying oil at 0.5 L/100 L water or D-C-Trate® oil at 1 L/100 L water. s = C lopyralid also available in 750 SG. See label for rates. t = Tankmix 115 g/ha Cadence® with 0.7 L/ha MCPA amine (500 g/L)/ha for control. u = A dd Lontrel™ 750 SG for control. See label for rates. v = N orthern NSW only. w = T riticale only. x = Subclo ver only. y = A dd partner herbicide for control. See label. z = Angustifolius (narrow-leaf ) lupin. M = M ix 25 mL/ha Lontrel™ Advanced with 1 L/ha MCPA Amine (500 g/L) or 0.7 L/ha LVE MCPA (500 g/L) for control. A = S ee label for controlling RR canola volunteers. (S) = Suppr ession only. ◆ = S ee What’s new in 2014 on page 3 . is a preferred option where NO legumes are to be undersown with the crop. is a preferred option where legumes are to be sown with the crop READ LABEL BEFORE USE. REGISTERED CHEMICALS AS AT March 30, 2014.

135. 22 Calculating Actual Ground Speed* Distance covered (m) × 3.6 Time taken (seconds) ( ) × 3.6 ( ) = ............... km/hr  ‘3.6’ in the calculation is a conversion factor to convert metres to kilometres (metres ÷ 1000) and seconds to hours (seconds ÷ 3600): D/1000 ÷ S/3600 = D/1000 × 3600/S = D/S × 3600/100 = D/S × 3.6. * To calculate your actual ground speed: • M easure a set distance, for example 100 metres. • M ake sure that the spraying conditions are like those in the area that you will be spraying. • R ecord how long it takes using the appropriate gears and revs. Now you can calculate the water application rate, how much chemical you will need to mix in each tank and how many tank loads you will need to do the whole job. Follow the steps below: 1. C opy the answers you worked out on the previous page into the boxes below. You will need these numbers to do the calculations on this page. (The numbers in black circles (e.g.  ) tell you the step where the answer is on the previous page. Total Spray Output ..................... litres/minute  Effective Spray Width ....................... metres  Actual Ground Speed ........................... km/hr  2. W ork out the water application rate by using the numbers you have recorded above. Put these numbers in the correct place in the calculation below. Water Application  × 600 ( ) × 600 ( )  Rate  ×  ( ) × ( ) = ( ) .................... litres/ha ‘600’ in the calculation is a conversion factor to convert litres per minute to litres per hour (minutes × 60), and kilometres to metres (km × 1000), then square metres (m × km × 1000 = m 2 ) to hectares (m 2 ÷ 10000): 60 ÷ 1000/10000 = 60 ÷ 1/10 = 60 × 10 = 600. Does this water application rate meet the chemical label requirements? (See Part B above) Y es No If not, how could you change this rate to meet this requirement? ............................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ 3. N ow that you know the water application rate you can calculate how much chemical you need to mix in each tank. Chemical Application Rate ................................................. litres/ha  Spray Tank Capacity ................................................. litres  How much chemical to mix in each tank?  (L/ha) ×  (L)  (L/ha) ( ) × ( ) ( ) = ........................ litres 4. Fin ally, you can now work out how many tank loads you will need to do the job. Spray mix needed for the job  (ha) ×  (L/ha) ( ) × ( ) = ........................ litres ❽ Number of tanks needed ❽ (L) ( )  (L) ( ) = ........................ tanks (To crosscheck your calculations: Number of tanks × Volume of chemical per tank = Area to be sprayed × Chemical rate) Source: SMARTtrain Calibration and Records Supplement 2010.

92. 90 Table 29. Field pea variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 Herbicide Triflur® 480 IBS Trifluralin Stomp® IBS Pendimethalin Terbyne® IBS Terbyne Sencor 750® PSPE Metribuzin Spinnaker® PSPE Imazethapyr Brodal® + MCPA Diflufenican + MCPA Raptor® Imazamox Broadstrike® Flumetsulam Brodal® Options Diflufenican Variety Years tested 2001–2012 2002–2012 2010–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 2005, 2008,2012 2001–2012 1996–2012 1997–2000 SW CELINE 2012 N(1/1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) 12(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) – CRC WALANA 2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) 12(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – EXCELL 1997–2010 13–13(3/4) 9(1/4) P (1) 11–56(4/7) N(2/10) N(1/3) N(3/6) 19(1/4) P (4) KASPA 2004–2012 N(1/3) 14(1/4) P (4) N(3/6) 13(1/4) P (3) N(2/4) N(2/3) – MAKI 2008 N(1/1) P (1) – P (1) N(1/1) N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) – MORGAN 1996–2008 N(1/1) P (1) – P (3) N(1/5) P (2) P (1) P (5) P (3) PARAFIELD 1999–2008 11–11(2/3) N(2/4) – 9–51(3/6) N(2/7) N(1/3) 8(1/4) 15(1/4) P (2) PBA GUNYAH 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA OURA 2010–2012 P (1) N(1/2) P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA PEARL 2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) 25(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA PERCY 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) 30(1/3) 17(1/3) 14–29(2/3) P (1) P (1) N(1/1) – STURT 2005–2012 P (3) P (3) P (2) N(2/3) 16(1/2) N(1/3) N(1/3) P (3) – TWLIGHT 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) P (2) P (2) N(1/2) P (1) P (1) P (1) – YARRUM 2005–2012 N(1/3) P (3) P (2) N(1/3) N(2/4) P (3) N(1/3) P (3) – Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 3.0 L 1.4 kg 380 g 100 g 150 ml + 150 ml 45 g 25 g 200 ml Crop stage at spraying  IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE 4 node 4 node 4 node 4 node Table 29. Field pea variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 (continued) Herbicide MCPA 250 MCPA Select® Clethodim Avadex® Xtra IBS Triallate Bladex® Cyanazine Igran® Terbutryn flowable Diuron PSPE Furrows open Diuron Diuron® 500 IBS Diuron 500 g/L Sencor® 750 2 node Metribuzin Terbyne® PSPE Terbyne Bladex® 900, 2 node Cyanazine Variety Years tested 1997 1998–2008 2003–2010 2002,2010 2004+2009 2005 2009–2010 2009 2010 2010 SW CELINE 2012 – – – – – – – – – – CRC WALANA 2012 – – – – – – – – – – EXCELL 1997–2010 N(1/1) P (4) P (3) P (1) 14–35(3/4) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) KASPA 2004–2012 – P (2) P (2) N(1/1) 8–20(3/4) N(1/1) 22(1/2) 23(1/1) P (1) P (1) MAKI 2008 – – – – – – – – – – MORGAN 1996–2008 P (1) P (2) – – – – – – – – PARAFIELD 1999–2008 – P (3) 12(1/2) P (1) N(2/3) P (1) – – – – PBA GUNYAH 2010–2012 – P (1) – N(1/1) – – N(1/1) – – – PBA OURA 2010–2012 – N(1/1) – P (1) – – N(1/1) – – – PBA PEARL 2012 – – – – – – – – – – PBA PERCY 2010–2012 – N(1/1) – P (1) – – N(1/1) – – – STURT 2005–2012 – – P (2) – N(1/1) – N(1/1) 17(1/1) N(1/1) N(1/1) TWLIGHT 2010–2012 – P (1) – N(1/1) – – N(1/1) – – – YARRUM 2005–2012 – – P (2) – N(1/1) – N(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) Rates (product/ha)  1.0 L 375 ml 1.6 L 2.0 kg 850 ml 1.21 L 1.50 L 380 g 1.0 kg 1.1 kg Crop stage at spraying  6 node 4 node IBS PSPE 3 node PSPE IBS 2 node PSPE 2 node

203. 90 Table 29. Field pea variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 Herbicide Triflur® 480 IBS Trifluralin Stomp® IBS Pendimethalin Terbyne® IBS Terbyne Sencor 750® PSPE Metribuzin Spinnaker® PSPE Imazethapyr Brodal® + MCPA Diflufenican + MCPA Raptor® Imazamox Broadstrike® Flumetsulam Brodal® Options Diflufenican Variety Years tested 2001–2012 2002–2012 2010–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 2005, 2008,2012 2001–2012 1996–2012 1997–2000 SW CELINE 2012 N(1/1) P (1) 9(1/1) P (1) 12(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) – CRC WALANA 2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) 12(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – EXCELL 1997–2010 13–13(3/4) 9(1/4) P (1) 11–56(4/7) N(2/10) N(1/3) N(3/6) 19(1/4) P (4) KASPA 2004–2012 N(1/3) 14(1/4) P (4) N(3/6) 13(1/4) P (3) N(2/4) N(2/3) – MAKI 2008 N(1/1) P (1) – P (1) N(1/1) N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) – MORGAN 1996–2008 N(1/1) P (1) – P (3) N(1/5) P (2) P (1) P (5) P (3) PARAFIELD 1999–2008 11–11(2/3) N(2/4) – 9–51(3/6) N(2/7) N(1/3) 8(1/4) 15(1/4) P (2) PBA GUNYAH 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA OURA 2010–2012 P (1) N(1/2) P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA PEARL 2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) 25(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – PBA PERCY 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) 30(1/3) 17(1/3) 14–29(2/3) P (1) P (1) N(1/1) – STURT 2005–2012 P (3) P (3) P (2) N(2/3) 16(1/2) N(1/3) N(1/3) P (3) – TWLIGHT 2010–2012 P (1) P (2) P (2) P (2) N(1/2) P (1) P (1) P (1) – YARRUM 2005–2012 N(1/3) P (3) P (2) N(1/3) N(2/4) P (3) N(1/3) P (3) – Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 3.0 L 1.4 kg 380 g 100 g 150 ml + 150 ml 45 g 25 g 200 ml Crop stage at spraying  IBS IBS IBS PSPE PSPE 4 node 4 node 4 node 4 node Table 29. Field pea variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 (continued) Herbicide MCPA 250 MCPA Select® Clethodim Avadex® Xtra IBS Triallate Bladex® Cyanazine Igran® Terbutryn flowable Diuron PSPE Furrows open Diuron Diuron® 500 IBS Diuron 500 g/L Sencor® 750 2 node Metribuzin Terbyne® PSPE Terbyne Bladex® 900, 2 node Cyanazine Variety Years tested 1997 1998–2008 2003–2010 2002,2010 2004+2009 2005 2009–2010 2009 2010 2010 SW CELINE 2012 – – – – – – – – – – CRC WALANA 2012 – – – – – – – – – – EXCELL 1997–2010 N(1/1) P (4) P (3) P (1) 14–35(3/4) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) KASPA 2004–2012 – P (2) P (2) N(1/1) 8–20(3/4) N(1/1) 22(1/2) 23(1/1) P (1) P (1) MAKI 2008 – – – – – – – – – – MORGAN 1996–2008 P (1) P (2) – – – – – – – – PARAFIELD 1999–2008 – P (3) 12(1/2) P (1) N(2/3) P (1) – – – – PBA GUNYAH 2010–2012 – P (1) – N(1/1) – – N(1/1) – – – PBA OURA 2010–2012 – N(1/1) – P (1) – – N(1/1) – – – PBA PEARL 2012 – – – – – – – – – – PBA PERCY 2010–2012 – N(1/1) – P (1) – – N(1/1) – – – STURT 2005–2012 – – P (2) – N(1/1) – N(1/1) 17(1/1) N(1/1) N(1/1) TWLIGHT 2010–2012 – P (1) – N(1/1) – – N(1/1) – – – YARRUM 2005–2012 – – P (2) – N(1/1) – N(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (1) Rates (product/ha)  1.0 L 375 ml 1.6 L 2.0 kg 850 ml 1.21 L 1.50 L 380 g 1.0 kg 1.1 kg Crop stage at spraying  6 node 4 node IBS PSPE 3 node PSPE IBS 2 node PSPE 2 node

93. 91 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Table 30. Oat variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 Herbicide Agtryne MA® Terbutryn + MCPA Bromoxynil Bromoxynil Glean® Chlorsulfuron Buttress® 2,4-DB Banvel M® Dicamba + MCPA Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Amicide 625® or Amicide 500 2,4-D Amine Tordon 242® Picloram + MCPA Variety Years tested 2002–2012 1996–2012 2000–2012 2001–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 1996–2012 1997–2012 BANNISTER 2012 P (1) N(1/1) P (1) 15(1/1) N(1/1) 11(1/1) 17(1/1) P (1) BARCOO 1999–2003 N(1/4) P (3) P (3) N(1/1) P (1) P (4) N(2/3) 16(1/2) BRUSHER 2003–2011 N(2/5) N(1/5) P (5) P (5) N(4/5) N(1/5) N(3/5) 6(1/5) COOLABAH 1996–1998 P (1) P (2) P (3) – – P (2) N(2/2) P (1) DROVER 2005 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) DUNNART 2011–2012 N(1/2) 9(1/2) P (2) P (2) N(1/2) 14(1/2) 8(1/2) P (2) EURABBIE 1999–2005 N(1/9) N(1/3) P (9) 10(1/2) 9–37(3/6) 10(1/8) 9–56(4/8) N(1/5) EURO 1996–2003 8(1/2) 13(1/3) P (2) P (2) 72(1/2) P (3) P (3) 5(1/3) FORESTER 2011 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) GWYDIR 1999–2003 12(1/4) 15(1/3) N(1/3) P (2) P (2) 16(1/4) N(2/3) 19(1/2) MANNUS 2003–2011 N(1/5) P (5) P (5) P (5) N(4/5) N(1/5) N(3/5) 7(1/2) MITIKA 2004–2012 N(2/7) 8(1/7) 17(1/7) 10–12(2/7) 9–15(2/3) N(3/7) 21(1/3) 9(1/3) MORTLOCK 1996 – P (1) P (1) – – – N(1/1) – MULGARA 2008–2010 P (3) N(1/3) P (3) P (3) N(2/3) N(3/3) N(2/3) N(1/3) POSSUM 2003–2010 22–22(2/4) 8(1/2) 21(1/7) P (5) 7–21(4/4) 11–11(2/4) N(2/7) N(1/5) QUOLL 1998–2002 8(1/4) N(1/3) P (4) N(1/1) 47(1/1) N(1/4) N(1/4) P (1) TAMMAR 2011–2012 N(1/2) N(1/2) P (2) P (2) P (2) N(2/2) N(1/2) P (2) TUNGOO 2008–2010 P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (3) N(2/3) N(1/3) N(2/3) N(1/3) WINTAROO 2003–2010 P (5) 5(1/5) P (5) P (5) N(3/5) N(2/5) N(2/5) N(2/5) WOMBAT 2011–2012 9–13(2/2) 10(1/2) P (2) 10–16(2/2) 16(1/2) 13(1/2) 19(1/2) 10(1/2) YALLARA 2011–2012 P (2) N(1/2) P (2) 8(1/2) N(1/2) 8–9(2/2) 19(1/2) P (2) YARRAN 1996–2003 5–6(2/6) 5–6(2/4) P (8) 6(1/2) 4–32(3/5) 4–10(2/7) 5–20(2/7) 8(1/6) YIDDAH 2001–2010 N(2/8) 8(1/6) P (8) N(1/6) 60(1/5) P (8) 9–20(2/5) 30(1/3) Rates (product/ha) 1.0 L 2.0 L 25 g 1.6 L 1.4–1.7 L 0.75 L 1.3 L–1.7 L 1.0 L Crop stage at spraying 3–5 leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf Table 30. Oat variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 (continued) Herbicide MCPA amine MCPA amine MCPA LVE MCPA LVE 2,4–D LVE 2,4–D LVE estercide 600g/kg Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Dual Gold®) PSPE S-Metolachlor Amicide® Advance700 2,4-D Amine Diuron500 Diuron Cadence® Dicamba Lontrel® Clopyralid Variety Years tested 1998–2005 2002–2004 2003 2002–2005 2004 2011 2009 1996–1999 1998 BANNISTER 2012                   BARCOO 1999–2003 P (1) – – – P (1) – – P (2) – BRUSHER 2003–2011 – – – – – 6(1/1) P (1) – – COOLABAH 1996–1998 P (1) – – – – – – P (1) P (1) DROVER 2005 – – – – – – – – – DUNNART 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – EURABBIE 1999–2005 P (5) P (3) 15(1/1) P (4) P (3) – – P (2) – EURO 1996–2003 – – – – – – – – – FORESTER 2011 – – – – – – – – – GWYDIR 1999–2003 P (1) – – – P (1) – – P (2) – MANNUS 2003–2011 – – – – – P (1) P (1) – – MITIKA 2004–2012 – – – – – 7(1/1) P (1) – – MORTLOCK 1996 – – – – – – – – – MULGARA 2008–2010 – – – – – – N(1/1) – – POSSUM 2003–2010 P (2) P (2) – 10–10(2/2) P (2) – P (1) – – QUOLL 1998–2002 N(1/2) – – – P (1) – – P (3) P (1) TAMMAR 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – TUNGOO 2008–2010 – – – – – – P (1) – – WINTAROO 2003–2010 – – – – – – N(1/1) – – WOMBAT 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – YALLARA 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – YARRAN 1996–2003 P (3) P (1) 7(1/1) 5–10(2/2) – – – N(1/1) P (1) YIDDAH 2001–2010 P (2) P (2) – P (2) P (2) – P (1) – – Rates (product/ha) 2.0 L 1.6 L 500 ml 2.0 L 500 ml 1.5 L 900 ml 200 g 300 ml Crop stage at spraying 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 3-leaf PSPE Z31 3-leaf 4-leaf 4-leaf

204. 91 Varietal and crop sensitivity to herbicides Table 30. Oat variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 Herbicide Agtryne MA® Terbutryn + MCPA Bromoxynil Bromoxynil Glean® Chlorsulfuron Buttress® 2,4-DB Banvel M® Dicamba + MCPA Tigrex® MCPA + Diflufenican Amicide 625® or Amicide 500 2,4-D Amine Tordon 242® Picloram + MCPA Variety Years tested 2002–2012 1996–2012 2000–2012 2001–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 1996–2012 1997–2012 BANNISTER 2012 P (1) N(1/1) P (1) 15(1/1) N(1/1) 11(1/1) 17(1/1) P (1) BARCOO 1999–2003 N(1/4) P (3) P (3) N(1/1) P (1) P (4) N(2/3) 16(1/2) BRUSHER 2003–2011 N(2/5) N(1/5) P (5) P (5) N(4/5) N(1/5) N(3/5) 6(1/5) COOLABAH 1996–1998 P (1) P (2) P (3) – – P (2) N(2/2) P (1) DROVER 2005 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) DUNNART 2011–2012 N(1/2) 9(1/2) P (2) P (2) N(1/2) 14(1/2) 8(1/2) P (2) EURABBIE 1999–2005 N(1/9) N(1/3) P (9) 10(1/2) 9–37(3/6) 10(1/8) 9–56(4/8) N(1/5) EURO 1996–2003 8(1/2) 13(1/3) P (2) P (2) 72(1/2) P (3) P (3) 5(1/3) FORESTER 2011 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) GWYDIR 1999–2003 12(1/4) 15(1/3) N(1/3) P (2) P (2) 16(1/4) N(2/3) 19(1/2) MANNUS 2003–2011 N(1/5) P (5) P (5) P (5) N(4/5) N(1/5) N(3/5) 7(1/2) MITIKA 2004–2012 N(2/7) 8(1/7) 17(1/7) 10–12(2/7) 9–15(2/3) N(3/7) 21(1/3) 9(1/3) MORTLOCK 1996 – P (1) P (1) – – – N(1/1) – MULGARA 2008–2010 P (3) N(1/3) P (3) P (3) N(2/3) N(3/3) N(2/3) N(1/3) POSSUM 2003–2010 22–22(2/4) 8(1/2) 21(1/7) P (5) 7–21(4/4) 11–11(2/4) N(2/7) N(1/5) QUOLL 1998–2002 8(1/4) N(1/3) P (4) N(1/1) 47(1/1) N(1/4) N(1/4) P (1) TAMMAR 2011–2012 N(1/2) N(1/2) P (2) P (2) P (2) N(2/2) N(1/2) P (2) TUNGOO 2008–2010 P (3) P (3) N(1/3) P (3) N(2/3) N(1/3) N(2/3) N(1/3) WINTAROO 2003–2010 P (5) 5(1/5) P (5) P (5) N(3/5) N(2/5) N(2/5) N(2/5) WOMBAT 2011–2012 9–13(2/2) 10(1/2) P (2) 10–16(2/2) 16(1/2) 13(1/2) 19(1/2) 10(1/2) YALLARA 2011–2012 P (2) N(1/2) P (2) 8(1/2) N(1/2) 8–9(2/2) 19(1/2) P (2) YARRAN 1996–2003 5–6(2/6) 5–6(2/4) P (8) 6(1/2) 4–32(3/5) 4–10(2/7) 5–20(2/7) 8(1/6) YIDDAH 2001–2010 N(2/8) 8(1/6) P (8) N(1/6) 60(1/5) P (8) 9–20(2/5) 30(1/3) Rates (product/ha) 1.0 L 2.0 L 25 g 1.6 L 1.4–1.7 L 0.75 L 1.3 L–1.7 L 1.0 L Crop stage at spraying 3–5 leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 3-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf Table 30. Oat variety response to herbicides Advanced Evaluation trials 1996–2012 (continued) Herbicide MCPA amine MCPA amine MCPA LVE MCPA LVE 2,4–D LVE 2,4–D LVE estercide 600g/kg Buctril® MA Bromoxynil + MCPA Dual Gold®) PSPE S-Metolachlor Amicide® Advance700 2,4-D Amine Diuron500 Diuron Cadence® Dicamba Lontrel® Clopyralid Variety Years tested 1998–2005 2002–2004 2003 2002–2005 2004 2011 2009 1996–1999 1998 BANNISTER 2012                   BARCOO 1999–2003 P (1) – – – P (1) – – P (2) – BRUSHER 2003–2011 – – – – – 6(1/1) P (1) – – COOLABAH 1996–1998 P (1) – – – – – – P (1) P (1) DROVER 2005 – – – – – – – – – DUNNART 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – EURABBIE 1999–2005 P (5) P (3) 15(1/1) P (4) P (3) – – P (2) – EURO 1996–2003 – – – – – – – – – FORESTER 2011 – – – – – – – – – GWYDIR 1999–2003 P (1) – – – P (1) – – P (2) – MANNUS 2003–2011 – – – – – P (1) P (1) – – MITIKA 2004–2012 – – – – – 7(1/1) P (1) – – MORTLOCK 1996 – – – – – – – – – MULGARA 2008–2010 – – – – – – N(1/1) – – POSSUM 2003–2010 P (2) P (2) – 10–10(2/2) P (2) – P (1) – – QUOLL 1998–2002 N(1/2) – – – P (1) – – P (3) P (1) TAMMAR 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – TUNGOO 2008–2010 – – – – – – P (1) – – WINTAROO 2003–2010 – – – – – – N(1/1) – – WOMBAT 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – YALLARA 2011–2012 – – – – – – – – – YARRAN 1996–2003 P (3) P (1) 7(1/1) 5–10(2/2) – – – N(1/1) P (1) YIDDAH 2001–2010 P (2) P (2) – P (2) P (2) – P (1) – – Rates (product/ha) 2.0 L 1.6 L 500 ml 2.0 L 500 ml 1.5 L 900 ml 200 g 300 ml Crop stage at spraying 5-leaf 5-leaf 5-leaf 3-leaf PSPE Z31 3-leaf 4-leaf 4-leaf

94. 92 Table 31. Lupin variety response to herbicides Herbicide Triflur®480® IBS Trifluralin Stomp® IBS Pendimethalin Simazine 500 g/L Simazine Brodal® 8–0 Leaf Diflufenican Eclipse® 4 leaf Metosulam Eclipse® 6–10 leaf Metosulam Avadex®Xtra IBS Triallate Terbyne® IBS Terbyne Terbyne® PSPE Terbyne Eclipse® + Brodal® 2–6 leaf Metosulam + Diflufenican Variety Years tested 2000–2012 1997–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 1996–2012 1996–2008 2002–2010 2010–2012 2010 2009 COROMUP 2008 P (1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) – – – – – JENABILLUP 2010–2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – – 8(1/2) – – JINDALEE 1997–2012 P (8) P (8) N(2/9) N(1/6) 15(1/6) N(1/6) P (2) P (1) – – K A LYA 1998–1999 – – P (2) 11(1/1) N(1/2) P (1) – – – – KIEV MUTANT 1996–2008 P (8) P (8) N(5/9) N(1/6) P (7) P (8) P (2) – – – LUXOR 2004–2012 P (4) P (5) N(2/4) P (4) P (3) P (1) P (2) 6(1/3) 12(1/1) N(1/1) MAGNA 1999 – – P (1) – P (1) P (1) – – – – MANDELUP 2001–2012 P (5) P (6) N(2/5) N(1/4) N(1/3) N(1/2) 8(1/3) 9(1/3) N(1/1) 15(1/2) MERRIT 1996–1999 – P (1) P (2) P (3) 13(1/4) 14(1/3) – – – – MOONAH 2000–2002 P (1) – N(1/1) P (1) P (3) N(1/1) – – – – MYALLIE 1996–1999 – – P (2) P (2) N(2/3) 19(1/2) – – – – PBA GUNYIDI 2010–2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – – P (1) – – QUILINOCK 2000–2005 P (7) P (6) N(1/7) N(1/3) P (3) N(2/5) P (2) – – – ROSETTA 2004–2012 P (4) P (5) N(1/4) P (4) N(1/3) P (1) P (2) N(1/3) N(1/1) P (1) TANJIL 1998 – – P (1) P (1) N(1/1) – – – – – WONGA 1996–2010 P (7) P (9) N(2/10) N(2/7) 8(1/8) 14–24(2/7) P (4) N(1/1) N(1/1) 16(1/2) Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 3.0 L 3.0 L 200 ml 10 g 10 g 1.6 L 1.0 L 1.0 L 7 g + 100 ml Crop stage at spraying IBS IBS PSPE 8–10 leaf 2–6 leaf 6–10 leaf IBS IBS PSPE 2–6 leaf Table 31. Lupin variety response to herbicides (continued) Herbicide Simazine 4–6 leaf Simazine Fusion® Fluazifop-p + Butroxydim Simazine900 + Brodal® 4–6 leaf Simazine + Diflufenican Simazine + Brodal® 6–10 leaf Simazine + Diflufenican Targa® Quizalofop-P-ethyl Eclipse® + Brodal® 4–8 leaf Metosulam + Diflufenican Verdict®520 Haloxyfop-R Sertin® Sethoxydim Select® Clethodim Simazine + Trifluralin IBS Simazine + Trifluralin Variety Years tested 2004 2004–2005 2005 1996 2002 2001 1998–2001 1998–2000 1999 1998 COROMUP 2008 – – – – – – – – – – JENABILLUP 2010–2012 – – – – – – – – – – JINDALEE 1997–2012 – – N(1/1) – P (1) P (1) P (3) P (2) – P (1) K A LYA 1998–1999 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) KIEV MUTANT 1996–2008 – – N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (2) P (1) P (1) – LUXOR 2004–2012 P (1) P (1) – – – – – – – – MAGNA 1999 – – – – – – – – P (1) – MANDELUP 2001–2012 P (1) P (1) – – P (1) – – – – – MERRIT 1996–1999 – – – 18(1/1) – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) MOONAH 2000–2002 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) – – MYALLIE 1996–1999 – – – N(1/1) – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) PBA GUNYIDI 2010–2012 – – – – – – – – – – QUILINOCK 2000–2005 – – N(1/1) – P (1) P (1) P (2) P (1) – – ROSETTA 2004–2012 P (1) P (1) – – – – – – – – TANJIL 1998 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) – P (1) WONGA 1996–2010 P (1) P (1) N(1/1) 22(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) P (3) P (2) P (1) P (1) Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 280 ml–600 ml 1.0 L+150 ml 2.0 L + 200 ml 375 ml 5 g + 100 ml 100 ml 1.0 L 250 ml 1.5 L + 1.5 L Crop stage at spraying 4–6 leaf 6–leaf 4–6 leaf 8–10 leaf 2–6 leaf 2–6 leaf 6–10 leaf 6 leaf 4 leaf IBS

205. 92 Table 31. Lupin variety response to herbicides Herbicide Triflur®480® IBS Trifluralin Stomp® IBS Pendimethalin Simazine 500 g/L Simazine Brodal® 8–0 Leaf Diflufenican Eclipse® 4 leaf Metosulam Eclipse® 6–10 leaf Metosulam Avadex®Xtra IBS Triallate Terbyne® IBS Terbyne Terbyne® PSPE Terbyne Eclipse® + Brodal® 2–6 leaf Metosulam + Diflufenican Variety Years tested 2000–2012 1997–2012 1998–2012 1996–2012 1996–2012 1996–2008 2002–2010 2010–2012 2010 2009 COROMUP 2008 P (1) P (1) N(1/1) P (1) N(1/1) – – – – – JENABILLUP 2010–2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – – 8(1/2) – – JINDALEE 1997–2012 P (8) P (8) N(2/9) N(1/6) 15(1/6) N(1/6) P (2) P (1) – – K A LYA 1998–1999 – – P (2) 11(1/1) N(1/2) P (1) – – – – KIEV MUTANT 1996–2008 P (8) P (8) N(5/9) N(1/6) P (7) P (8) P (2) – – – LUXOR 2004–2012 P (4) P (5) N(2/4) P (4) P (3) P (1) P (2) 6(1/3) 12(1/1) N(1/1) MAGNA 1999 – – P (1) – P (1) P (1) – – – – MANDELUP 2001–2012 P (5) P (6) N(2/5) N(1/4) N(1/3) N(1/2) 8(1/3) 9(1/3) N(1/1) 15(1/2) MERRIT 1996–1999 – P (1) P (2) P (3) 13(1/4) 14(1/3) – – – – MOONAH 2000–2002 P (1) – N(1/1) P (1) P (3) N(1/1) – – – – MYALLIE 1996–1999 – – P (2) P (2) N(2/3) 19(1/2) – – – – PBA GUNYIDI 2010–2012 P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) – – P (1) – – QUILINOCK 2000–2005 P (7) P (6) N(1/7) N(1/3) P (3) N(2/5) P (2) – – – ROSETTA 2004–2012 P (4) P (5) N(1/4) P (4) N(1/3) P (1) P (2) N(1/3) N(1/1) P (1) TANJIL 1998 – – P (1) P (1) N(1/1) – – – – – WONGA 1996–2010 P (7) P (9) N(2/10) N(2/7) 8(1/8) 14–24(2/7) P (4) N(1/1) N(1/1) 16(1/2) Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 3.0 L 3.0 L 200 ml 10 g 10 g 1.6 L 1.0 L 1.0 L 7 g + 100 ml Crop stage at spraying IBS IBS PSPE 8–10 leaf 2–6 leaf 6–10 leaf IBS IBS PSPE 2–6 leaf Table 31. Lupin variety response to herbicides (continued) Herbicide Simazine 4–6 leaf Simazine Fusion® Fluazifop-p + Butroxydim Simazine900 + Brodal® 4–6 leaf Simazine + Diflufenican Simazine + Brodal® 6–10 leaf Simazine + Diflufenican Targa® Quizalofop-P-ethyl Eclipse® + Brodal® 4–8 leaf Metosulam + Diflufenican Verdict®520 Haloxyfop-R Sertin® Sethoxydim Select® Clethodim Simazine + Trifluralin IBS Simazine + Trifluralin Variety Years tested 2004 2004–2005 2005 1996 2002 2001 1998–2001 1998–2000 1999 1998 COROMUP 2008 – – – – – – – – – – JENABILLUP 2010–2012 – – – – – – – – – – JINDALEE 1997–2012 – – N(1/1) – P (1) P (1) P (3) P (2) – P (1) K A LYA 1998–1999 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) KIEV MUTANT 1996–2008 – – N(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) P (1) P (2) P (1) P (1) – LUXOR 2004–2012 P (1) P (1) – – – – – – – – MAGNA 1999 – – – – – – – – P (1) – MANDELUP 2001–2012 P (1) P (1) – – P (1) – – – – – MERRIT 1996–1999 – – – 18(1/1) – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) MOONAH 2000–2002 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) – – MYALLIE 1996–1999 – – – N(1/1) – – P (1) P (1) P (1) P (1) PBA GUNYIDI 2010–2012 – – – – – – – – – – QUILINOCK 2000–2005 – – N(1/1) – P (1) P (1) P (2) P (1) – – ROSETTA 2004–2012 P (1) P (1) – – – – – – – – TANJIL 1998 – – – – – – P (1) P (1) – P (1) WONGA 1996–2010 P (1) P (1) N(1/1) 22(1/1) N(1/1) P (1) P (3) P (2) P (1) P (1) Rates (product/ha)  1.5 L 280 ml–600 ml 1.0 L+150 ml 2.0 L + 200 ml 375 ml 5 g + 100 ml 100 ml 1.0 L 250 ml 1.5 L + 1.5 L Crop stage at spraying 4–6 leaf 6–leaf 4–6 leaf 8–10 leaf 2–6 leaf 2–6 leaf 6–10 leaf 6 leaf 4 leaf IBS

8. 6 Weed glossary (spp. = species) amaranth ........................................................... Amaranthus spp. amsinckia .............................................................. Amsinckia spp. annual ground cherry ..................................... Physalis angulata annual ryegrass ................................................... Lolium rigidum barley grass .................................................. Hordeum leporinum barnyard grass .......................................... Echinochloa crus‑galli Bathurst burr ............................................... Xanthium spinosum bedstraw ....................................................... Galium tricornutum black bindweed ........................................... Fallopia convolvulus blackberry nightshade ...................................... Solanum nigrum bladder ketmia ................................................. Hibiscus trionum Boggabri weed ........................................... Amaranthus mitchelli brome grass .............................................................. Bromus spp. buchan weed ................................................. Hirschfeldia incana button grass ........................................ Dactyloctenium radulans caltrop (yellow vine) ....................................... Tribulus terrestris canary grass ................................................. Phalaris canariensis capeweed ..................................................... Arctotheca calendula charlock .............................................................. Sinapis arvensis cleavers ................................................................ Galium aparine clovers .................................................................... Trifolium spp. common barbgrass ..................................... Monerma cylindrica corn gromwell ............................................ Buglossoides arvense couch ............................................................... Cynodon dactylon crassula ..................................................................... Crassula spp. cudweed ............................................................ Gnaphalium spp. datura (thornapple) .................................................. Datura spp. deadnettle ................................................ Lamium amplexicaule docks ........................................................................... Rumex spp. fat hen ........................................................ Chenopodium album fleabane ...................................................................... Conyza spp. fumitory ................................................................... Fumaria spp. heliotrope (white) ............................... Heliotropium europaeum Hexham scent .................................................... Melilotus indicus hoary cress ........................................................... Cardaria draba hogweed ...................................................... Polygonum aviculare horehound .................................................... Marrubium vulgare Johnson grass ................................................ Sorghum halepense lesser swine cress ........................................ Coronopus didymus liverseed grass ............................................. Urochloa panicoides melon camel/afghan ......................................... Citrullus lanatus melon paddy/prickly ............................... Cucumis myriocarpus mexican poppy .......................................... Argemone ochroleuca mintweed ................................................................. Salvia reflexa mustards ............................................................ Sisymbrium spp. New Zealand spinach .......................... Tetragonia tetragonoides noogoora burr .......................................... Xanthium occidentale nut grass ........................................................... Cyperus rotundus oxalis ............................................................................ Oxalis spp. paradoxa grass ............................................... Phalaris paradoxa Paterson’s curse ........................................ Echium plantagineum peachvine .................................................... Ipomea lonchophylla peppercress ............................................................ Lepidium spp. phalaris annual ..................................................... Phalaris minor phalaris annual ............................................... Phalaris paradoxa phalaris perennial ............................................ Phalaris aquatica pigweed ......................................................... Portulacca oleracea plantain .................................................................... Plantago spp. potato weed ............................................................ Solanum spp. rough poppy ................................................... Papaver hybridum saffron thistle ................................................. Carthamus lanatus scotch thistle .......................................... Onopordum acanthium Shepherd’s purse .................................... Capsella bursa‑pastoris skeleton weed .................................................. Chondrilla juncea slender thistle ........................................ Carduus pycnocephalus sorrel .................................................................. Rumex acetosella soursob .............................................................. Oxalis pes‑caprae sowthistle .................................................................. Sonchus spp. spear/black thistle .............................................. Cirsium vulgare spiny emex ............................................................ Emex australis spurge .................................................................... Euphorbia spp. St Barnaby thistle ....................................... Centaurea solstitialis star thistle ................................................... Centaurea calcitrapa stinging nettle .............................................................. Urtica spp. stink grass ................................................... Eragrostis cilianensis stinking goosefoot ........................................ Chenopodium spp. storksbill .................................................................. erodium spp. sweet summer grass .............................................. Digitaria spp. toad rush .............................................................. Juncus bufonius turnip weed .................................................. Rapistrum rugosum variegated thistle .......................................... Silybum marianum vetch ............................................................................... Vicia spp. vulpia ..................................... Vulpia bromoides, Vulpia myuros wild/prickly lettuce .................................................. Lactuca spp. wild oat .................................... Avena fatua, Avena ludoviciana wild radish ............................................ Raphanus raphanistrum wild turnip ................................................... Brassica tournefortii Wimmera ryegrass ............................................. Lolium rigidum winter grass ................................................................. Poa annua wireweed ..................................................... Polygonum aviculare

6. 4 Contents What’s new in 2014? ..............................................................   3 Weed control management in winter crops .......................   5 Weed glossary (spp. = species) ............................................    6 Cereal growth stages – the Zadoks Scale ............................   7 Growth stages of cereal crops ..............................................   8 Using the growth stages of cereal crops to time herbicide applications ........................................................   9 Using herbicides successfully ............................................... 10 Poison warnings on herbicide labels ................................... 10 Table 1. Guidelines for crop rotations – Fallow commencement/maintenance and presowing seedbed weed control ........................................................ 11 Table 2. Guidelines for crop rotations – In crop herbicides ............................................................................ 12 Harvest aid or salvage spraying of winter crops ................ 13 Table 3. Rainfastness – stock withholding periods – harvest withholding periods ............................................. 14 Water quality for herbicide application .............................. 16 Using adjuvants, surfactants and oils with herbicides ...... 17 Some adjuvants in common use .......................................... 18 Tips for tankmixing herbicides ............................................ 19 Directory of herbicide manufacturers/distributors .......... 19 Cleaning and decontaminating boomsprays ..................... 20 Boomspray calibration .......................................................... 21 Managing your legal responsibilities in applying pesticides ............................................................................. 23 How to fill out your Pesticide Application Record Sheet . 24 Pesticide Application Record ............................................... 25 Reducing herbicide spray drift ............................................ 26 Identifying cereal seedlings .................................................. 31 Preferred options ................................................................... 31 Table 4. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Grass weed control .................................. 32 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 1 ............ 34 Table 5. Herbicides for fallow commencement and/or maintenance – Broadleaf weed control – Part 2 ............ 36 Table 6. Herbicides for presowing seedbed weed control ................................................................................. 40 Table 7. Herbicides for pre-emergent and post-sowing pre-emergent weed control .............................................. 42 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 1 .......................... 44 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 2 .......................... 46 Table 8. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Early post-emergence – Part 3 ................... 48 Table 9. Herbicides for weed control for wheat and barley – Late post-emergence ................................... 50 Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 1 ......................................... 51 Table 10. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Early post-emergence – Part 2 ......................................... 52 Table 11. Herbicides for weed control for oats – Late post-emergence .......................................................... 53 Herbicide resistance management ...................................... 56 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 1 ................ 61 Table 12. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Early post-emergence – Part 2 ................ 63 Table 13. Herbicides for weed control for cereal rye and triticale – Late post-emergence ................................ 65 Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Pre-emergence .................................................................... 66 Table 14. Herbicides for weed control for canola – Early post-emergence ........................................................ 67 Table 15. Herbicides for weed control for safflower .......... 68 Table 16. Herbicides for weed control for linseed and linola ............................................................................. 69 Pulse crop growth stages ...................................................... 70 Table 17. Herbicides for weed control for chickpea ......... 74 Table 18. Herbicides for weed control for field pea