Seed Impurities of Grain Identification Kit

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1. 3rd Edition Seed Impurities of Grain... ... an identification kit

18. 2 Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale Angular Seed Description Seed is reddish brown in colour with a matt appearance. Oval in shape with an angular appearance.

37. 21 Spiny Burrgrass Cenchrus incertus Seed Description A cream coloured burr with numerous bristles. Burr contains one or more florets. Angular

22. 6 Spiny Rush Juncus acutus Angular Seed Description Large dense clusters of capsules enclose the seeds. The seeds are brownish-red and angular with a shiny coat.

32. 16 Wireweed Polygonum arenastrum Angular Seed Description Seed is generally reddish-brown, but may be black. Seed is angular and often a perianth partially encapsulates the seed.

42. 26 New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonoides Angular Seed Description Seed is in hard woody fruit, which appears dry and grey. The cone shaped fruit has up to 5 horns protruding.

63. 47 Oats (Bearded) Avena barbata Seed Description Seeds are brown to cream, hairy curled and bent awns extending from the base. Elongated

80. 64 London Rocket Sisymbrium irio Oval Seed Description This seed is yellow, faintly pitted and has a glossy surface. The seed is oval in shape and compressed.

31. 15 Ragweed Ambrosia spp. Seed Description Seed is brown and woody, with a central horn protruding from the base. The horn is encompassed by up to 8 smaller and shorter horns. Angular

33. 17 Bindweed (Australian) Convolvulus erubescens Seed Description Seed is dark brown. The seed is rounded on the back and has two flat faces. The seed coat is not of a uniform colour, has veins running through the coat. Angular

34. 18 Onion Weed Asphodelus fistulosus Angular Seed Description These seeds are black and triangular with one curved side and two flattened sides. The surface is wrinkled and deep oval indentations along the three sides.

17. 1 Cape Tulip Homeria spp. Seed Description Seeds are formed in cylindrical capsules and appear dark brown. Two sides are flattened and one end tapers to a point. Angular

19. 3 Indian Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium orientale Seed Description Seeds contained in cylindrical pods, 6-12 cm long which may contain up to sixty seeds. Seeds are yellow-brown in colour, oblong shaped and compressed. Angular

36. 20 Bindweed (Black) Fallopia convolvulus Angular Seed Description Seed is three sided and black. Often a dull brown hull may be present, leaving only part of the seed surface exposed.

57. 41 Triticale Triticosecale spp. Seed Description Seeds are wrinkled and a dull pale brown colour. The seeds are elongated and always free of husks as seed is easily removed. Elongated

106. 90 Mustard Sisymbrium spp. Round Seed Description Seeds are round and golden to pale brown in colour. The seed coat is smooth with a light brown hilum present.

24. 8 Bindweed (Field) Convolvulus arvensis Angular Seed Description Seed is brown in colour and appears to have a granular surface. The seed is flattened on two faces, with a rounded back.

61. 45 Oats (Sand) Avena strigosa Seed Description Seed is elongated with points at both ends and free of any hairs. Seed is brown with distinctive longitudinal stripes running along the seed. Elongated

62. 46 Oats (Sterile) Avena sterilis Elongated Seed Description Glumes and bracts very in colour from cream to dark brown and are covered by longitudinal ribs and shiny hairs.

64. 48 Brome (Sterile) Bromus sterilis Elongated Seed Description Floret may be tinged purple and with fine, short hairs. Glumes are narrow and of unequal length. The lemmas are finely pointed and divided at the tip.

73. 57 Darling Pea Swainsona spp. Seed Description The seed coat is often light to dark brown in colour. The seed is flat and kidney shaped with a pitted surface. Kidney

82. 66 Australian Carrot Daucus glochidiatus Oval Seed Description Seed is cream coloured, covered in spikes and tapers to a narrow point at one end. When mature the seeds split longitudinally.

90. 74 Colombus Grass Sorghum almum Oval Seed Description The seed is generally found enclosed within bracts, which are reddish-black and appear smooth and glossy.

94. 78 Bathurst Burr Xanthium spinosum Oval Seed Description A brown burr is covered with many equal length hooked barbs, and two unequal longer spines at one end.

111. 95 Wild Sage Salvia verbenaca Seed Description Seeds are dark brown with a dull surface. The seed is round with a slightly tapered point at one end. Round

29. 13 Tree Hogweed Polygonum patulum Seed Description Seeds have three flat sides, are shiny and reddish-brown in colour. Part of the seed is often covered by a dry papery material. Angular

55. 39 Darnel Lolium temulentum Seed Description The floret is straw coloured, plump in appearance, with a long slender awn protruding from the apex. Other Common Names Bearded Ryegrass Drake Elongated

56. 40 Fescue Festuca spp. Elongated Seed Description The seed is white, with a long awn protruding from the tip. The tip of the seed is narrow and turned to one side, generally occurring as an individual floret when mature.

58. 42 Prairie Grass Bromus catharticus Elongated Seed Description Seeds are a pale cream colour and elongated with pointed ends. The apex is covered with fine hairs. Sometimes the seeds are found in a floret, with awns being absent.

59. 43 Barley Grass Hordeum leporinum Seed Description Seed is identified by its long, hairy sharp awns which extend from the glumes. The centre awns are shorter than the outer awns. The seed may be green to cream, depending upon seed maturity. Elongated

65. 49 Brome (Great) Bromus diandrus Seed Description Seed is generally found as a straw coloured floret, or as a cluster of florets. The inner husk of the floret usually tapers into a long rough awn which is easily broken. Elongated

66. 50 Cut-leaved Mignonette Reseda lutea Kidney Seed Description The seed is straw-coloured, sometimes appearing dark brown to black. The seed surface is shiny, and the hilum is cream coloured.

67. 51 Poppy (Onion) Papaver somniferum Seed Description The kidney shaped seed may be white to dark brown in colour and the surface is covered with many regular shaped indentations. Kidney

86. 70 Barnyard Grass Echinochloa crus-galli Oval Seed Description Seed is green to yellow, but sometimes brown. Pale hairs extend longitudinally along the seed, with a bristle and awn present at the tip.

95. 79 Noogoora Burr Xanthium strumarium Seed Description This seed has a brown coloured surface which is covered with hooked spines, and two horns at the apex. Oval

155. Postal Address: PO Box R1829 Royal Exchange NSW 1225 Email: admin@graintrade.org.au Web: www.graintrade.org.au

20. 4 Loosetrife Lythrum spp. Angular Seed Description The seed is an irregular shape, often angular, amber coloured and finely pitted, with longitudinal indentation along the surface. A papery coat partially covers the seed.

21. 5 Sorrel Acetosella vulgaris Seed Description Seed is round with tapering occurring at both ends giving the seed a triangular appearance when viewing from either end of the seed. Seed is brown in colour and dull in appearance. Angular

23. 7 Bellvine Ipomoea plebeia Seed Description Seed is a dull brown to black colour with a finely pitted surface. The seed has two faces, one being rounded and the other being flat. Stiff hairs cover the edges of the seed and around the hilum. Angular

40. 24 Starburr Acanthospermum hispidum Angular Seed Description Seed is generally found enclosed in the wedge shaped yellow to dark brown burr. The surface of the burr is covered in short, hooked spines with two large spines at the ends.

43. 27 Cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata Seed Description Seeds are pale and elongated with soft hairs on the keel. A short straight awn extends from the seed. Other Common Names Orchard Grass Elongated

52. 36 Brome (Soft) Bromus molliformis Elongated Seed Description Spikelet is up to 3.5 cm long including the awns. The lemma is elliptical in shape and the glumes have up to nine longitudinal ribs on the cream surface.

71. 55 Rattlepods Crotalaria spp. Seed Description Seeds are kidney shaped, with one end being plumper than the other. Seeds vary in colour from cream to dark brown. Kidney

83. 67 Buchan Weed Hirschfeldia incana Seed Description Seeds are tan colour and oval shaped with a white hilum which is sometimes darkened. A single seed is contained in a pod, the pods being 3-6 mm long and swollen at the base. Oval

84. 68 Giant Sensitive Tree Mimosa pigra Oval Seed Description Seeds appear a yellow to brown ochre colour, rounded and easily identified by a glossy surface. The seeds are contained within brown, rectangular pods which have a prickly surface.

91. 75 Wheat Triticum aestivum Seed Description Seeds are golden, but some lower protein varieties appear less glossy. Seeds are generally plump and oblong in shape with a crease on the underside. Oval

92. 76 Durum Triticum durum Oval Seed Description Seed is golden and appears vitreous, is oblong and may have fine bristles at the end. A crease is evident on the underside of the seed.

93. 77 Rice (Paddy) Oryza sativa Seed Description Seed is straw coloured with points at both ends, the seed coat is ribbed and the seed is oval in shape with slight tapering at both ends. Oval

112. 96 Ball Mustard Neslia paniculata Round Seed Description Seed is yellow to brown, depending upon maturity. A veined surface on a round seed with a short apical point. Often found in cream coloured pods at maturity.

113. 97 Buttercup Ranunculus spp. Seed Description Seed is generally found inside pale flat brown fruits which appear pitted with a small hook at one end. The fruit has a distinctive pale border around the perimeter. Round

124. 108 Soybean Glycine max Round Seed Description Seeds are round and cream coloured. The hilum is dark brown to black.

131. 115 Wild Lettuce Lactuca spp. Seed Description Seed is contained within a smooth, flat fruit which is brown with a white collar. Fine hairs which are easily removed may be attached to the collar. Spoon Shaped

133. 117 Phalaris Phalaris aquatica Seed Description Seed is hard and covered with fine hairs when immature and with maturity the seed becomes glossy. Two fertile lemmas are attached to the base of the seed. Spoon Shaped

140. 124 Nightshades Solanum spp. Spoon Shaped Seed Description The seed is yellow or brown, flat and with a lightly pitted surface. Seeds are often found in black berries.

30. 14 Knotweed Polygnum aviculare Angular Seed Description Often the seed is found partially enclosed in a reddish papery perianth. The seed is glossy and reddish-brown to black, with three flat sides. Other Common Names Hogweed

26. 10 Jute Corchorus olitorius Angular Seed Description The seed is grey-black in colour with a matt appearance. Seed is angular, partially flattened and appearing triangular in outline. Numerous seeds are found in the five cells of the fruits.

27. 11 Mintweed Salvia reflexa Seed Description The seed is ovate, smooth, dull and yellow-grey to tan in colour, often contained in the granular fruit pod with longitudinal veins protruding from the surface, and tapered at both ends. Angular

35. 19 Small Burrgrass Tragus australianus Seed Description Spikelets are oval shaped with both ends tapering. They are yellow-brown and are covered with numerous small spines. Other Common Names Tickgrass Angular

38. 22 Spiny Emex Emex australis Angular Seed Description A three spined, hard, brown woody capsules contains the seeds. The capsule is covered with deep irregular indentations. Other Common Names Doublegee, Threecornered Jack

46. 30 Cereal Rye Secale cereale Elongated Seed Description Seeds are wrinkled and light to dark brown. Seeds are wedge shaped with a flattened base. Other Common Names Rye Ryecorn

48. 32 Thistle (Variegated) Silybum marianum Elongated Seed Description Seed is an egg shape and has a distinctive collar. Seed is not released from the fruit. Surface is smooth, and light greyish or yellowish-brown with copious longitudinal black streaks.

68. 52 Fat Hen Chenopodium album Kidney Seed Description The seed is small, glossy and black, and is often found enclosed in a papery case known as a pericarp. Other Common Names White Goosefoot

69. 53 Lucerne Medicago sativa Seed Description Seed is tan to brown in colour, kidney shaped with a matt surface. Often seeds are found in a curled pod. Other Common Names Alfalfa Kidney

75. 59 Poppy (Horned) Glaucium flavum Seed Description Seeds are rounded one end and the other end is pointed. The seed surface is brown and covered with regular short markings. Kidney

77. 61 Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Seed Description Seed is kidney shaped to oval, with seed coat being reddish brown and smooth. The hilum is distinctive and a lighter colour than the rest of the seed coat. Kidney

79. 63 St. Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum Seed Description Seed is covered with many indentations and is light to dark brown. End of the seed is rounded, giving the entire seed a cylindrical appearance. Oval

88. 72 Sesbania Pea Sesbania cannabina Oval Seed Description Seed colour varies from green to brown, depending upon maturity. Seed is generally rectangular with rounded corners. The hilum is white with one darkened side.

89. 73 Johnson Grass Sorghum halepense Seed Description The seed is usually found enclosed in smooth, glossy, reddish-brown/black bracts. Seed is similar to that of Columbus Grass; however, the seed of Johnson Grass is shorter and thinner. Oval

98. 82 Dodder Cuscuta spp. Round Seed Description The seed is irregularly shaped and tan coloured. One side of the seed is rounded and the entire surface of the seed appears granular.

99. 83 Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium Seed Description Seeds are dark brown to black and kidney shaped. The surface of the seed is covered with a network of indentations. Round

105. 89 Millet (Japanese) Echinochloa esculenta Seed Description Seed is round with pints at both ends of seed. The seed is glossy and dream to grey in colour. The seed is generally found covered in a papery coat which is easily removed. Round

107. 91 Subterranean Clover Trifolium subterraneum Seed Description Seed is round in shape with alight tapering at one point which creates a kidney shape. The surface is smooth and matt black in appearance. A white hilum is often visible. Round

115. 99 Onion Grass Romulea rosea Seed Description Seeds are reddish brown and round with a smooth surface. Often found in a paper casing which holds a number of seeds in quadrants. Round

117. 101 Coriander Coriandrum sativum Seed Description Seeds are a cream to brown colour, rounded with longitudinal indentations. The tip of the seed ends as a small point, and the base is flattened. Round

118. 102 Sorghum (Grain) Sorghum bicolor Round Seed Description Seed is round with slight points at the ends, surface is smooth and reddish brown in colour sometimes with darker markings covering seed coat.

119. 103 Ward’s Weed Carrichtera annua Seed Description Seeds are generally found within a rounded seed pod. A flattened style extends from the centre of the pod, this may be as wide as the rounded part of the seed. Round

138. 122 Hares Ear Conringia orientalis Seed Description Seed is spoon shaped and reddish-brown to dark brown in colour. Seed surface is smooth, with a single longitudinal indent along the seed. Spoon Shaped

139. 123 Scotch Thistle Onopordum acanthium Seed Description Seeds are ovate in outline, appearing cream with small dark brown markings. Seeds may be slightly curved and seed size varies with maturity. Spoon Shaped

145. 129 Colocynth Citrullus colocynthis Seed Description Seed is straw coloured with a smooth surface, rounded at one end and tapered to a point at the other. Spoon Shaped

44. 28 Ryegrass Lolium spp. Elongated Seed Description Seed coloured varies according to the species. Awns which arise from the lemma of the seed distinguish ryegrass types although these are easily broken off. Wimmera ryegrass is purplish in colour, whilst other species may be cream.

50. 34 Barley (Two row) Hordeum distichon Elongated Seed Description Seeds cream, brightness will vary depending upon variety. Seeds are elongated and extremely uniform in shape. The awn is brittle and infrequently found attached to the husk adhering to the seed.

51. 35 Skeleton Weed Chondrilla juncea Seed Description Seed is yellow and wedge shaped with ribs and grooves running longitudinally along the seed surface. A ring of bristles may be present above the ring of teeth-like projections Elongated

60. 44 Oats (Common) Avena sativa Elongated Seed Description Seeds are golden colour, which may be lighter at the tops. The seed is hairless and free of awns as they are easily removed. The seed is elongated in shape. Other Common Names Cultivated Oats

70. 54 Medic (Barrel) Medicago truncatula Kidney Seed Description Seeds are kidney shaped and vary in colour from light brown to ark brown. Often seeds are found within barrel shaped seed pod, with 4 or 5 tight coils and spines protruding.

74. 58 Thornapple Datura spp. Kidney Seed Description Seed is kidney shaped with many indentations and pits, appearing pale brown in colour. Other Common Names False Caster Oil Plant

81. 65 African Turnip Weed Sisymbrium thellungii Seed Description Seed is small, brown, oval shaped and covered with a network of ‘veins’. Yellow flowers of the plant form at the end of branches and form widely spreading pods up to 10 cm long and 2 mm wide. When mature the pods slit longitudinally into two halves and shed the seed. Oval

101. 85 Poppy (Mexican) Argemone ochroleuca Seed Description Seeds are brown or black, globular in shape and with a tiny pointed apex. The surface of the seed is covered with regularly shaped pits. Round

102. 86 Bladder Soapwort Vaccaria hispanica Round Seed Description Seed is dark brown to black, rounded with a smooth surface, which if finely pitted with shallow indentations.

104. 88 Khaki Weed Alternanthera pungens Round Seed Description The seed is amber coloured, rounded and flattened laterally. The seed may be found enclosed within bracts which are straw coloured.

130. 114 Heliotrope (Common) Heliotropium europaeum Spoon Shaped Seed Description The seed is dark brown and is lens shaped in cross section. The seed fruit consists of 4 rough surfaced nutlets, which may appear brown or green depending upon maturity.

142. 126 Castor Oil Plant Ricinus communis Spoon Shaped Seed Description Fruit is burr like, with spines covering the entire surface. Three smooth and mottled seeds are contained within the burr and are released upon maturity.

39. 23 Saffron Thistle Carthamus lanatus Seed Description Seed is wedge shaped with four angled sides, the broadest part of the seed is at the middle then tapers to a point. The seed bears pappus which are sharp and up to 1 centimetre long protruding from the crown. The seed is straw coloured, mottled with black or greyish-brown to dark brown markings. Angular

49. 33 Squirrel-tailed Fescue Vulpia bromoides Seed Description This slender, cream to brown coloured seed has a long awn extending from one end. Often the awns break off when mature. Other Common Names Silvery Grass Elongated

97. 81 Charlock Sinapis arvensis Seed Description Seed is brown to blackish in colour and globular shaped with a small cone-shaped beak. The hilum of the seed is white. Pods contain 1-2 seeds and are contracted between them. Round

108. 92 Bedstraw (Three-horned) Galium tricornutum Round Seed Description The seed is generally found within a dry, light to dark brown globular shaped fruit which has a dimpled surface and a hooked stem attached. Other Common Names Rough Corn

109. 93 Turnip Weed Rapistrum rugosum Seed Description Seed is usually found enclosed within a woody, rough surfaced capsule. The seed itself is a brown colour, smooth and with a matt finish. Other Common Names Giant Mustard Round

126. 110 Horehound Marrubium vulgare Spoon Shaped Seed Description The seed appears black, sometimes speckled and with a matt finish. The base of the seed is rounded and the tip tapers to a point.

127. 111 Peppercress Lepidium spp. Seed Description Seed is amber coloured with a matt finish. A distinctive light coloured rim appears as a narrow wing along the curved edge of the seed. Spoon Shaped

149. 133 Cottonseed Gossypium hirsutum Seed Description Seeds may be entirely covered with soft cotton or may be free of cotton and appear brown. The seed is oval shaped, with slight tapering at one end. Spoon Shaped

41. 25 Caltrop Tribulus terrestris Seed Description A wood straw coloured brown burr with two to four sharp spines, encapsulating up to 5 light brown, egg shaped seeds. Often the woody burr does not release the seeds. Other Common Names Cats-head, Bull Head Angular

54. 38 Oats (Wild) Avena fatua Elongated Seed Description Seeds are elongated and dark brown with longitudinal markings along the coat, often paler at the tips. Seed is tapered at the tips. Other Common Names Black Oats

122. 106 Lentils Lens culinaris Round Seed Description Seeds are found with a smooth surface and may be yellow or orange when split, depending upon variety. The seed coat will vary in colour from green, pale brown to dark brown. Seeds are round and flattened.

123. 107 Pale Beautyheads Calocephalus sonderi Seed Description Flower heads are bright yellow and made up of hundreds of florets. The flower head is soft and round. Other Common Names Yellow Poverty Weed Round

132. 116 Paradoxa Grass Phalaris paradoxa Spoon Shaped Seed Description The seed is shiny and straw coloured, with two sterile lemmas attached to the base. Seeds are often contained within spikelets. Spikelets occurring in groups up to 6 sterile surrounding 1 fertile spikelet. Unlike Lesser Canary Grass, these seeds do not have fine hairs.

143. 127 Linseed Linum usitatissimum Seed Description Seeds are spoon shaped and flat. The seed is glossy and reddish-brown in colour. Other Common Names Flax Spoon Shaped

150. 134 Safflower Carthamus tinctorius Spoon Shaped Seed Description Seeds are spoon shaped with longitudinal ribs running along the see. Seeds are whitish in colour with brown markings on some varieties.

151. 135 Sunflower Helianthus annas Seed Description Seeds are white with slight darkening of the tips. Both ends of the seed taper, with the base being broader than the tip. Spoon Shaped

45. 29 Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare Seed Description Seed is elongated and is broadest above the middle region, sides of seeds are curved and a distinctive collar with a knob like projection is present at the tip. Seed is grey with brown and yellowing streaks running longitudinally along the coat. A ring of bristles may be present around one end of the seed. Elongated

47. 31 Common Sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus Seed Description Seed is flattened and sharp edged, with one side curved more than the other. Seed coat is reddish-brown with longitudinal ribs tapering towards the base. White, silky pappus are easily broken off. Other Common Names Mild Thistle Elongated

76. 60 Maltese Cockspur Centaurea melitensis Kidney Seed Description Seeds are brown to grey, with longitudinal ribs running along the seed. A pappus of bristles is present as is a hooked pointed at the other end of the seed. Other Common Names Cockspur Thistle, Malta Thistle

78. 62 Beans (Faba) Vicia faba Kidney Seed Description Seeds are green to brown depending upon maturity and variety. The hilum is black and the seed is oval with a smooth surface, sometimes with an indent in the centre. The seed coat may appear darkened if affected by disease.

85. 69 Parthenium Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Seed Description Seeds are generally encapsulated in groups of 4 in rough grey brown seed heads. Seeds appear black and rough without their seed coat. Surrounding the hilum are straw coloured appendages. Other Common Names Whitetop Oval

87. 71 Hoary Cress Cardaria draba Seed Description Seeds are oval shaped and dark brown. The seed surface is slightly rough. The hilum is distinctively white and protrudes from the seed surface. Up to 2 seeds may be found in each heart shaped seed case. Other Common Names White Weed Oval

96. 80 Ball Clover Trifolium glomeratum Round Seed Description Seeds are yellow to pale brown in colour. Seed is round or spoon shaped, with the seeds being flattened. Seed surface is smooth. Other Common Names Clustered Clover

116. 100 Bifora Bifora testiculata Round Seed Description Seed is rounded with a nose-like protuberance, including two small holes in the rounded side. One end of the seed is rounded and the other tapers to a short point. The seed surface is greyish-brown and is pitted with 3 longitudinal ridges.

135. 119 Prickly Sowthistle Sonchus asper Spoon Shaped Seed Description A single seed is contained within the fruit, which is reddish-brown and has longitudinal ribs. A ring of hairs can be found at the tip of the fruit. Other Common Names Rough Sowthistle

137. 121 Crow Garlic Allium vineale Spoon Shaped Seed Description This seed is generally found enclosed in cream coloured, shiny bracts. The seed in the bract appears plump, and tapers to points at both ends. Other Common Names Wild Garlic

146. 130 Musk Weed Myagrum perfoliatum Spoon Shaped Seed Description Seed case is spoon shaped and contains two seeds. The seed case is hard and cream to reddish in colour. Longitudinal ribs run along the seed case, a small point protrudes from the case.

148. 132 Corn Zea mays Spoon Shaped Seed Description Seed is golden and flat wedge shaped, the hilum is white and large. Other Common Names Maize

72. 56 Medic (Snail) Medicago scutellata Kidney Seed Description Seeds are yellow to brown, shiny, kidney shaped with one end a more definite hood. The seed pod varies in colour depending upon environment although is generally cream in colour and appears similar to a snail shell. Other Common Names Snail Trefoil

110. 94 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum Round Seed Description Seed may be found free or within the seed pod. Pods are segmented, cream or grey and cylindrical and contain several seeds. Seeds are gold to brown and have a pitted surface. Other Common Names Jointed Charlock

114. 98 Hexham Scent Melilotus indicus Round Seed Description Seeds may appear olive-green or reddish-brown, with the seed coat having a pimply surface and a matt appearance. Often a grey and white perianth is still attached to the seed. Other Common Names King Island Melilot

121. 105 Field Peas Pisum sativum Seed Description Seeds vary in colour from brown, green to white, generally with a smooth surface, occasionally with indents. Seed coat is brittle and the yellow or green centre is often shown. The hilum of the seed may sometimes be black but is generally light brown. Round

134. 118 Lesser Canary Grass Phalaris minor Spoon Shaped Seed Description The seed is grey and shiny with hairs on the surface. It is similar to Paradoxa grass, but has only one sterile lemma attached to the base of the seed (Paradoxa Grass has two), and is slightly tear shaped. Other Common Names Annual Canary Grass

144. 128 Prickly Paddymelon Cucumis myriocarpus Spoon Shaped Seed Description Seed is oval shaped, with a round base and a slight tapering towards the tip. The seed surface is smooth and cream in colour. Other Common Names Gooseberry Cucumber

25. 9 Dock Rumex spp. Seed Description Seeds are often found in a small dry fruit; however, the seeds may be released. The seeds of various dock species are similar to each other, being triangular in cross section, smooth, glossy and reddish-brown in colour. The encapsulating seed coat is papery in appearance and of varying shapes depending upon species. Angular

28. 12 Smallflower Mallow Malva parviflora Angular Seed Description Seed is brown, round with an indentation at the hilum which is whitened. Capsules are papery and light brown- cream and shaped like a snail’s shell. Up to nine or more individual capsules may be jointed to form a larger capsule. Other Common Names Marshmallow

128. 112 Amsinckia Amsinckia spp. Spoon Shaped Seed Description Seed is dull greyish-brown to dark-brown and covered with wart-like protuberances, angular with some rounding at one end and tapering to a point at the other. Other Common Names Yellow Burweed, Yellow Ironweed

129. 113 Corn Gromwell Bugglossoides arvensis Seed Description This seed is covered with many indentations and is a cream to brown colour. The base of the seed is flattened and the tip narrows to a point. Other Common Names White Ironweed Spoon Shaped

53. 37 Barley (Six row) Hordeum hexastichon Seed Description Seeds are of two different shapes, dependant upon where the seed was in the floret. Outside row seeds are bent. and inner are plump. The husk is attached to the seed and similar to Hordeum distichon , the awn is brittle and often broken off. Elongated

100. 84 Wild Turnip Brassica tournefortii Round Seed Description The surface of the seed is brown and covered with many veins which divide the surface of the seed. Single seeds are often found in hardened cream coloured seed pod which is deeply veined and round. Other Common Names Mediterranean Turnip

141. 125 Paterson’s Curse Echium plantagineum Seed Description Seed is dark brown and has a wood appearance, with two flat sides and one curved edge. The surface of the seed is rough and pitted and is greyish-brown to dark brown in colour. Other Common Names Salvation Jane Spoon Shaped

125. 109 Lupin (White & Narrow Leaved) Lupinus albus & Lupinus angustifolius Seed Description White: Seeds are square and flattened. The surface is white and smooth with a hollow in the centre. Narrow Leaved: Seeds are round with a smooth surface which is mottled with brown speckles, degree of mottling will vary, some seeds will appear nearly all cream. Round

136. 120 Creeping Knapweed Acroptilon repens Seed Description Seeds are curved and yellowish-grey with a brown collar from which long and lightly hairy bristles protrude. The seed coat is dull and covered with scattered faint longitudinal grooves. The bristles may not be attached when they are found in seed samples. Other Common Names Russian Knapweed Spoon Shaped

103. 87 Canola Brassica napus Seed Description Seeds are round with a whitish hilum, seed colour may vary depending upon variety, but is generally a dull black to brown and has a slightly pitted surface. The seed pod is slender and long, up to 5 cm and is cream in colour. Other Common Names Rape, Rapeseed Round

120. 104 Vetch (Common) Vicia sativa Round Seed Description Seeds are round and seed coat colour varies between varieties, being brownish-grey to reddish-brown. When the seeds are split the centre colour also distinguishes between varieties, some are orange and others beige. Wild vetch seeds are smaller in size. Other Common Names Tares

147. 131 Chickpea (Desi & Kabuli) Cicer arietinum Seed Description Desi Type: Seeds are spoon shaped with distinctive edge between the seed faces. The seed may be brown to a beige colour with a deeply wrinkled surface. Kabuli Type: Seeds are spoon shaped with less distinctive edges between the seed faces than the Desi type. Seeds are cream to white and the surface is smooth in comparison with the Desi type, with only light pitting of the surface. Spoon Shaped

4. ii The seed size is indicated by a vertical line alongside a diagram of a grain of wheat. This shows the comparative size of each seed. Where seeds are referred to by more than one common name other names are listed. The scientific and common names of the seeds in the book are those used in the CSIRO, Handbook of Australian Weeds by M. Lazarides, K. Cowley and P. Hohnen, published 1997. Seed pods are usually shown in photographs if the seeds in question are often found inside pods. Occasionally seeds are never released from pods, thus only the pods are shown in the photographs. It should be noted that the identification of seed species is not always possible with the naked eye. Thus many of the photographs in the booklet have been magnified. The correct identification of many of these species will require the use of a magnification lens.

16. xiv Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Wheat Triticum aestivum 75 Wild Lettuce Lactuca spp. 115 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum 94 Wild Sage Salvia verbenaca 95 Wild Turnip Brassica tournefortii 84 Wireweed Polygonum arenastrum 16

153. 137 Ovate shape similar to that of an egg, being broader at one end Pericarp the outer walls of fruit Spikelet inflorescence comprises of a cluster of flowers which arise from one main stem spp. abbreviations of word species Style the elongated part of the female parts of a plant, extending from ovary Ventral the upper side of a seed

154. 138 Bibliography Contained within this bibliography are a number of texts which provide additional details on weed seeds and their plants. These include: Auld, B.A. and Medd, R.W. (1992) WEEDS - An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia, Department of Agriculture, NSW. (Inkata Press: Melbourne). Friend, E. (1983) Queensland Weed Seeds, Queensland Department of Primary Industries. (Department of Primary Industries: Brisbane). Lamp, C. And Collect, F. (1989). Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press: Australia). Wilding, J.L., Barnett, A.G. and Amore, R.L. (1986). Crop Weeds. (Inkata Press: Melbourne). Moerkerk, M. And Barnett, A.G. (1988). More Crop Weeds. (R.G. and F.J. Richardson: Melbourne).

3. i Introduction The contamination of grain with weed seeds is important for a variety of reasons; some contain toxins, some are considered to be noxious, some are specified in State Stockfeed legislation, some detract from the overall appearance of the grain sample and others are listed in the receival standards of commodities handled and stored by state bulk handling organisations. This comprehensive guide to the identification of weed seeds has be prepared for grain samplers, seed cleaning companies, stockfeed suppliers and all other agricultural workers involved in the assessment of grain. How to use this booklet In this guide seeds are ordered by shape and then size within the seed shape category. The seed shape categories are: • Round • Oval • Elongated • Kidney • Angular • Spoon Shaped

10. viii Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Nightshades Solanum spp. 124 Paterson’s Curse Echium plantagineum 125 Castor Oil Plant Ricinus communis 126 Linseed Linum usitatissimum 127 Prickly Paddy melon Cucumis myriocarpus 128 Colocynth Citrullus colocynthis 129 Musk Weed Myagrum perfoliatum 130 Chickpea Cicer arietinum 131 Corn Zea mays 132 Cottonseed Gossypium hirsutum 133 Safflower Carthamus tinctorius 134 Sunflower Helianthus annuus 135

152. 136 Glossary Apex the narrow or pointed terminal end of the seed Awns an appendage which is often present in grasses extending from the tip Bracts a paper structure, appearing like a leaf which surrounds individual flowers or an inflorescence Crown the highest point of a curved or arched object Dorsal the underside of a seed Elliptical oval shaped, with both ends tapering equally Floret an individual flower occurring in a cluster of flowers Fruit develops from mature ovary, when mature containing seeds Hilum a mark on seed which indicates the point of attachment to pod Husk the outer covering adhering to seeds Lemma the lower two bracts of an individual floret (grass only) Nutlets a number of fruits joined, containing one seed each

5. iii Weed Seed Botanical Name Page ANGULAR Cape Tulip Homeria spp. 1 Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale 2 Indian Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium orientale 3 Loosetrife Lythrum spp. 4 Sorrel Acetosella vulgaris 5 Spiny Rush Juncus acutus 6 Bellvine Ipomoea plebeia 7 Bindweed (Field) Convolvulus arvensis 8 Dock Rumex spp. 9 Jute Corchorus olitorius 10 Mintweed Salvia reflexa 11 Smallflower Mallow Malva parviflora 12 Tree Hogweed Polygonum patulum 13 Knotweed Polygonum aviculare 14 Ragweed Ambrosia spp. 15 Wireweed Polygonum arenastrum 16 Bindweed (Australian) Convolvulus erubescens 17 Onion Weed Asphodelus fistulosus 18 Small Burrgrass Tragus australianus 19 Bindweed (Black) Fallopia convolvulus 20 Spiny Burrgrass Cenchrus incertus 21 Spiny Emex Emex australis 22 Saffron Thistle Carthamus lanatus 23 Starburr Acanthospermum hispidum 24 Index by Seed Shape & Size

7. v Weed Seed Botanical Name Page KIDNEY Cut-leaved Mignonette Reseda lutea 50 Poppy (Opium) Papaver somniferum 51 Fat Hen Chenopodium album 52 Lucerne Medicago sativa 53 Medic (Barrel) Medicago truncatula 54 Rattlepods Crotalaria spp. 55 Medic (Snail) Medicago scutellata 56 Darling Pea Swainsona spp. 57 Thornapple Datura spp. 58 Poppy (Horned) Glaucium flavum 59 Maltese Cockspur Centaurea melitensis 60 Cowpea Vigna unguiculata 61 Beans (Faba) Vicia faba 62 OVAL St. Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum 63 London Rocket Sisymbrium irio 64 African Turnip Weed Sisymbrium thellungii 65 Australian Carrot Daucus glochidiatus 66 Buchan Weed Hirschfeldia incana 67 Giant Sensitive tree Mimosa pigra 68 Parthenium Weed Parthenium hysterophorus 69 Barnyard Grass Echinochloa crus-galli 70 Hoary Cress Cardaria draba 71 Sesbania Pea Sesbania cannabina 72 Johnson Grass Sorghum halepense 73

6. iv Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Caltrop Tribulus terrestris 25 New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonoides 26 ELONGATED Cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata 27 Ryegrass Lolium spp. 28 Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare 29 Cereal Rye Secale cereale 30 Common Sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus 31 Thistle (Variegated) Silybum marianum 32 Squirrel-tailed Fescue Vulpia bromoides 33 Barley (Two row) Hordeum distichon 34 Skeleton Weed Chondrilla juncea 35 Brome (Soft) Bromus molliformis 36 Barley (six row) Hordeum hexastichon 37 Oats (Wild) Avena fatua 38 Darnel Lolium temulentum 39 Fescue Festuca spp. 40 Triticale Triticosecale spp. 41 Prairie grass Bromus catharticus 42 Barley Grass Hordeum leporinum 43 Oats (Common) Avena sativa 44 Oats (Sand) Avena strigosa 45 Oats (Sterile) Avena sterilis 46 Oats (Bearded) Avena barbata 47 Brome (Sterile) Bromus sterilis 48 Brome (Great) Bromus diandrus 49

8. vi Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Colombus Grass Sorghum almum 74 Wheat Triticum aestivum 75 Durum Triticum durum 76 Rice (paddy) Oryza sativa 77 Bathurst Burr Xanthium spinosum 78 Noogoora Burr Xanthium strumarium 79 ROUND Ball Clover Trifolium glomeratum 80 Charlock Sinapis arvensis 81 Dodder Cuscuta spp. 82 Poppy (Long-headed) Papaver dubium 83 Wild Turnip Brassica tournefortii 84 Poppy (Mexican) Argemone ochroleuca 85 Bladder Soapwort Vaccaria hispanica 86 Canola Brassica napus 87 Khaki Weed Alternanthera pungens 88 Millet (Japanese) Echinochloa esculenta 89 Mustard Sisymbrium spp. 90 Clover (Subterranean) Trifolium subterraneum 91 Bedstraw Galium tricornutum 92 Turnip Weed Rapistrum rugosum 93 Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum 94 Wild Sage Salvia verbenaca 95 Ball Mustard Neslia paniculata 96 Buttercup Ranunculus spp. 97 Hexham Scent Melilotus indicus 98

9. vii Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Onion Grass Romulea rosea 99 Bifora Bifora testiculata 100 Coriander Coriandrum sativum 101 Sorghum (Grain) Sorghum bicolor 102 Ward’s Weed Carrichtera annua 103 Vetch (Common) Vicia sativa 104 Field Peas Pisum sativum 105 Lentils Lens culinaris 106 Pale Beautyheads Calocephalus sonderi 107 Soybean Glycine max 108 Lupin Lupinus spp. 109 SPOON SHAPED Horehound Marrubium vulgare 110 Peppercress Lepidium spp. 111 Amsinckia Amsinckia 112 Corn Gromwell Bugglossoides arvensis 113 Heliotrope (Common) Heliotropium europaeum 114 Wild Lettuce Lactuca spp. 115 Paradoxa Grass Phalaris paradoxa 116 Phalaris Phalaris aquatica 117 Lesser Canary Grass Phalaris minor 118 Prickly Sowthistle Sonchus asper 119 Creeping Knapweed Acroptilon repens 120 Crow Garlic Allium vineale 121 Hares Ear Conringia orientalis 122 Scotch Thistle Onopordum acanthium 123

11. ix Weed Seed Botanical Name Page African Turnip Weed Sisymbrium thellungii 65 Amsinckia Amsinckia 112 Australian Carrot Caucus glochidiatus 66 Ball Clover Trifolium glomeratum 80 Ball Mustard Neslia paniculata 96 Barley (six row) Hordeum hexastichon 37 Barley (Two row) Hordeum distichon 34 Barley Grass Hordeum leporinum 43 Barnyard Grass Echinochloa crus-galli 70 Bathurst Burr Xanthium spinosum 78 Beans (Faba) Vicia faba 62 Bedstraw Galium tricornutum 92 Bellvine Ipomoea plebeia 7 Bifora Bifora testiculata 100 Bindweed (Australian) Convolvulus erubescens 17 Bindweed (Black) Fallopia convolvulus 20 Bindweed (Field) Convolvulus arvensis 8 Bladder Soapwort Vaccaria hispanica 86 Brome (Great) Bromus diandrus 49 Brome (Soft) Bromus molliformis 36 Brome (Sterile) Bromus sterilis 48 Buchan Weed Hirschfeldia incana 67 Buttercup Ranunculus spp. 97 Caltrop Tribulus terrestris 25 Canola Brassica napus 87 Index by Common Name

12. x Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Cape Tulip Homeria spp. 1 Castor Oil Plant Ricinus communis 126 Cereal Rye Secale cereale 30 Charlock Sinapis arvensis 81 Chickpea Cicer arietinum 131 Clover (Subterranean) Trifolium subterraneum 91 Cocksfoot Dactylis glomerata 27 Colocynth Citrullus colocynthis 129 Colombus Grass Sorghum almum 74 Common Sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus 31 Coriander Coriandrum sativum 101 Corn Zea mays 132 Corn Gromwell Bugglossoides arvensis 113 Cottonseed Gossypium hirsutum 133 Cowpea Vigna unguiculata 61 Creeping Knapweed Acroptilon repens 120 Crow Garlic Allium vineale 121 Cut-leaved Mignonette Reseda lutea 50 Darling Pea Swainsona spp. 57 Darnel Lolium temulentum 39 Dock Rumex spp. 9 Dodder Cuscuta spp. 82 Durum Triticum durum 76 Fat Hen Chenopodium album 52 Fescue Festuca spp. 40 Field Peas Pisum sativum 105

13. xi Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Giant Sensitive tree Mimosa pigra 68 Hares Ear Conringia orientalis 122 Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale 2 Heliotrope (Common) Heliotropium europaeum 114 Hexham Scent Melilotus indicus 98 Hoary Cress Cardaria draba 71 Horehound Marrubium vulgare 110 Indian Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium orientale 3 Johnson Grass Sorghum halepense 73 Jute Corchorus olitorius 10 Khaki Weed Alternanthera pungens 88 Knotweed Polygonum aviculare 14 Lentils Lens culinaris 106 Lesser Canary Grass Phalaris minor 118 Linseed Linum usitatissimum 127 London Rocket Sisymbrium irio 64 Loosetrife Lythrum spp. 4 Lucerne Medicago sativa 53 Lupin Lupinus spp. 109 Maltese Cockspur Centaurea melitensis 60 Medic (Barrel) Medicago truncatula 54 Medic (Snail) Medicago scutellata 56 Millet (Japanese) Echinochloa esculenta 89 Mintweed Salvia reflexa 11 Musk Weed Myagrum perfoliatum 130 Mustard Sisymbrium spp. 90

14. xii Weed Seed Botanical Name Page New Zealand Spinach Tetragonia tetragonoides 26 Nightshades Solanum spp. 124 Noogoora Burr Xanthium strumarium 79 Oats (Bearded) Avena barbata 47 Oats (Common) Avena sativa 44 Oats (Sand) Avena strigosa 45 Oats (Sterile) Avena sterilis 46 Oats (Wild) Avena fatua 38 Onion Grass Romulea rosea 99 Onion Weed Asphodelus fistulosus 18 Pale Beautyheads Calocephalus sonderi 107 Paradoxa Grass Phalaris paradoxa 116 Parthenium Weed Parthenium hysterophorus 69 Paterson’s Curse Echium plantagineum 125 Peppercress Lepidium spp. 111 Phalaris Phalaris aquatica 117 Poppy (Horned) Glaucium flavum 59 Poppy (Long-headed) Papaver dubium 83 Poppy (Mexican) Argemone ochroleuca 85 Poppy (Opium) Papaver somniferum 51 Prairie grass Bromus catharticus 42 Prickly Paddy melon Cucumis myriocarpus 128 Prickly Sowthistle Sonchus asper 119 Ragweed Ambrosia spp. 15 Rattlepods Crotalaria spp. 55 Rice (paddy) Oryza sativa 77

15. xiii Weed Seed Botanical Name Page Ryegrass Lolium spp. 28 Safflower Carthamus tinctorius 134 Saffron Thistle Carthamus lanatus 23 Scotch Thistle Onopordum acanthium 123 Sesbania Pea Sesbania Cannabina 72 Skeleton Weed Chondrilla juncea 35 Small Burrgrass Tragus australianus 19 Smallflower Mallow Malva parviflora 12 Sorghum (Grain) Sorghum bicolor 102 Sorrel Acetosella vulgaris 5 Soybean Glycine max 108 Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare 29 Spiny Burrgrass Cenchrus incertus 21 Spiny Emex Emex australis 22 Spiny Rush Juncus acutus 6 Squirrel-tailed Fescue Vulpia bromoides 33 St. Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum 63 Starburr Acanthospermum hispidum 24 Sunflower Helianthus annuus 135 Thistle (Variegated) Silybum marianum 32 Thornapple Datura spp. 58 Tree Hogweed Polygonum patulum 13 Triticale Triticosecale spp. 41 Turnip Weed Rapistrum rugosum 93 Vetch (Common) Vicia sativa 104 Ward’s Weed Carrichtera annua 103

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